Department of Infrastructure and Transport
The Department of Infrastructure and Transport was an Australian government department. It was formed in September 2010, following the federal election in August 2010; the department absorbing parts of the Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Local Government. Regional development and local government functions were sent to the Department of Regional Australia, Regional Development and Local Government. Following the 2013 federal election, the department was renamed on 18 September 2013 to become the Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, regaining regional development and local government functions; the department was headquartered in the Canberra central business district at Infrastructure House and the neighbouring building. Information about the department's functions and/or government funding allocation could be found in the Administrative Arrangements Orders, the annual Portfolio Budget Statements, in the department's annual reports and on the departmental website.
According to the Administrative Arrangements Order made on 14 September 2010, the department dealt with: Infrastructure planning and co-ordination Transport safety, including investigations Land transport Civil aviation and airports Transport security Maritime transport including shipping Major projects facilitation The department worked to help the Government of the day achieve its policy objectives by contributing to, reporting against two key outcomes. The 2011–12 departmental annual report identified the two outcomes as: Improved infrastructure across Australia through investment in and coordination of transport and other infrastructure. An efficient, competitive and secure transport system for all transport users through regulation, financial assistance and safety investigations; the Bureau of Infrastructure and Regional Economics within the department provided economic analysis and statistics on infrastructure and regional development issues to inform Australian Government policy development and wider community understanding.
The department coordinated transport and other infrastructure investment to support Australian economic productivity. The department worked with states and territories on transport and infrastructure planning to inform investment priorities of the day. A major component of infrastructure investment for the department was the Nation Building Program, with an annual administered expenses budget of $463 million in 2013–14; the Major cities Unit within the department contributed to infrastructure investment by providing advice to the Australian Government on issues of policy and infrastructure that affected Australian cities and suburbs. The department aimed to ensure a secure Australian transport system against the threat of terrorist attack. Legislation administered by the department mandated risk-based preventive security outcomes in the aviation, air cargo and offshore oil and gas sectors; the Office of Transport Security within the department was the Australian Government’s preventive security regulator for the aviation and maritime sectors, its primary adviser on transport security.
Through the surface transport program, the department sought to improve the performance of the surface transport industry. Some of the activities undertaken by the department as part of this program included: working with state and territory governments to implement single rail, heavy vehicle and maritime national laws and national regulators. Through the road safety program, the department aimed to contribute to the development of a safer road transport system by working to make vehicles and occupants safer, drivers more informed. A key component of the road safety program was vehicle safety, the department regulated standards for road vehicles first entering the Australian market and through regulation delivered improved levels of vehicle safety, environmental performance and anti-theft protection; the department undertook a range of functions to ensure the aviation industry operated within a clear and robust safety regulatory environment and that Australian businesses and consumers had access to competitive international and domestic air services.
Functions included supporting the aviation safety framework, expanding aviation markets and managing the Government’s interests in airport infrastructure. The department was an Australian Public Service agency administered by a senior executive, comprising a secretary and two deputy secretaries; the secretary was Mike Mrdak, appointed to the preceding Department of Regional Australia, Regional Development and Local Government on 29 June 2009. Mr Mrdak began his public sector career in 1988 as a Graduate with the Department of Transport and Communications, he holds a bachelor's degree in arts along with a graduate diploma in economics. In mid-2013, the department had a staff of around 994 people, of which around 836 were employed in Canberra and 15 were based overseas. Staff were employed as part of the Australian Public Service under the Public Service Act 1999; the workforce of the department had a reasonably gender distribution, but at more senior levels that ratio decreased. Around two-thirds of the department held higher.
The department worked with several Australian Government agencies within its p
The Canberra Times
The Canberra Times is a daily newspaper in Canberra, published by Fairfax Media part of Nine Entertainment Co.. The Canberra Times was launched in 1926 by Thomas Shakespeare along with his oldest son Arthur Shakespeare and two younger sons Christopher and James; the newspaper's headquarters were located in the Civic retail precinct, in Cooyong Street and Mort Street, in blocks bought by Thomas Shakespeare in the first sale of Canberra leases in 1924. The newspaper's first issue was published on 3 September 1926, it was the second paper to be printed in the first being The Federal Capital Pioneer. Between September 1926 and February 1928, the newspaper was a weekly issue; the first daily issue was 28 February 1928. In June 1956, The Canberra Times converted from broadsheet to tabloid format. Arthur Shakespeare sold the paper to John Fairfax Ltd in 1964, on the condition that it continue to advocate for Canberra. Soon after, in July 1964, the format was switched back to broadsheet and printing was moved to Fairfax's newly installed press in Fyshwick.
Offices remained open in the civic retail precinct until April 1987 when The Canberra Times moved its entire operation to the new office of The Federal Capital Press of Australia in Fyshwick. The paper was sold to Publishing and Broadcasting Limited, which in turn sold it to Kerry Stokes in 1989 for $110 million. Rural Press Limited bought the paper from Stokes in 1998 for $160 million; the Times rejoined the Fairfax stable in 2007. The paper first went online on 31 March 1997. In 2008, The Canberra Times printed a formal apology after the paper published an essay in which Irfan Yusuf falsely accused American historian Daniel Pipes of suggesting that Muslims deserved to be slaughtered as Jews were during the Holocaust. On 17 October 2008, The Canberra Times was distributed with a sticker advertising the ACT Labor Party on the front page. Complaints about the sticker prompted Ken Nichols, to issue an explanation. In October 2013, Fairfax Media announced that The Canberra Times would be restructured to join the Australian Community Media Group of regional and community newspapers, shifting from the metropolitan news division of Fairfax.
A new editorial leadership team was appointed in November 2015, with Grant Newton as editor of the newspaper and Scott Hannaford as deputy editor and news director. In March 2016, staff at the newspaper were told there would be a restructure at The Canberra Times and that the paper would move from a broadsheet format to a tabloid. Fairfax Media announced they would be cutting 12 jobs from the newspaper's staff; the paper's editors have included Jack Waterford and Michelle Grattan, the first female editor of a metropolitan daily newspaper in Australia. A recent editor-in-chief, Peter Fray, left in January 2009 to edit The Sydney Morning Herald, he was succeeded by Rod Quinn, who announced the formation of a new senior editorial team in 2012. Editorial cartoonists have included David Pope and Pat Campbell. List of newspapers in Australia The Canberra Times The Canberra Times at Trove
Environmental law known as environmental and natural resources law, is a collective address environmental pollution. A related but distinct set of regulatory regimes, now influenced by environmental legal principles, focus on the management of specific natural resources, such as forests, minerals, or fisheries. Other areas, such as environmental impact assessment, may not fit neatly into either category, but are nonetheless important components of environmental law. Early examples of legal enactments designed to consciously preserve the environment, for its own sake or human enjoyment, are found throughout history. In the common law, the primary protection was found in the law of nuisance, but this only allowed for private actions for damages or injunctions if there was harm to land, thus smells emanating from pig sties, strict liability against dumping rubbish, or damage from exploding dams. Private enforcement, was limited and found to be woefully inadequate to deal with major environmental threats threats to common resources.
During the "Great Stink" of 1858, the dumping of sewerage into the River Thames began to smell so ghastly in the summer heat that Parliament had to be evacuated. The Metropolitan Commission of Sewers Act 1848 had allowed the Metropolitan Commission for Sewers to close cesspits around the city in an attempt to "clean up" but this led people to pollute the river. In 19 days, Parliament passed a further Act to build the London sewerage system. London suffered from terrible air pollution, this culminated in the "Great Smog" of 1952, which in turn triggered its own legislative response: the Clean Air Act 1956; the basic regulatory structure was to set limits on emissions for households and business while an inspectorate would enforce compliance. Notwithstanding early analogues, the concept of "environmental law" as a separate and distinct body of law is a twentieth-century development; the recognition that the natural environment was fragile and in need of special legal protections, the translation of that recognition into legal structures, the development of those structures into a larger body of "environmental law," and the strong influence of environmental law on natural resource laws, did not occur until about the 1960s.
At that time, numerous influences - including a growing awareness of the unity and fragility of the biosphere. While the modern history of environmental law is one of continuing controversy, by the end of the twentieth century environmental law had been established as a component of the legal landscape in all developed nations of the world, many developing ones, the larger project of international law; these are studied in environmental studies Water quality laws govern the release of pollutants into water resources, including surface water, ground water, stored drinking water. Some water quality laws, such as drinking water regulations, may be designed with reference to human health. Many others, including restrictions on the alteration of the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of water resources, may reflect efforts to protect aquatic ecosystems more broadly. Regulatory efforts may include identifying and categorizing water pollutants, dictating acceptable pollutant concentrations in water resources, limiting pollutant discharges from effluent sources.
Regulatory areas include sewage treatment and disposal and agricultural waste water management, control of surface runoff from construction sites and urban environments. Waste management laws govern the transport, treatment and disposal of all manner of waste, including municipal solid waste, hazardous waste, nuclear waste, among many other types. Waste laws are designed to minimize or eliminate the uncontrolled dispersal of waste materials into the environment in a manner that may cause ecological or biological harm, include laws designed to reduce the generation of waste and promote or mandate waste recycling. Regulatory efforts include identifying and categorizing waste types and mandating transport, treatment and disposal practices. Environmental cleanup laws govern the removal of pollution or contaminants from environmental media such as soil, surface water, or ground water. Unlike pollution control laws, cleanup laws are designed to respond after-the-fact to environmental contamination, must define not only the necessary response actions, but the parties who may be responsible for undertaking such actions.
Regulatory requirements may include rules for emergency response, liability allocation, site assessment, remedial investigation, feasibility studies, remedial action, post-remedial monitoring, site reuse. Chemical safety laws govern the use of chemicals in human activities man-made chemicals in modern industrial applications; as contrasted with media-oriented environmental laws, chemical control laws seek to manage the pollutants themselves. Regulatory efforts include banning specific chemical constituents in consumer products, regulating pesticides. Environmental impact assessment is the assessment of the environmental consequences of a plan, program, or actual projects prior to the decision to move forward with the proposed action. In this context, the term "environmental impac
Coast guards in Australia
Responsibilities for traditional coast guard duties in Australia are distributed across various federal and community agencies. The de facto coast guard of Australia is the Maritime Border Command, a joint command of the Australian Defence Force and the Australian Border Force which works alongside the Australian Federal Police, the Australian Fisheries Management Authority, the Australian Maritime Safety Authority; each state and territory government have specific maritime safety agencies and police marine units. In addition, there are several private volunteer coast guard organisations which act as auxiliary search and rescue services and maritime safety educators with the largest organisations being the Royal Volunteer Coastal Patrol established in 1937, the Australian Volunteer Coast Guard established in 1961, Marine Rescue New South Wales established in 2009; the Maritime Border Command is the de facto coast guard of Australia. The Maritime Border Command is a joint unit of the Australian Defence Force and the Australian Border Force.
It is responsible for border protection in the exclusive economic zone of Australia and its 19,650 kilometres of coastline and issues such as illegal fishing and exploitation of natural resources, maritime terrorism and piracy, biosecurity threats, marine pollution. The Australian Federal Police supports the Maritime Border Command and the Australian Border Force with criminal investigations, law enforcement and national security matters; the Australian Maritime Safety Authority is responsible for maritime safety and seaworthiness of Australian and foreign vessels in Australian waters including compulsory pilotage, aids to navigation, the Australian Rescue Coordination Centre and coordination of search and rescue operations, management of Australia's international maritime obligations. The Australian Fisheries Management Authority is responsible for the management and sustainable use of fisheries resources and for combating illegal fishing activities in the Australian Fishing Zone; the Office of Transport Security has various responsibilities for maritime security.
Each State Government has agencies with coast guard responsibilities. Maritime Safety Queensland is responsible for maritime safety and the Queensland Police Service has a water police unit for law enforcement along the coastline, in waterways, for Queensland islands. Neither the Royal Volunteer Coastal Patrol nor the Australian Volunteer Coastguard are active in Western Australia, the largest state with the longest coastline. Inshore close to towns the West Australian Police co-ordinate local search and rescue between various state agencies, Volunteer Sea Rescue Groups who provide the majority of the assets and not for profit companies such as Westpac helicopter. Volunteer Marine Rescue Groups form the core of the system with three main areas of emergency response / search And rescue and radio monitoring. VMRs are affiliated to two maintain independence from government and act as charities; the 3 largest VMRs are part of DFES including Mandurah the oldest VMR group in WA. In addition, there are several private volunteer coast guard organizations, the two largest organizations being the Royal Volunteer Coastal Patrol and the Australian Volunteer Coast Guard.
These volunteer organizations have no law enforcement powers, are auxiliary Search and Rescue services. In NSW these two organisations have joined to become Marine Rescue in 2009. In November 2008, the NSW Government announced the establishment of a new volunteer marine rescue organisation to be called Marine Rescue NSW, incorporated in July 2009. Royal Volunteer Coastal Patrol, Australian Volunteer Coast Guard and Volunteer Rescue Association united under the new organisation which began operation on 1 January 2010. Marine Rescue NSW is a charitable organisation similar to the RNLI in Britain, it provides radio and rescue services over nsw with 44 units along the coast including two inland units and has over 3000 volunteers. It is a registered training organisation ensuring that its members are trained and maintain compentancies; the NSW Government imposes an annual levy of $7 both on boat registration and on boat driver licences to provide funds for MRNSW to refurbish and replace old boats and equipment.
As at 1 January 2016, MRNSW has refurbished a number of boats and purchased many new purpose built boats. MRNSW members are volunteer and in addition to their duties as radio operators, boat crew and many other tasks spend large amounts of time raising funds needed in addition to those provided by the government; the Australian Volunteer Coast Guard Association was established in 1961, modelled on the US Coast Guard Auxiliary, the association is an organisation composed of volunteers. It guards the coast in the most effective way - by education, examination and by search and rescue; the Australian Volunteer Coast Guard has no law enforcement powers. Flotillas and radio bases are located from the Skardon River in the Gulf of Carpentaria, down the eastern seaboard to Ceduna in South Australia, including Tasmania and major inland lakes and weirs. Coast Guard has more than 2,500 Regular members and 9,000 Associate members. Expansion is continuing in areas of need. Australian Volunteer Coast Guard resources across Australia include: 107 Association-owned rescue vessels 147 radio bases under the control of
Michael McCormack (Australian politician)
Michael Francis McCormack is an Australian politician, leader of the National Party and Deputy Prime Minister of Australia since February 2018. He is Minister for Infrastructure and Regional Development, having served as Minister for Defence Personnel and Minister for Veterans' Affairs from 2017 to 2018. McCormack has been a member of the House of Representatives since 2010, representing the Division of Riverina in New South Wales, he was a newspaper editor before entering politics. McCormack was born in Wagga Wagga, New South Wales as one of five children to Lance McCormack, a dryland farmer and his wife, Eileen Margaret McCormack, his maternal grandfather, George Peter Margosis, was born in 1896 in Greece. He had four siblings, Robyn and Mark, he grew up on the family farms in nearby Brucedale. He attended Trinity Senior High School. After leaving school, McCormack took up a cadetship at The Daily Advertiser, the local daily newspaper, he was appointed editor of the paper in 1991, aged 27, making him reputedly the "youngest newspaper editor in Australia".
McCormack was sacked from The Daily Advertiser in February 2002. In response, "more than 20 journalists and other editorial staff" staged a 24-hour walkout. McCormack went on to sue the Riverina Media Group for unfair dismissal, in 2003 settled out of court for an undisclosed amount, he subsequently started MSS Media Services and Solutions. McCormack served as a director of the Murrumbidgee Turf Club from 1994 to 2003, as well as its official historian. McCormack was campaign director for Kay Hull, the Nationals MP for Riverina, at the 2004 and 2007 federal elections. Hull announced her retirement from politics in April 2010, McCormack subsequently won preselection for her seat at the 2010 election; the Liberals stood a candidate in Riverina for the first time since 1998, but that had little impact on the result, with the Nationals recording a 3.6-point positive swing on a two-party-preferred basis. After the Coalition won the 2013 election, McCormack was made parliamentary secretary to the Minister for Finance, Mathias Cormann.
He was appointed Assistant Minister to the Deputy Prime Minister, Warren Truss, in September 2015. In February 2016, he became Assistant Minister for Defence under Marise Payne. In July 2016, after the 2016 election, McCormack was appointed Minister for Small Business. In that capacity, he was responsible for the Australian Bureau of Statistics, which conducted the 2016 national census and the Australian Marriage Law Postal Survey during his tenure, he opposes same-sex marriage, but voted in favour of the Marriage Amendment Act 2017 after promising to vote in line with the survey result in his constituency. In a ministerial reshuffle in December 2017, McCormack was made Minister for Defence Personnel, Minister for Veterans' Affairs, Minister Assisting the Prime Minister for the Centenary of ANZAC, positions, held by Dan Tehan; when Warren Truss retired as leader of the National Party in February 2016, McCormack publicly contemplated standing as his replacement. He chose not to run for the leadership, allowing Barnaby Joyce to win the position unopposed.
He did stand for the deputy leadership, but lost to Senator Fiona Nash by only a single vote. In December 2017, McCormack again contested the deputy leadership of the National Party, made vacant as a result of Fiona Nash's disqualification from parliament, he was defeated by Bridget McKenzie." Following the resignation of Barnaby Joyce in February 2018, McCormack announced that he would contest the resulting leadership vote. Several other MPs publicly endorsed him for the position, the only other announced candidate, David Gillespie, withdrew his candidacy the day before the election. George Christensen launched a last-minute bid for the leadership, but was defeated by McCormack, who succeeded Joyce as Deputy Prime Minister of Australia, he replaced Joyce as Minister for Infrastructure and Transport. As a backbencher, McCormack crossed the floor against the passage of the Gillard government's Murray-Darling Basin Plan following a passionate campaign in the irrigation areas of his electorate against the plan, including a public rally in Griffith, New South Wales at which copies of the plan were burnt.
Moving a disallowance motion, McCormack said about the backlash "objections I might get here in Canberra I can live with, but I cannot in all honesty look an irrigation farmer in the eye and say,'I did my best but we're going to have to live with it. " The disallowance secured a cap on water buybacks from the Coalition under Tony Abbott. Mental health in rural areas is a key passion of the Nationals' MP with McCormack championing a petition to deliver a headspace youth counselling service in the Riverina city of Griffith. Amassing some 2,355 signatures, McCormack tabled the petition and lobbied the government to deliver it. Construction started on the project in 2016. A small-business owner before his election to Parliament, McCormack is the only Nationals MP to hold the small business portfolio. During his time, the Coalition government delivered tax cuts for small business and redefined small business. McCormack conducted a series of forums with public service agencies on a nationwide small business roadshow which attracted criticism for its weighting toward Liberal and National Party electorates.
Defending the roadshow, McCormack said h
Freight transport is the physical process of transporting commodities and merchandise goods and cargo. The term shipping referred to transport by sea but in American English, it has been extended to refer to transport by land or air as well. "Logistics", a term borrowed from the military environment, is used in the same sense. Land or "ground" shipping can be made by truck. In air and sea shipments, ground transport is required to take the cargo from its place of origin to the airport or seaport and to its destination because it is not always possible to establish a production facility near ports due to the limited coastlines of countries. Ground transport is more affordable than air, but more expensive than sea in developing countries, where inland infrastructure may not be efficient. Shipment of cargo by trucks, directly from the shipper's place to the destination, is known as a door-to-door shipment, or more formally as multimodal transport. Trucks and trains make deliveries to sea and airports.
Much freight transport is done by ships. An individual nation's fleet and the people that crew it are referred to as its merchant navy or merchant marine. Merchant shipping is the lifeblood of the world economy, carrying 90% of international trade with 102,194 commercial ships worldwide. On rivers and canals, barges are used to carry bulk cargo. Cargo is transported by air in specialized cargo aircraft and in the luggage compartments of passenger aircraft. Air freight is the fastest mode for long-distance freight transport, but it is the most expensive. Intermodal freight transport refers to shipments. More it refers to the use of intermodal shipping containers that are transferred between ship, rail and truck. For example, a shipper works together with both ground and air transportation to ship an item overseas. Intermodal freight transport is used to plan the route and carry out the shipping service from the manufacturer to the door of the recipient. Common trading terms used in shipping goods internationally include: Free on board –the exporter delivers the goods at the specified location.
Costs paid by the exporter include load, lash and stow the cargo, including securing cargo not to move in the ships hold, protecting the cargo from contact with the double bottom to prevent slipping, protection against damage from condensation. For example, "FOB JNPT" means that the exporter delivers the goods to the Jawahar lal Nehru Port and pays for the cargo to be loaded and secured on the ship; this term declares where the responsibility of shipper ends and that of buyer starts. The exporter is bound to deliver the goods at his expense. In this case, the freight and other expenses for outbound traffic are borne by the importer. Carriage and freight: Insurance is payable by the importer, the exporter pays all expenses incurred in transporting the cargo from its place of origin to the port/airport and ocean freight/air freight to the port/airport of destination. For example, C&F Los Angeles. Most of the governments ask their exporters to trade on these terms to promote their exports worldwide such as India and China.
Many of the shipping carriers offer guarantees on their delivery times. These are known as GSR guarantees or "guaranteed service refunds". Carriage and freight: Insurance and freight are all paid by the exporter to the specified location. For example, at CIF Los Angeles, the exporter pays the ocean shipping/air freight costs to Los Angeles including the insurance of cargo; this states that responsibility of the shipper ends at the Los Angeles port. The term "best way" implies that the shipper will choose the carrier who offers the lowest rate for the shipment. In some cases, other factors, such as better insurance or faster transit time will cause the shipper to choose an option other than the lowest bidder. Door-to-door shipping is a service provided by many international shipping companies; the quoted price of this service includes all shipping, handling and customs duties, making it a hassle-free option for customers to import goods from one jurisdiction to another. This is compared to standard shipping, the price of which includes only the expenses incurred by the shipping company in transferring the object from one place to another.
Customs fees, import taxes and other tariffs may contribute to this base price before the item arrives. Affreightment Automatic Identification System Mid-stream operation Outline of transport Ship transport Rail transport Transshipment Greek shipping Chinese shipping Environmental issues with shipping Right of way Shipping markets Full container load Less than container load "Review of Maritime Transport 2014". United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. 2014. "Special Chapter: Asia". Review Maritime Transport 2010 Flyer. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. 2010. Retrieved 9 December 2011. Schreiber, Zvi 2016: The Year Freight Goes Online. December 2015 Humplik, Carmen Winds of change in freight transportation supply chain: Platooning technology. July 2017 Bloomberg.com First freight deal takes Russian wheat to Turkey. January 2018
A navigational aid is any sort of marker which aids the traveler in navigation nautical or aviation travel. Common types of such aids include lighthouses, fog signals, day beacons. According to the glossary of terms in the United States Coast Guard Light list, an Aid to Navigation is any device external to a vessel or aircraft intended to assist navigators in determining their position or safe course, or to warn them of dangers or obstructions to navigation. Red ATONs always have numbers, green ATONs have odd numbers. Under the IALA B standard used in North and South America, when you are going to sea, the red ATON is on your left, the green on your right. Under the IALA A standard used in Europe and most of Asia, the colors are reversed. In the IALA B system, the red ATONs are on your right when you return from sea and the green on your left. Red daybeacons are triangles and green daybeacons are squares. All of these ATONs are Lateral Markers where it is safe to travel. For waters where the direction of the related fairway is not obvious, such as where there are fairways leading in several directions or where there is navigable water outside designated fairways, cardinal marks are used instead of lateral ones.
These give the direction of safe water as a cardinal direction relative to the mark. There are other markers that give information other than the edges of safe waters. Most are white with black lettering, they are used to give direction and information, warn of hazards and destructions, mark controlled areas, mark off-limits areas. These ATONs do not mark traffic channels. On non-lateral markers, there are some shapes that show certain things: Squares show information, including places to find food and repairs, they sometimes show directions. Diamonds warn about dangers like rocks, dams, or stumps. Circles mark a controlled area such as idles speed, speed limit, or ski zone. Crossed diamonds show areas like swimming areas and dams. There are some special colored ATONs; when there are red and green horizontal stripes, you are at the junction of two channels. The ATONs indicate the primary channel. If the green is on the top, the preferred channel is to the right. If the red is on top, the preferred channel is to the left.
The light matches the top stripe color. These ATONs are sometimes called "junction buoys". ATONs are integrated with Automatic Identification System, e.g. a lighthouse can be equipped with an AIS transmitter. Sometimes it is impractical to equip the ATON with an AIS transponder; this is known as a synthetic ATON. In other cases, such as marking a wreck until a physical buoy can be deployed, a so-called virtual ATON is created: A shore-based AIS system is configured to transmit AIS messages indicating the existence of an ATON at a specified location. Lead marks and lights are fixed markers that are laterally displaced to allow a mariner to navigate a fixed channel along the preferred route, they are known as "channel markers". They can be used coming into and out of the channel; when lit, they are usable at night. Customarily, the upper mark is up-hill from the lower mark; the mariner will know the geometry of the marks/lights from the navigational chart and can understand that when "open" the ship needs to be navigated to "close" the marks and be in the preferred line of the channel.
In some cases, the lead marks/lights are provided by lasers, as in the laser channel under the Tasman Bridge on the Derwent River at Hobart, Tasmania. USCG aids to navigation boat Buoy Daymark Distance Measuring Equipment Foghorn Global Positioning System Instrument Landing System landmark Lighthouse LORAN Non-Directional Beacon Racon Radio navigation Range light Sea mark Signal station Tactical Air Navigation VHF Omni-directional Range International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea United States Coast Guard. Aids to Navigation. Scott T. Price. "U. S. Coast Guard Aids to Navigation: A Historical Bibliography". United States Coast Guard Historian's Office. UK Department for Transport. UK Government Strategy for AIS. IALA. IALA Standard A-126: On the Use of the Automatic Identification System in Marine Aids to Navigation Service. Trevor Diamond's Aviation Navaid Gallery. Terry Pepper. Aids to Navigation in the Gulf of Gdansk