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Australian Labor Party

The Australian Labor Party simply known as Labor and spelt Labour, is a major centre-left political party in Australia. The party has been in opposition at the federal level since the 2013 federal election; the party is a federal party with branches in each territory. Labor is in government in the states of Victoria, Western Australia, in both the Australian Capital Territory and Northern Territory; the party competes against the Liberal/National Coalition for political office at the federal and sometimes local levels. It is the oldest political party in Australia. Labor's constitution has long stated: "The Australian Labor Party is a democratic socialist party and has the objective of the democratic socialisation of industry, production and exchange, to the extent necessary to eliminate exploitation and other anti-social features in these fields"; this "socialist objective" was introduced in 1921, but was qualified by two further objectives: "maintenance of and support for a competitive non-monopolistic private sector" and "the right to own private property".

Labor governments have not attempted the "democratic socialisation" of any industry since the 1940s, when the Chifley Government failed to nationalise the private banks, in fact have privatised several industries such as aviation and banking. Labor's current National Platform describes the party as "a modern social democratic party"; the ALP was not founded as a federal party until after the first sitting of the Australian Parliament in 1901. It is regarded as descended from labour parties founded in the various Australian colonies by the emerging labour movement in Australia, formally beginning in 1891. Colonial labour parties contested seats from 1891, federal seats following Federation at the 1901 federal election; the ALP formed the world's first labour party government as well as the world's first social democratic government at a national level. Labor was the first party in Australia to win a majority in either house of the Australian Parliament, at the 1910 federal election. At federal and state/colony level, the Australian Labor Party predates, among others, both the British Labour Party and the New Zealand Labour Party in party formation and policy implementation.

Internationally, the ALP is a member of the Progressive Alliance network of social-democratic parties, having been a member of the Socialist International. In standard Australian English, the word "labour" is spelled with a ⟨u⟩. However, the political party uses the spelling "Labor", without a ⟨u⟩. There was no standardised spelling of the party's name, with "Labor" and "Labour" both in common usage. According to Ross McMullin, who wrote an official history of the Labor Party, the title page of the proceedings of Federal Conference used the spelling "Labor" in 1902, "Labour" in 1905 and 1908, "Labor" from 1912 onwards. In 1908, James Catts put forward a motion at Federal Conference that "the name of the party be the Australian Labour Party", carried by 22 votes to two. A separate motion recommending state branches to adopt the name was defeated. There was no uniformity of party names until 1918, when Federal Conference resolved that state branches should adopt the name "Australian Labor Party" – now spelled without a ⟨u⟩.

Each state branch had used a different name, due to their different origins. Despite the ALP adopting the spelling without a ⟨u⟩, it took decades for the official spelling to achieve widespread acceptance. According to McMullin, "the way the spelling of'Labor Party' was consolidated had more to do with the chap who ended up being in charge of printing the federal conference report than any other reason"; some sources have attributed the official choice of "Labor" to influence from King O'Malley, born in the United States and was reputedly an advocate of spelling reform. It has been suggested that the adoption of the spelling without a ⟨u⟩ "signified one of the ALP's earliest attempts at modernisation", served the purpose of differentiating the party from the Australian labour movement as a whole and distinguishing it from other British Empire labour parties; the decision to include the word "Australian" in the party's name – rather than just "Labour Party" as in the United Kingdom – has been attributed to "the greater importance of nationalism for the founders of the colonial parties".

The Australian Labor Party has its origins in the Labour parties founded in the 1890s in the Australian colonies prior to federation. Labor tradition ascribes the founding of Queensland Labour to a meeting of striking pastoral workers under a ghost gum tree in Barcaldine, Queensland in 1891; the Balmain, New South Wales branch of the party claims to be the oldest in Australia. Labour as a parliamentary party dates from 1891 in New South Wales and South Australia, 1893 in Queensland, in the other colonies; the first election contested by Labour candidates was the 1891 New South Wales election, when Labour candidates won 35 of 141 seats. The major parties were the Protectionist and Free Trade parties and Labour held the balance of power, it offered parliamentary support in exchange for policy concessions. The United Labor Party of South Australia was founded in 1891, three candidates were that year elected to the South Australian Legislative Council; the first successful South Australian House of Assembly candidate was John McPherson at the 1892 East Adelaide by-election.

Richard Hooper however was elected as an Independent Labor candidate at the 1891 Wal

1928 Australian Championships

The 1928 Australian Championships was a tennis tournament that took place on outdoor Grass courts at the White City Tennis Club, Australia from 21 January to 6 February. It was the 21st edition of the Australian Championships, the 5th held in Sydney, the first Grand Slam tournament of the year; the singles titles were won by Australian Daphne Akhurst. Nineteen-year-old Australian, Jack Crawford reached the semi-finals; this was the first of only four such a Grand Slam tournaments, in which a Triple Crown was achieved by two players. Jean Borotra defeated Jack Cummings 6–4, 6–1, 4–6, 5–7, 6–3 Daphne Akhurst defeated Esna Boyd 7–5, 6–2 Jean Borotra / Jacques Brugnon defeated Gar Moon / Jim Willard 6–2, 4–6, 6–4, 6–4 Daphne Akhurst / Esna Boyd defeated Kathleen Le Messurier / Dorothy Weston 6–3, 6–1 Daphne Akhurst / Jean Borotra defeated Esna Boyd / Jack Hawkes walkover Australian Open official website

List of administrative and municipal divisions of Adygea

The Republic of Adygea, an enclave within Krasnodar Krai located at the foothills of the Caucasus Mountains, is a federal subject of Russia. It was established in 1922 as the Cherkess Autonomous Oblast within the Russian SFSR for the Adyghe majority that lived in the area; as of the 2010 Census, Adyghe people accounted for 25.2% of the republic's population, while Russians accounted for the majority 63.6%. Since establishing and maintaining the structure of the administrative divisions of the federal subjects is not explicitly specified in the Constitution of Russia as the responsibility of the federal government, this task falls within the scope of the responsibilities of the Republic of Adygea itself. Changes to the administrative-territorial structure of the republic are authorized by the State Council; the republic's administrative divisions remained unchanged from the structure used during the Soviet era, with the notable exception of selsoviets—a low-level administrative unit type abolished after the new law on the administrative-territorial divisions had been adopted in May 2000.

As of 2014, the republic's administrative-territorial divisions include seven administrative districts and two republican urban okrugs. The districts have administrative jurisdiction over the inhabited localities located on their territory. Territories of the republican urban okrugs are separate from the districts and include a city/town of the republican significance, as well as one or several inhabited localities in their vicinity, administratively subordinated to that city/town; the system of local self-governance, which Article 12 of the Constitution of Russia guarantees, is implemented on the republic's territory in accordance with the provisions of Federal Law No. 131-FZ On the General Principles of the Organization of the Local Self-Government in the Russian Federation. While the law does not require any connection between the system of the administrative-territorial divisions of a federal subject and its municipal structure, Adygea's administrative districts are incorporated as the municipal districts and the republican urban okrugs are incorporated as the municipal urban okrugs.

On the lower level, the municipal districts are divided into municipal urban settlements, which combine an urban-type settlement and adjacent rural localities, municipal rural settlements, which combine several neighboring rural localities. Cherkess Autonomous Oblast was established within the Russian SFSR on July 27, 1922 from Krasnodar and Maykop Departments of Kuban-Black Sea Oblast, remained in jurisdiction of Kuban-Black Sea Oblast. Within a month, on August 24, 1922, it was renamed "Adyghe Autonomous Oblast", before becoming "Adyghe Autonomous Oblast" on August 3, 1928; the autonomous oblast consisted of three okrugs: Farssky and Shirvansky, which were further subdivided into the total of forty-two volosts. As the territory the autonomous oblast encompassed was wholly rural, it had no administrative center, so its government was located in nearby Krasnodar. On October 24, 1923, Shirvansky Okrug was dissolved and divided between Farssky and Psekupsky Okrugs, while the total number of volosts was reduced from forty-two to nineteen.

On August 5, 1924, both okrugs and all volosts were abolished and the autonomous oblast was re-organized into five districts, which were recognized on September 2, 1924 along with thirty-two new selsoviets into which those districts were divided. On June 2, 1924, when Kuban-Black Sea Oblast was abolished, the autonomous oblast was first subordinated to South-Eastern Krai and on October 16, 1924, to North Caucasus Krai. No other significant changes occurred until February 7, 1929, when the five districts were re-organized into three; when North Caucasus Krai was split on January 10, 1934, Adyghe Autonomous Oblast was subordinated to the newly created Azov-Black Sea Krai. On December 28, 1934, the three districts of the autonomous oblast were once again re-organized into five, due to the directive to downsize the districts in Azov-Black Sea Krai. During the 1930s, as part of the changing Soviet policy towards its ethnic territories, a decision was made to increase the proportion of ethnic Russians in the autonomous oblast.

On April 10, 1936, the predominantly Russian city of Maykop, as well as Giaginsky District and Khansky Selsoviet of Maykopsky District, became a part of the autonomous oblast. At the same time, the administrative center of the autonomous oblast was moved from Krasnodar to Maykop. Tuapse, a port on the Black Sea, was considered for the role of the administrative center, but the idea was rejected as it would give the native population access to the sea. On September 13, 1937, Azov-Black Sea Krai was split into Krasnodar Krai and Rostov Oblast, Adyghe Autonomous Oblast was subordinated to the former. Maykopsky District was formed on February 21, 1940, into which Tulsky District of Krasnodar Krai was merged on April 28, 1962. Since Adygea's external borders remained unchanged. On July 15, 1940, Ponezhukaysky District was renamed Teuchezhsky after Adyghe poet Tsuga Teuchezh. On December 7, 1956, the districts of the autonomous oblast were enlarged: the territory of Shovgenovsky District was divided among Giaginsky and Krasnogvardeysky Districts, while Techezhsky District was merged into Takhtamukaysky District.

This enlargement, did not prove successful, so on August 5, 1957 Takhtamukaysky District was split back into Takhtamukaysky and Teuchezhsky Districts with