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Australian Recording Industry Association

The Australian Recording Industry Association is a trade group representing the Australian recording industry, established in 1983 by six major record companies, EMI, Festival, CBS, RCA, WEA and Universal replacing the Association of Australian Record Manufacturers, formed in 1956. It oversees the collection and distribution of music licenses and royalties; the association has more than 100 members, including small labels run by one to five people, medium size organisations and large companies with international affiliates. ARIA is administered by a Board of Directors comprising senior executives from record companies, both large and small; as of October 2010, the directors were Denis Handlin, George Ash, Mark Poston, Sebastian Chase, David Vodica and Tony Harlow. In 1956, the Association of Australian Record Manufacturers was formed by Australia's major record companies, it was replaced in 1983 by the Australian Recording Industry Association, established by the six major record companies operating in Australia, EMI, Festival Records, CBS, RCA, WEA and Polygram.

It included smaller record companies representing independent acts/labels and has over 100 members. By 1997, the six major labels provided 90% of all recordings made in Australia. ARIA is administered by a Board of Directors comprising senior executives from record companies, both large and small; as of October 2010, the directors were Denis Handlin, George Ash, Mark Poston, Sebastian Chase, David Vodica and Tony Harlow. Australian TV pop music show Countdown presented its own annual awards ceremony, Countdown Music and Video Awards, co-produced by Carolyn James during 1981–1984 in collaboration with ARIA. ARIA provided peer voting for some awards, while Countdown provided coupons in the related Countdown Magazine for viewers to vote for populist awards. At the 1985 Countdown awards ceremony, held on 14 April 1986, fans of INXS and Uncanny X-Men scuffled during the broadcast and as a result ARIA decided to hold their own awards. Since 2 March 1987, ARIA administered its own peer-voted ARIA Music Awards, to "recognise excellence and innovation in all genres of Australian music" with an annual ceremony.

Included in the same awards ceremonies, it established the ARIA Hall of Fame in 1988 and has held separate annual ceremonies since 2005. The ARIA Hall of Fame "honours Australian musicians' achievements have had a significant impact in Australia or around the world". In February 2004, the Australian Record Industry Association announced its own legal action against Kazaa, alleging massive copyright breaches; the trial began on 29 November 2004. On 6 February 2005, the homes of two Sharman Networks executives and the offices of Sharman Networks in Australia were raided under a court order by ARIA to gather evidence for the trial. In 2006, ARIA formed sponsorship deals with Motorola and Nova and changed the appearance and conduct of the charting. Motorola took naming-rights sponsorship seeing the charts referred to in the media as the Motorola ARIA Charts. ARIA, have commented that as part of the same marketing printed charts would be reintroduced into media retailing shops and their website would be redesigned.

As part of the deal Nova began broadcasting the charted singles in reverse order on a Sunday afternoon show before it was released on the ARIA charts website. The ARIA Charts is the main Australian music sales charts, issued weekly by the Australian Recording Industry Association; the charts are a record of albums in various genres. All charts are compiled from data of both digital sales from retailers in Australia. A music single or album qualifies for a platinum certification if it exceeds 70,000 copies shipped to retailers and a gold certification for 35,000 copies shipped; the diamond certification was created for albums in November 2015 to mark 500,000 sales/shipments. For music DVDs, a gold accreditation represented 7,500 copies shipped, with a platinum accreditation representing 15,000 units shipped. Prior to ARIA taking on the role of certification authority in 1983, the music industry used the following certification levels: The ARIA No. 1 Chart Awards were established in 2002 to recognise Australian recording artists, who reached number one on the ARIA albums and music DVDs charts.

The ARIA Music Awards is an annual series of awards nights celebrating the Australian music industry. The event has been held annually since 1987. Like most recording industry associations, ARIA has been criticised for fighting copyright infringement matters aggressively, although in Australia this has taken the form of aggressive advertising campaigns in cinemas directly preceding movies; this criticism is stauncher in Australia due to the absence of an equivalent Digital Millennium Copyright Act or state crimes acts which establish copyright infringement as a crime. In February 2004, the Australian Record Industry Association took legal action against Kazaa, alleging massive copyright breaches; the trial began on 29 November 2004. On 6 Febr

Ferdinand Kobell

Ferdinand Kobell was a German painter and engraver. Kobell was born in Mannheim, he was studying at the University of Heidelberg when the Elector of Bavaria, admiring a landscape, aided him to devote his entire time to painting. He became the pupil of Peter Verschaffelt, he next studied art in Paris. On his return, he was appointed painter to the Cabinet, professor at the Academy. In 1793, he moved to Munich, he was died in Munich, before entering on his duties. He specialized in landscapes, following the style of Berchem, his work shows a jealous study of natural effects, his oil painting are in a number of German galleries, but his work as an engraver has more importance. His etchings were published by Frauenholz, in Munich, as Œuvres complètes de Ferdinand Kobell, another of 179 pages were published by Kugler, his plates mark a distinct advance in the treatment of landscape etching in Germany. He was a grandson of Johann Heinrich Kobell, who came to Mannheim from Frankfurt in 1720, he was the father of Wilhelm von Kobell, the brother of Franz Kobell, both painters.

Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Rines, George Edwin, ed.. "Kobell, Ferdinand". Encyclopedia Americana; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Rines, George Edwin, ed.. "Kobell". Encyclopedia Americana; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "Kobell". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Biography by Baron S. von Stengel

Capoocan, Leyte

Capoocan the Municipality of Capoocan, is a 4th class municipality in the province of Leyte, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 33,617 people. Capoocan is politically subdivided into 21 barangays. The name Capoocan comes from the dialect term "mapu-uk" which means obstructed or "obstaculizado" in Spanish. It lies along the shores of Carigara Bay - its people drawing sustenance both from the waters which give an abundant harvest of fish that find their way in the markets of Tacloban and Carigara, as well as in the fertile lands that end at the foot of Mount Minoro. Expansion efforts have been limited by the presence of Mount Minoro; the mountain obstructs and contains the town in its present site - forbidding further growth but protecting the town from the strong typhoons that have battered neighboring towns. In 1904, the town earned its independence from Carigara. Too young for such a difficult undertaking, Capoocan willingly returned to barrio status after a few years of determined but unsuccessful attempts at independence.

On January 1, 1928, when it gathered strength and gained experience, Capoocan was granted municipal status again. It was ranked as a fifth class municipality at first but on ascended to fourth class category, its first town executive was Brigido Merelos. In 1931, Jose Pagar was elected President but his term was short since he was appointed municipal judge of Pastrana, it was Perfecto Pilapil. In 1935, Solos M. Hernandez was elected Mayor, he was re-elected in 1939 but he died at the outbreak of World War II. From 1867 when Capoocan was a "visita" of Carigara, the town has shown remarkable increase in population. After 38 years on its own as a town, Capoocan has grown into its present site - 17 barrios stretching to as far as 30 kilometers from the town proper and a "poblacion" that shows promise. In the 2015 census, the population of Capoocan, was 33,617 people, with a density of 180 inhabitants per square kilometre or 470 inhabitants per square mile. There are a total of 20 Elementary Schools and 4 secondary Schools in Capoocan Bishop Oscar Jaime Florencio - current auxiliary bishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cebu and apostolic administrator of the Military Ordinariate of the Philippines Philippine Standard Geographic Code Philippine Census Information Local Governance Performance Management System More photos and Information