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Australian rules football

Australian rules football known as Australian football, or called Aussie rules, football or footy, is a contact sport played between two teams of eighteen players on an oval-shaped field a modified cricket ground. Points are scored by kicking the oval-shaped ball between the middle goal posts or between a goal and behind post. During general play, players may position themselves anywhere on the field and use any part of their bodies to move the ball; the primary methods are kicking and running with the ball. There are rules on how the ball can be handled: for example, players running with the ball must intermittently bounce or touch it on the ground. Throwing the ball is not allowed and players must not get caught holding the ball. A distinctive feature of the game is the mark, where players anywhere on the field who catch the ball from a kick are awarded possession. Possession of the ball is in dispute at all times except when mark is paid. Players can use their whole body to obstruct opponents.

Dangerous physical contact, interference when marking and deliberately slowing the play are discouraged with free kicks, distance penalties or suspension for a certain number of matches, depending on the seriousness of the infringement. The game features frequent physical contests, spectacular marking, fast movement of both players and the ball and high scoring; the sport's origins can be traced to football matches played in Melbourne, Victoria in 1858, inspired by English public school football games. Seeking to develop a game more suited to adults and Australian conditions, the Melbourne Football Club published the first laws of Australian football in May 1859, making it the oldest of the world's major football codes. Australian football has the highest spectator attendance and television viewership of all sports in Australia, while the Australian Football League, the sport's only professional competition, is the nation's wealthiest sporting body; the AFL Grand Final, held annually at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, is the highest attended club championship event in the world.

The sport is played at amateur level in many countries and in several variations. Its rules are governed by the AFL Commission with the advice of the AFL's Laws of the Game Committee. Australian rules football is known by several nicknames, including Aussie rules and footy. In some regions, it is marketed as AFL after the Australian Football League. There is evidence of football being played sporadically in the Australian colonies in the first half of the 19th century. Compared to cricket and horse racing, football was viewed as a minor "amusement" at the time, while little is known about these early one-off games, it is clear they share no causal link with Australian football. In 1858, in a move that would help to shape Australian football in its formative years, "public" schools in Melbourne, Victoria began organising football games inspired by precedents at English public schools; the earliest such match, held in St Kilda on 15 June, was between Melbourne Grammar and St Kilda Grammar. On 10 July 1858, the Melbourne-based Bell's Life in Victoria and Sporting Chronicle published a letter by Tom Wills, captain of the Victoria cricket team, calling for the formation of a "foot-ball club" with a "code of laws" to keep cricketers fit during winter.

Born in Australia, Wills played a nascent form of rugby football whilst a pupil at Rugby School in England, returned to his homeland a star athlete and cricketer. His letter is regarded by many historians as giving impetus for the development of a new code of football today known as Australian football. Two weeks Wills' friend, cricketer Jerry Bryant, posted an advertisement for a scratch match at the Richmond Paddock adjoining the Melbourne Cricket Ground; this was the first of several "kickabouts" held that year involving members of the Melbourne Cricket Club, including Wills, Bryant, W. J. Hammersley and J. B. Thompson. Trees were used as goalposts and play lasted an entire afternoon. Without an agreed upon code of laws, some players were guided by rules they had learned in the British Isles, "others by no rules at all". Another significant milestone in 1858 was a match played under experimental rules between Melbourne Grammar and Scotch College, held at the Richmond Paddock; this 40-a-side contest, umpired by Wills and Scotch College teacher John Macadam, began on 7 August and continued over two subsequent Saturdays, ending in a draw with each side kicking one goal.

It is commemorated with a statue outside the MCG, the two schools have competed annually since in the Cordner-Eggleston Cup, the world's oldest continuous football competition. Since the early 20th century, it has been suggested that Australian football was derived from the Irish sport of Gaelic football, not codified until 1885. There is no archival evidence in favour of a Gaelic influence, the style of play shared between the two modern codes was evident in Australia long before the Irish game evolved in a similar direction. Another theory, first proposed in 1983, posits that Wills, having grown up amongst Aborigines in Victoria, may have seen or played the Aboriginal game of Marn Grook, incorporated some of its features into early Australian football; the evidence for this is only circumstantial, according to biographer Greg de Moore's research, Wills was "almost influenced by his experience at Rugby School". A loosely organised Melbourne side, captained by Wills, played against other football enthusiasts in the winter and spring of 1858.

The following year, on 14 May, the Melbourne Football Club came into being

Cosmos People

Cosmos People is a Taiwanese band formed in 2004. The members are all graduates of Taipei Municipal Jianguo High School, their music uses elements of funk and dance-pop. After high school graduation in 2004, they decided, they wanted a catchy name. Inspiration came from baseball player Ichiro Suzuki, described by the media as "from a different planet" due to his exceptional skills; when they heard this, they wished that they have to same ambition. They discussed on msn messenger for a while before settling on "Cosmos People", which represents encouragement for themselves to become unlike any other band on Earth. Lin Chung-Yu – lead vocals, keyboard Chen Kuei-Yen – guitar Fang Kuei-Tang – bass Li Tung-Yo – drums, now the drummer for 88 balaz. Chen Wei-Da – bass Wei Hung-Bo – drums Cosmos People was formed in 2004 by Jade and A-Kui, who became friends at Jianguo High School, they became interested in dance funk because of their friends who were into breaking. After graduation, they started writing music with beat-boxing, funk guitar, jazz drums, bass.

Fellow member of their high school music club FunQ joined shortly after as their bassist. In 2009, they released their first album Cosmos People. In 2010, both Jade and A-Kui started the required military service, so the band went on hiatus for a year. In 2011, the service ended for both of them, FunQ returned from music school in America, they released the song "War Song", using Nirvana's "Smells Like Teen Spirit" as inspiration for the arrangement. The song became popular with people in the service and on the internet, the music video has since received over 1.4 million views on YouTube. In October 2012 they released their second album Earthwalk, praised by fans and critics for its down-to-earth concept. In February 2013, Cosmos People and other artists from B'in Music performed together at Taipei Arena for "B'in Together", they toured in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore. They were invited to perform at SXSW in Austin, TX. In August 2014 they released their first Japanese album コスモロジー in Japan, they attended Summer Sonic Festival.

In October, for their 10th anniversary, they climbed Mount Everest together and filmed a documentary. In November they held the concert "Himalaya" at Legacy Taipei. In May 2015 they released their third album 10000 hours, named after the 10,000-Hour Rule; the album's style is different than their previous albums. In February 2016 they released a Japanese EP TIME LAPSE in Japan, which included a new Japanese single. In 2017 Jade starred in 52Hz, I Love You. FunQ and A-Kui voiced Superman and the Joker for the Taiwanese dub of The Lego Batman Movie. In October they released their fourth album RIGHT NOW, held two concerts at Legacy Taipei. In 2018 they performed their world tour "Our Adventure Concert". In January 2019 they released the single "Taste of Home" for the Lunar New Year. In April 2019 artist Ji Yun collaborated with ten musical groups and ten artists to produce the art exhibition Where Have All The Flowers Gone. Cosmos People wrote "Don't Touch" to be included in the album. In May 2019 they wrote the promotional song the mascot of ican entertainment.

In July 2019 they started their "Ten More Years" tour. They announced their plans to perform at Taipei Arena at their concert on 19 July. Cosmos People Earthwalk Cosmology 10000 hours RIGHT NOW 001.5 Lost Detective TIME LAPSE "Not Easy" "O LA O" "Taste of Home" Where Have All the Flowers Gone – "Don't Touch" 27th Golden Melody Awards - nominated for Best Band - 10000 hours 宇宙人 facebook

Minnetonka Cave

Minnetonka Cave is one of the larger limestone caves in the state of Idaho. It is located in Cache National Forest in Bear Lake County, United States, above the village of St. Charles. “Minnetonka” is a misunderstanding of the words Mni and Tanka, derived from one of three Indigenous dialects: Dakota, Lakota or Nakota. “Mni Tanka”, pronounced translates into “Big/Large Water”. Tours through the cave are offered from Memorial Day through Labor Day by Scenic Canyons Recreational Services, the concessionaire that holds the special use permit from the United States Forest Service; the half-mile route through the cave is lined with stalagmites. The cave is a hibernaculum to five different species of bats. One species, the Townsend's Big-eared Bat, while not on the endangered species list is on the lists of both the State of Idaho and the Forest Service as a species of concern. Bearlake visitors bureau Scenic Canyons - Photos and tour information Backcountry Secrets: Minnetonka Cave Idaho coordinates