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Australian and New Zealand Army Corps

The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps was a First World War army corps of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force. It was formed in Egypt in December 1914, operated during the Gallipoli campaign. General William Birdwood commanded the corps, which consisted troops from the First Australian Imperial Force and 1st New Zealand Expeditionary Force, although there were British and Indian units attached at times throughout the campaign; the corps disbanded in 1916, following the Allied evacuation of the Gallipoli peninsula and the formation of I ANZAC Corps and II ANZAC Corps. The corps was reestablished in the Second World War during the Battle of Greece in 1941. Plans for the formation began in November 1914 while the first contingent of Australian and New Zealand troops were still in convoy bound for, as they thought, Europe. However, following the experiences of the Canadian Expeditionary Force encamped on Salisbury Plain, where there was a shortage of accommodation and equipment, it was decided not to subject the Australians and New Zealanders to the English winter, so they were diverted to Egypt for training before moving on to the Western Front in France.

The British Secretary of State for War, Horatio Kitchener, appointed General William Birdwood, an officer of the British Indian Army, to the command of the corps and he furnished most of the corps staff from the Indian Army as well. Birdwood arrived in Cairo on 21 December 1914 to assume command of the corps, it was intended to name the corps the Australasian Army Corps, this title being used in the unit diary in line with the common practice of the time which saw New Zealanders and Australians compete together as Australasia in sporting events. However, complaints from New Zealand recruits led to adoption of the name Australian and New Zealand Army Corps; the administration clerks found the title too cumbersome so adopted the abbreviation A. & N. Z. A. C. or ANZAC. Shortly afterwards it was adopted as the codename for the corps, but it did not enter common usage amongst the troops until after the Gallipoli landings. At the outset, the corps comprised two divisions; the 2nd and 3rd Australian Light Horse Brigades were assigned as corps level troops, belonging to neither division.

Despite being synonymous with Australia and New Zealand, ANZAC was a multi-national body: in addition to the many British officers in the corps and division staffs, the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps contained, at various points, the 7th Brigade of the Indian Mountain Artillery, Ceylon Planters Rifle Corps troops, the Zion Mule Corps, several battalions from the Royal Naval Division, the British 13th Division, one brigade of the British 10th Division and the 29th Indian Brigade. Following the evacuation of Gallipoli in December 1915, the Australian and New Zealand units reassembled in Egypt; the New Zealand contingent expanded to form their own division. The First Australian Imperial Force underwent a major reorganisation resulting in the formation of two new divisions; these divisions were reformed into two corps: I ANZAC Corps and II ANZAC Corps. I ANZAC Corps, under the command of General Birdwood, departed for France in early 1916. II ANZAC Corps, commanded by Lieutenant General Alexander Godley, followed soon after.

In January 1916, the 4th Battalion, Imperial Camel Corps, was formed with Australian and New Zealand troops. The 1st and 3rd Battalions were Australian. In March 1916, the ANZAC Mounted Division with three Australian and one New Zealand brigade, was formed for service in Egypt and Palestine. There was the 1st Wireless Signal Squadron, which served with the British expeditionary force in Mesopotamia in 1916–1917. In early 1916, the Australian and, to a lesser extent, New Zealand governments sought the creation of an Australian and New Zealand Army, which would have included the New Zealand Division and all of the Australian infantry divisions, but this did not occur. During World War II, the Australian I Corps HQ moved to Greece in April 1941; as the corps controlled the New Zealand 2nd Division, it was renamed ANZAC Corps in April. The Battle of Greece was over in weeks and the corps HQ left Greece on 23–24 April, with the name ANZAC Corps no longer being used; some troops evacuated to Alexandria, but the majority were sent to Crete to reinforce its garrison against an expected air and sea German invasion.

Australians and New Zealanders were deployed around the cities of Rethymno and Chania in western Crete with a smaller Australian force being positioned in Heraklion. The invasion began the morning of 20 May and, after the fierce Battle of Crete, which lasted ten days, Crete fell to the Germans. Most of the defenders of Chania withdrew across the island to the south coast and were evacuated by the Royal Navy from Sfakia. Many others evaded capture for several months, hiding in the mountains with generous assistance from the local Cretan population. Others who were captured and transported to Axis POW camps in mainland Europe were able to escape en route via Yugoslavia; those who escaped found refuge with Chetniks and Yugoslav Partisans until they were either repatriated or recaptured by Axis forces. During the Vietnam War, two companies from the Royal New Zealand

Manu Prakash

Manu Prakash is an Indian born scientist, a Professor of Bioengineering at Stanford University. Manu was born in India, he is best known for Paperfuge. Prakash received the MacArthur Fellowship in September 2016, he and his team are working on a water droplet based computer in Stanford University. His work focuses on frugal innovation that makes medicine and microscopy accessible to more people across the world. Manu Prakash earned a BTech in computer science and engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, an M. S. and PhD in Applied Physics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. A Foldscope is an optical microscope that can be assembled from simple components, including a sheet of paper and a lens, it was designed to cost less than US$1 to build. It is part of the "frugal science" movement which aims to make cheap and easy tools available for scientific use in the developing world. Paperfuge is a Hand-powered ultralow-cost paper centrifuge designed by Manu Prakash and Members at Prakash Lab.

Inspired from the Yo-Yo toy configuration, Dr. Manu designed a centrifuge using the toy's design and Supercoiling-mediated ultrafast spinning dynamics; the Paperfuge can be used to separate Plasma and RBC for rapid Malaria diagnosis in remote areas. TED Fellow 2010, TED Senior Fellow 2011Gates Foundation Global Health “Explorations” Grant 2012NIH Director's New Innovator Award 2015McArthur Fellow 2016Unilever Colworth Prize 2020 https://web.stanford.edu/group/prakash-lab/ https://www.foldscope.com/

Elections in Germany

Elections in Germany include elections to the Bundestag, the Landtags of the various states, local elections. Several articles in several parts of the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany govern elections and establish constitutional requirements such as the secret ballot, requirement that all elections be conducted in a free and fair manner; the Basic Law requires that the federal legislature enact detailed federal laws to govern elections. One such article is Article 38, regarding the election of deputies in the federal Bundestag. Article 38.2 of the Basic Law establishes universal suffrage: "Any person who has attained the age of eighteen shall be entitled to vote. German federal elections are for all members of the Bundestag, which in turn determines, the Chancellor of Germany. Federal elections were held in 2009, 2013 and in 2017. After the unification of Germany under Emperor Wilhelm I in 1871, elections were held to the German Reichstag or ‘Imperial Assembly’, which supplanted its namesake, the Reichstag of the Norddeutscher Bund.

The Reichstag could be dissolved by the Kaiser or, after the abdication of Wilhelm II in 1918, the Reichspräsident. With the Weimar Republic's Constitution of 1919, the voting system changed from single-member constituencies to proportional representation; the election age was reduced from 25 to 20 years of age. Women's suffrage had been established by a new electoral law in 1918 following the November Revolution of that year. Following the Nazi seizure of power in January 1933, another national election was held on 5 March; this was the last competitive election before World War II, although it was neither fair. Violence and intimidation by the Sturmabteilung, SS and Stahlhelm had been underway for months against trade-unionists, social democrats, centre-right Catholics. On 27 February, just prior to the election, the Reichstag Fire Decree suspended freedom of the press and most civil liberties. Mass arrests followed, including all Communist and several Social Democrat delegates to the Reichstag.

50000 members of the Hilfspolizei "monitored" polling places on election day to further intimidate voters. While the NSDAP performed better than it had in the elections of November 1932, it still won only 33% of the vote. By placing their rivals in jail and intimidating others not to take their seats, the Nazis went from a plurality to the majority. Just two weeks after election, the Enabling Act of 1933 gave Hitler dictatorial power. Three more elections were held in Nazi Germany before the war, they all took the form of a one-question referendum, asking voters to approve a predetermined list of candidates composed of Nazis and nominally independent "guests" of the party. 1st 1871 German federal election 2nd 1874 German federal election 3rd 1877 German federal election 4th 1878 German federal election 5th 1881 German federal election 6th 1884 German federal election 7th 1887 German federal election 8th 1890 German federal election 9th 1893 German federal election 10th 1898 German federal election 11th 1903 German federal election 12th 1907 German federal election 13th 1912 German federal election 1st 1919 German federal election 2nd 1920 German federal election 3rd May 1924 German federal election 4th December 1924 German federal election 5th 1928 German federal election 6th 1930 German federal election 7th July 1932 German federal election 8th November 1932 German federal election 9th March 1933 German federal election 10th November 1933 German federal election 11th German election, 1936 12th German election, 1938 Federal elections are conducted every four years, resulting from the constitutional requirement for elections to be held 46 to 48 months after the assembly of the Reichstag.

Elections can be held earlier in exceptional constitutional circumstances: for example, were the Chancellor to lose a vote of confidence in the Bundestag during a grace period before the Bundestag can vote in a replacement Chancellor, the Chancellor could request the Federal President to dissolve the Bundestag and hold elections. Should the Bundestag be dismissed before the four-year period has ended, elections must be held within 100 days; the exact date of the election must be a Sunday or public holiday. German nationals over the age of 18 who have resided in Germany for at least three months are eligible to vote. Eligibility for candidacy is the same; the federal legislature in Germany has a one chamber parliament—the Bundestag. The Bundestag is elected using a mixed member proportional system; the Bundestag has 598 nominal members, elected for a four-year term. Half, 299 members, are elected in single-member constituencies by first-past-the-post voting, while a further 299 members are allocated from party lists to achieve a proportional distribution in the legislature, conducted according to a form of proportional representation called the Mixed member proportional representation system.

Voters vote once for a constituency representative, a second time for a party, the lists are used to make the party balances match the distribution of second votes. Overhang seats may add to the nominal number of 598 members: for example, in the 2009 federal election there were 24 overhang seats, giving a total of 622 seats; this is caused by larger parties winning additional single-member constituencies above the totals determined by their proportional party vote. Germany has a multi-party system with two strong political parties and some other t