Australian non-residential architectural styles

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Australian non-residential architectural styles are a set of Australian architectural styles that apply to buildings used for purposes other than residence and have been around only since the first colonial government buildings of early European settlement of Australia in 1788.

Their distribution follows closely the establishment and growth of the different colonies of Australia, in that the earliest colonial buildings can be found in New South Wales and Tasmania.

The following classifications are derived from Apperley, Irving and Reynolds (1989):


Old Colonial Period (1788–c. 1840)[edit]

  • Old Colonial Georgian; Old Colonial Regency; Old Colonial Grecian; Old Colonial Gothic Picturesque




Gothic Picturesque[edit]

Victorian period (ca. 1840–c. 1890)[edit]

15 styles all prefaced by "Victorian":

Georgian, Regency, Egyptian, Academic Classical, Free Classical, Filigree, Mannerist, Second Empire, Italianate, Romanesque, Byzantine, Academic Gothic, Free Gothic, Tudor, Rustic Gothic, Carpenter Gothic

Victorian Georgian[edit]

Victorian Regency[edit]

Victorian Egyptian[edit]

Victorian Academic Classical[edit]

Victorian Free Classical[edit]

Victorian Filigree[edit]

Victorian Mannerist[edit]

Notable examples in Australia include: Culwulla Chambers (Sydney); Former Rocks Police Station (Sydney); Block Arcade (Melbourne); Stalbridge Chambers (Melbourne), National Bank Pall Mall (Bendigo); RESI Chambers (Melbourne); Lygon Buildings, Medley Hall (Carlton, Victoria); Former Money Order Post Office and Savings Bank (Melbourne); Mutual Store (Melbourne);

Victorian Second Empire[edit]

Notable examples include: Sydney Town Hall (Sydney); Hotel Windsor (Melbourne); Princess Theatre (Melbourne); Former Records Office (Melbourne); Melbourne General Post Office (Melbourne); Melbourne Town Hall (Melbourne); East Melbourne Synagogue (East Melbourne, Victoria); Royal Exhibition Building (Carlton, Victoria); Collingwood Town Hall (Collingwood, Victoria); South Melbourne Town Hall (South Melbourne, Victoria); Malvern Town Hall (Malvern, Victoria); Former Rechabite Hall (Prahran, Victoria); Brunswick Town Hall (Brunswick, Victoria); Camberwell Town Hall (Camberwell, Victoria); Bendigo Town Hall (Bendigo, Victoria); Shamrock Hotel (Bendigo Victoria); Bendigo Courthouse (Bendigo, Victoria); Bendigo Post Office (Bendigo, Victoria); Institute of Technology (Bendigo, Victoria); Queensland Parliament House (Brisbane)

Victorian Italianate[edit]

Victorian Romanesque[edit]

Victorian Renaissance Revival[edit]

Victorian Byzantine[edit]

Victorian Academic Gothic[edit]

Victorian Free Gothic[edit]

Victorian Tudor (Jacobethan)[edit]

Victorian Rustic Gothic[edit]

Victorian Carpenter Gothic[edit]

Edwardian period (ca. 1890s–1910)[edit]

Edwardian architecture is generally less ornate than high or late Victorian architecture,[4] apart from a subset - used for major buildings - known as Edwardian Baroque architecture.

Edwardian Baroque[edit]

Notable examples include the Lands Administration Building in Brisbane, the Queen Victoria Hospital, Melbourne (main pavilion, now Queen Victoria Women's Centre), the Commonwealth Offices, Treasury Place, Melbourne, the Department of Education building in Sydney (1912)[5] and the General Post Office in Hobart.

Federation period (ca. 1890–ca. 1915)[edit]

12 styles, each style name prefaced by "Federation":

Academic Classical, Free Classical, Filigree, Anglo-Dutch, Romanesque, Gothic, Carpenter Gothic, Warehouse, Queen Anne, Free Style, Arts and Crafts, Bungalow

Federation Academic Classical[edit]

Federation Free Classical[edit]

Notable examples include: Sydney Hospital (Sydney), Taronga Zoo Pavilion (Sydney), the main terminus building of the Central railway station in Sydney,[6] Flinders Street station (Melbourne), Sacred Heart Church (St Kilda, Victoria), Read's Emporium (Prahran, Victoria), Old Royal Hotel (Williamstown, Victoria), the former Queensland Lands Administration Building (Brisbane).

Federation Second Empire[edit]

Federation Filigree[edit]

Federation Anglo-Dutch[edit]

Federation Romanesque[edit]

Federation Gothic[edit]

Federation Carpenter Gothic[edit]

Federation Warehouse[edit]

Federation Queen Anne[edit]

Federation Free Style[edit]

Federation Arts and Crafts[edit]

Federation Bungalow[edit]

Inter-War period (ca. 1915–ca. 1940)[edit]

16 styles, each style name prefaced by "Inter-War":

Georgian Revival, Academic Classical, Free Classical, Beaux-Arts, Stripped Classical, Commercial Palazzo, Mediterranean, Spanish Mission, Chicagoesque, Functionalist & Modern, Art-Deco, Skyscraper Gothic, Romanesque, Interwar Gothic, Old English, California Bungalow

Inter-war Georgian Revival[edit]

Inter-war Academic Classical[edit]

Inter-war Free Classical[edit]

Inter-war Beaux Arts[edit]

Inter-war Stripped Classical[edit]

Inter-war Commercial Palazzo[edit]

Inter-war Mediterranean[edit]

Inter-war Art Deco[edit]

Federation Skyscraper Gothic[edit]

Inter-war Chicagoesque[edit]

Inter-war Functionalist & Moderne[edit]

Interwar Gothic[edit]

Inter-war Old English (20th Century Tudorbethan)[edit]

Federation Functionalist & Moderne[edit]

The functionist and moderne style often used combinations of blonde and brown bricks in linear vertical or horizontal patterns. Notable examples include: Museum of Contemporary Art (Sydney); Captain's Flat Hotel (NSW); Russell Street Police Headquarters (Melbourne); Astor Theatre (St Kilda, Victoria); Ballarat Law Courts (Ballarat);

Post-War Period (c. 1940–1960)[edit]

5 styles, each style name prefaced by "Post-War":

Ecclesiastical, International, Modern




Late Twentieth-Century Period 1960–2000[edit]

14 styles, each style name prefaced by "Late Twentieth Century":

Stripped Classical, Ecclesiastical, International, Organic, Brutalist, Structuralist, Late Modern, Post Modern, Immigrants' Nostalgic

Stripped Classical[edit]




Notable examples include: Sydney Masonic Centre/Civic Tower (Sydney); AAPT Centre (Sydney); Sydney Law School (Sydney); Cameron Offices (Canberra); High Court of Australia (Canberra); State Library of Queensland (Brisbane); Queensland Performing Arts Centre (Brisbane); Law Courts (Brisbane); Suncorp Metway Plaza (Brisbane); National Gallery of Victoria (Melbourne); Total carpark (Melbourne); World Trade Center (Melbourne); Harold Holt Memorial Swimming Pool (Malvern, Victoria); St Kilda Public Library (St Kilda, Victoria); Plumbing Trades Employees Union of Australia Building (Melbourne); University of Melbourne Faculty of Engineering (Melbourne); Metropolitan Fire Brigade (East Melbourne, Victoria); R.A.W. Woodgate Centre (Kew, Victoria); UTS Tower (University of Technology, Sydney); St Anthony's Church (Marsfield, Sydney). See Category:Brutalist architecture in Australia.


Late Modern[edit]

Post Modern[edit]

A subset of postmodernism is mock-historicism tries to imitate historic styles using modern materials to the point where it is difficult to tell them apart from historic buildings; the most imitated styles are those that are easiest to clone (including the Georgian style).


Notable examples include Green Building RMIT; Deakin University main building; Australian Centre for Contemporary Art; Gottlieb House (Melbourne)

Immigrant's Nostalgic[edit]

21st-century architecture[edit]

Several new and continued 20th-century styles, all prefaced with "21st-century" - Deconstructivist, Post modern, Structuralist, Sustainable, Modern


Notable examples include Fed Square; Shrine of Remembrance crypt; Sofo House (Melbourne) Swan Bells (Perth)

Post Modern[edit]


Advanced structuralism facilitated by Computer Aided Design


Notable examples in Australia include: 60L (Melbourne); CH2 (Melbourne); K2 Apartments (Windsor, Victoria); Dunc Gray Velodrome (Sydney); Forest EcoCentre (Tasmania); Rozak House (Noonamah, Northern Territory).

Green building[edit]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Goulburn Court House and Residence". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
  2. ^ "Lands Department Building". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage.
  3. ^ "Bank of NSW". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H00080. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  4. ^ "Bricks & Brass: Edwardian Style". Retrieved 2016-10-25.
  5. ^ "Department of Education Building". NSW State Heritage Register. Office of Environment & Heritage, Government of New South Wales. 9 February 2015. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
  6. ^ "Central Railway Station and Sydney Terminal Group". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  7. ^ "Corn Exchange". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H01619. Retrieved 14 October 2018.

External links[edit]