Australian English is the set of varieties of the English language native to Australia. Although English has no official status in the Constitution, Australian English is the country's national and de facto official language as it is the first language of the majority of the population. Australian English began to diverge from British English after the First Settlers, who set up the Colony of New South Wales, arrived in 1788. By 1820, their speech was recognised as being different from British English. Australian English arose from the intermingling of early settlers, who were from a great variety of mutually intelligible dialectal regions of Great Britain and Ireland, developed into a distinct variety of English which differs from most other varieties of English in vocabulary, pronunciation, register and spelling; the earliest form of Australian English was spoken by the children of the colonists in early New South Wales. This first generation of native-born children created a new dialect, to become the language of the nation.
The Australian-born children in the new colony were exposed to a wide range of dialects from all over the British Isles, in particular from Ireland and South East England. The native-born children in the colony created the new dialect from the speech they heard around them, with it expressed peer solidarity; when new settlers arrived, this new dialect was strong enough to blunt other patterns of speech. A quarter of the convicts were Irish. Many had been arrested in Ireland, some in Great Britain. Many of the Irish spoke it poorly and rarely. There were other significant populations of convicts from non-English speaking parts of Britain, such as the Scottish Highlands and Wales. Records from the early 19th century show this distinct dialect in the colonies after the first settlement in 1788. Peter Miller Cunningham's 1827 book Two Years in New South Wales, described the distinctive accent and vocabulary of the native-born colonists, that differed from that of their parents and with a strong London influence.
Anthony Burgess writes that "Australian English may be thought of as a kind of fossilised Cockney of the Dickensian era." The first of the Australian gold rushes, in the 1850s, began a large wave of immigration, during which about two per cent of the population of the United Kingdom emigrated to the colonies of New South Wales and Victoria. According to linguist Bruce Moore, "the major input of the various sounds that went into constructing the Australian accent was from south-east England"; some elements of Aboriginal languages have been adopted by Australian English—mainly as names for places and fauna and local culture. Many such are localised, do not form part of general Australian use, while others, such as kangaroo, budgerigar, wallaby and so on have become international. Other examples are hard yakka; the former is used for attracting attention, which travels long distances. Cooee is a notional distance: if he's within cooee, we'll spot him. Hard yakka means hard work and is derived from yakka, from the Jagera/Yagara language once spoken in the Brisbane region.
Of Aboriginal origin is the word bung, from the Sydney pidgin English, meaning "dead", with some extension to "broken" or "useless". Many towns or suburbs of Australia have been influenced or named after Aboriginal words; the best-known example is the capital, named after a local language word meaning "meeting place". Among the changes starting in the 19th century were the introduction of words, spellings and usages from North American English; the words imported included some considered to be Australian, such as bushwhacker and squatter. This American influence continued with the popularity of American films and the influx of American military personnel in World War II; the most obvious way in which Australian English is distinctive from other varieties of English is through its unique pronunciation. It shares most similarity with New Zealand English. Like most dialects of English it is distinguished by its vowel phonology; the vowels of Australian English can be divided according to length. The long vowels, which include monophthongs and diphthongs correspond to the tense vowels used in analyses of Received Pronunciation as well as its centring diphthongs.
The short vowels, consisting only of monophthongs, correspond to the RP lax vowels. There exist pairs of long and short vowels with overlapping vowel quality giving Australian English phonemic length distinction, unusual amongst the various dialects of English, though not unknown elsewhere, such as in regional south-eastern dialects of the UK and eastern seaboard dialects in the US; as with New Zealand English, the weak-vowel merger is complete in Australian English: unstressed /ɪ/ is merged into /ə/, unless it is followed by a velar consonant. There is little variation in the sets of consonants used in different English dialects but there are variations in how these consonants are used. Australian English is no exception. Australian English is non-rhotic. However, a linking /r/ can occur when a word that has a final <r> in the spelling comes before another word that starts with a vowel. An intrusive /r/ may be inserted before a vowel in words that do not have <r> in the spelling in certain environments, namely after the long vowel /oː/ and after word final /ə/.
This can be heard in "law-r-and order," where an in
St. Joseph Parish - established in 1905 for Polish immigrants in Rockville, United States. St. Joseph church has been a multi-ethnic parish since the 1950s under Fr. Hyacinth Lepak and continues to be a diversely ethnic American parish community.. Visit St. Joseph Church on your tablet or phone for more parish community news and resources. Rev. Charles Wotypka Rev. Joseph Culkowski Rev. Maximilian Soltysek Rev. Leon Wierzynski Rev. Franciszek Wladasz Rev. Stefan Bartkowski Rev. Zygmunt Woroniecki Rev. Hyacinth Lepak Rev. Aloysius Kisluk Rev. Joseph Hanks Rev. Joseph M. Olczak Fr. Krzysztof Wieliczko O. S. P. P. E. Fr. Krzysztof Drybka O. S. P. P. E. Fr. Bogdan Olzacki O. S. P. P. E. Olson, James Stuart. Catholic immigrants in America. St. Mary of Czestochowa Church; the 150th Anniversary of Polish-American Pastoral Ministry. Webster, Massachusetts: St. Joseph Basilica. September 11, 2005. Geller, Herbert F. Ethnic History Series: European Immigrants and the Catholic Church of Connecticut, 1870-1920. THE SUNDAY POST: Dolores Liptak.
CBKFT-DT, VHF channel 13, is a Ici Radio-Canada Télé owned-and-operated television station located in Regina, Canada, which serves the province's Fransaskois population. The station is owned by the Société Radio-Canada arm of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, as part of a twinstick with CBC Television outlet CBKT-DT, CBC Radio One station CBK and CBC Radio 2 station CBK-FM. All four stations share studios at the CBC Regina Broadcast Centre at 2440 Broad Street in Downtown Regina, CBKFT's transmitter is located near McDonald Street/Highway 46, just northeast of Regina proper. CBKFT was licensed by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission on June 9, 1975 and launched on November 8, 1976 by the CBC as a rebroadcaster of CBWFT in Winnipeg, with reception in both Regina and Saskatoon. In 1985, CBKFT was granted a license with 11 new transmitters and began operating as its own television station separate from CBWFT; the station was based out of Regina, but it now has studio facilities in the Hutchinson Building in Saskatoon.
CBKFT operated 12 analog over-the-air television rebroadcasters broadcasting in Saskatchewan. Due to federal funding reductions to the CBC, in April 2012, the CBC responded with substantial budget cuts, which included shutting down CBC's and Radio-Canada's remaining analog transmitters on July 31, 2012. None of CBC or Radio-Canada's television rebroadcasters were converted to digital. On August 31, 2011, when Canadian television stations in CRTC-designated mandatory markets transitioned from analogue to digital broadcasts, CBKFT flash cut its digital signal into operation on VHF channel 13 in order for those repeaters/stations to avoid interference from the Regina and Saskatoon stations. Through the use of PSIP, television receivers will list CBKFT-DT's virtual channel number as 13.1. CBC had decided that none of its rebroadcasters will transition to digital; the CBC had planned to not convert any non-originating stations in mandatory markets to digital, which would have forced CBKFT-1 in Saskatoon to sign off on the transition date.
On August 16, 2011, the CRTC granted the CBC permission to continue operating 22 repeaters in mandatory markets, including CBKFT-1, in analogue until August 31, 2012, by which time the transmitter had to convert to digital or shut down. List of CBC television stations CBKT-DT Fransaskois ICI Saskatchewan CBKFT-DT history – Canadian Communications Foundation Query the REC Canadian station database for CBKFT Query TV Fool's coverage map for CBKFT
Forestville Mystery Cave State Park is a state park in Minnesota. It contains the village of Forestville, restored to a 19th-century appearance; the Minnesota Historical Society operates it as a historic site. Below ground the park contains Mystery Cave, the state's longest cave, open to the public; the park is between Preston, Minnesota. The park is in the Driftless Area, noted for its karst topography, which includes sinkholes and caves; the park is about 5 miles from Mystery Cave and occupies 3,170 acres, with camping, interpretive programs, hiking, cross-country skiing trails, cold water streams and excellent trout fishing. The cave includes stalactites and underground pools, is a constant 48 °F, it has over 13 miles of passages in two rock layers and is being resurveyed and remapped by volunteers. About 450 million years ago sedimentary rocks were deposited as the land was intermittently covered by shallow seas that transgressed and regressed. Over the eons the alternating deposits of mud and oceanic debris were compressed to form limestone and sandstone layers.
Today these layers are 1,300 feet above sea level. Within the last 500,000 to 1,000,000 years, flood waters dissolved along fractures in the limestone bedrock to create most of the cave. Acidic rainwater sculpted the land above and around the cave, creating thousands of sinkholes and other karst features in the surrounding county; the park contains a range of wildlife, from rare species such as glacial snails and timber rattlesnakes to common species such as deer, beaver, two species of fox, opossum and four species of squirrels. Coyotes howl at dusk. Numerous reptiles and amphibians are present. At least 175 species of birds have been recorded; the South Branch of the Root River contains brown trout, brook trout, rainbow trout. The Minnesota Historical Society operates Historic Forestville as a living museum set in 1899. Costumed interpreters portray Forestville residents and go about daily activities in the general store, kitchen and barn. Forestville was a rural trade center in the 1800s that declined after the railroad was built elsewhere in 1868.
Thomas Meighen, son of one of the town's founders, owned the entire village by 1890, including the general store, the local residents worked on his property for housing and credit in the store. Admission to Historic Forestville is separate from the caves. Historic Forestville is open from May through October. Forestville/Mystery Cave State Park Minnesota Historical Society: Historic Forestville
Waltz For Lilli is the debut solo album by the saxophonist Hanna Paulsberg, as «Hanna Paulsberg Concept». The review by Fredrik Wandrup of the Norwegian newspaper Dagbladet awarded the album 5 stars, the reviewer Ian Mann of the Jazz Mann awarded the album 4 stars The harmonies between the energetic piano by the Swede Oscar Grönberg, the secure saxophone of Paulsberg, characterize the album. All the compositions are made by Paulsberg, the music is incessantly in motion, driving dynamics, but lifted by the rhythm section, Hans Hulbækmo and Trygve Waldemar Fishing. All About Jazz critique John Kelman, in his review of Paulsberg's album Waltz For Lilli states: All compositions by Hanna PaulsbergRecorded in Øra Studio 12–14 January 2012 Hanna Paulsberg - saxophone Trygve Waldemar Fiske - double bass Oscar Grönberg - piano Hans Hulbækmo - drums Cover design – Heida Karine Johannesdottir Mobeck & Leiv Aspèn Mastering – Jo Ranheim Mixing – Jostein Ansnes Photography – Johannes Selvaag Photography – Andreas Hansson Mastered by Jo Ranheim in Redroom studios Recorded in Øra Studio 12–14 January 2012 Rights Society: n©b
José Enrique Angulo Caicedo is an Ecuadorian footballer who plays as a forward for Ecuadorian Serie A team Independiente DV. Caicedo was born in San Lorenzo, Angulo joined Independiente del Valle's youth setup in 2011, after starting it out at CS Norte América. On 4 September 2015 he made his professional debut, coming on as a late substitute for Bryan Cabezas in a 2–3 away loss against LDU Loja. Angulo scored his first goals as a professional on 2 October 2015, netting a brace in a 3–1 win at CD River Ecuador. On 6 November, he scored a hat-trick in a 4–1 home routing of Mushuc Runa SC. Angulo was an starter during the club's 2016 Copa Libertadores run, scoring six goals in sixteen appearances as his side finished runner-up. On 10 August 2016, Angulo signed a five-year contract with La Liga side Granada CF. On 25 August 2016, just 15 days after signing for the club, he was suspended by after testing positive for a doping exam. José Angulo at Soccerway