Sahelanthropus tchadensis is an extinct species of the Hominini and is the ancestor to Orrorin, dated to about 7 million years ago, during the Miocene epoch very close to the time of the chimpanzee–human divergence. Few specimens other than the partial skull, nicknamed Toumaï, are known. Existing fossils include a small cranium named Toumaï, five pieces of jaw, some teeth, making up a head that has a mixture of derived and primitive features; the braincase, being only 320 cm3 to 380 cm3 in volume, is similar to that of extant chimpanzees and is notably less than the approximate human volume of 1350 cm3. The teeth, brow ridges, facial structure differ markedly from those found in Homo sapiens. Cranial features show a flatter face, u-shaped dental arcade, small canines, an anterior foramen magnum, heavy brow ridges. No postcranial remains have been recovered; the only known skull suffered a large amount of distortion during the time of fossilisation and discovery, as the cranium is dorsoventrally flattened, the right side is depressed.
Sahelanthropus tchadensis may have walked on two legs. However, because no postcranial remains have been discovered, it is not known definitively whether Sahelanthropus was indeed bipedal, although claims for an anteriorly placed foramen magnum suggests that this may have been the case. Upon examination of the foramen magnum in the primary study, the lead author speculated that a bipedal gait "would not be unreasonable" based on basicranial morphology similar to more recent hominins; some palaeontologists have disputed this interpretation, stating that the basicranium, as well as dentition and facial features, do not represent adaptations unique to the hominin clade, nor indicative of bipedalism. Further, according to recent information, what might be a femur of a hominid was discovered near the cranium—but which has not been published nor accounted for. Fifteen years after the discovery of the fossil, the anthropologist Roberto Macchiarelli—professor at the University of Poitiers and the Museum of Natural History of Paris—suspects Michel Brunet and his laboratory in Poitiers of blocking information about a femur found close to the skull.
That the laboratory would have delayed identification may question the bipedalism of Toumaï. The fossils were discovered in the Djurab Desert of Chad by a team of four led by a Frenchman, Alain Beauvilain, three Chadians, Adoum Mahamat, Djimdoumalbaye Ahounta, Gongdibé Fanoné, members of the Mission paleoanthropologique Franco-tchadienne led by Michel Brunet. All known material of Sahelanthropus was found between July 2001 and March 2002 at three sites: TM 247, TM 266, which yielded most of the material, including a cranium and a femur, TM 292; the discoverers claimed that S. tchadensis is the oldest-known human ancestor after the split of the human line from that of chimpanzees. The bones were found far from most previous hominin fossil finds, which are from Eastern and Southern Africa. However, an Australopithecus bahrelghazali mandible was found in Chad by Mamelbaye Tomalta and Alain Beauvilain, Michel Brunet and Aladji H. E. Moutaye as early as 1995. With the sexual dimorphism known to have existed in early hominins, the difference between Ardipithecus and Sahelanthropus may not be large enough to warrant a separate species for the latter.
Sahelanthropus may represent a common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, though no consensus has been reached yet by the scientific community. The original placement of this species as a human ancestor but not a chimpanzee ancestor would complicate the picture of human phylogeny. In particular, if Toumaï is indeed a direct human ancestor its facial features bring into doubt the status of Australopithecus whose thickened brow ridges were reported to be similar to those of some fossil hominins, where the brow ridge morphology of Sahelanthropus differs from that observed in all australopithecines, most fossil hominins and extant humans. Another possibility is that Toumaï is related to both humans and chimpanzees, but is the ancestor of neither. Brigitte Senut and Martin Pickford, the discoverers of Orrorin tugenensis, suggested that the features of S. tchadensis are consistent with a female proto-gorilla. If this claim is upheld the find would lose none of its significance, because at present few chimpanzee or gorilla ancestors have been found anywhere in Africa.
Thus if S. tchadensis is an ancestral relative of the chimpanzees or gorillas it represents the earliest known member of their lineage. And S. tchadensis does indicate that the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees is unlikely to resemble extant chimpanzees, as had been supposed by some paleontologists. A further possibility, highlighted by research published in 2012, is that the human–chimpanzee split is earlier than thought, with a possible range of 7 to 13 million years ago, based on slower than thought changes between generations in human DNA. Indeed, some researchers consider suggestions that Sahelanthropus is too early to be a human ancestor to have evaporated. Sediment isotope analysis of cosmogenic atoms in the fossil yielded an age of about 7 million years. In this case, the fossils were found exposed in loose sand. In fact, Toumaï may have been reburied in the r
National Museum of Natural History
The National Museum of Natural History is a natural history museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution, located on the National Mall in Washington, D. C. United States, it is open 364 days a year. In 2016, with 7.1 million visitors, it was the fourth most visited museum in the world and the most visited natural-history museum in the world. Opened in 1910, the museum on the National Mall was one of the first Smithsonian buildings constructed to hold the national collections and research facilities; the main building has an overall area of 1,500,000 square feet with 325,000 square feet of exhibition and public space and houses over 1,000 employees. The museum's collections contain over 126 million specimens of plants, fossils, rocks, human remains, human cultural artifacts, it is home to about 185 professional natural-history scientists—the largest group of scientists dedicated to the study of natural and cultural history in the world. The United States National Museum was founded in 1846 as part of the Smithsonian Institution.
The museum was housed in the Smithsonian Institution Building, better known today as the Smithsonian Castle. A formal exhibit hall opened in 1858; the growing collection led to the construction of the National Museum Building. Covering a then-enormous 2.25 acres, it was built in just 15 months at a cost of $310,000. It opened in March 1881. Congress authorized construction of a new building on June 28, 1902. On January 29, 1903, a special committee composed of members of Congress and representatives from the Smithsonian's board of regents published a report asking Congress to fund a much larger structure than planned; the regents began considering sites for the new building in March, by April 12 settled on a site on the north side of B Street NW between 9th and 12th Streets. The D. C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall was chosen to design the structure. Testing of the soil for the foundations was set for July 1903, with construction expected to take three years; the Natural History Building opened its doors to the public on March 17, 1910, in order to provide the Smithsonian Institution with more space for collections and research.
The building was not completed until June 1911. The structure cost $3.5 million dollars. The Neoclassical style building was the first structure constructed on the north side of the National Mall as part of the 1901 McMillan Commission plan. In addition to the Smithsonian's natural history collection, it housed the American history and cultural collections. Between 1981 and 2003, the National Museum of Natural History had 11 acting directors. There were six directors alone between 1990 and 2002. Turnover was high as the museum's directors were disenchanted by low levels of funding and the Smithsonian's inability to define the museum's mission. Robert W. Fri was named the museum's director in 1996. One of the largest donations in Smithsonian history was made during Fri's tenure. Kenneth E. Behring donated $20 million in 1997 to modernize the museum. Fri resigned in 2001 after disagreeing with Smithsonian leadership over the reorganization of the museum's scientific research programs. J. Dennis O'Connor, Provost of the Smithsonian Institution was named acting director of the museum on July 25, 2001.
Eight months O'Conner resigned to become the vice president of research and dean of the graduate school at the University of Maryland. Douglas Erwin, a paleontologist at the National Museum of Natural History, was appointed interim director in June 2002. In January 2003, the Smithsonian announced that Cristián Samper, a Colombian with an M. Sc. and Ph. D. from Harvard University, would become the museum's permanent director on March 31, 2003. Samper founded the Alexander von Humboldt Biological Resources Research Institute and ran the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute after 2001. Smithsonian officials said. Under Samper's direction, the museum opened the $100 million Behring Hall of Mammals in November 2003, received $60 million in 2004 for the Sant Hall of Oceans, received a $1 million gift from Tiffany & Co. for the purchase of precious gems for the National Gem Collection. On March 25, 2007, Lawrence M. Small, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution and the organization's highest-ranking appointed official, resigned abruptly after public reports of lavish spending.
On March 27, 2007 Samper was appointed Acting Secretary of the Smithsonian. Paul G. Risser, former chancellor of the University of Oklahoma, was named Acting Director of the Museum of Natural History on March 29. Samper's tenure at the museum was not without controversy. In May 2007, Robert Sullivan, the former associate director in charge of exhibitions at the National Museum of Natural History, charged that Samper and Smithsonian Undersecretary for Science David Evans ordered "last minute" changes in the exhibit "Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely" to tone down the role of human beings in the discussion of global warming, to make global warming seem more uncertain than depicted. Samper denied that he knew of any scientific objections to the changes, said that no political pressure had been applied to the Smithsonian to make the changes. In November 2007, The Washington Post reported that an interagency group of scientists from the Department of the Interior, NASA, Nati
Australopithecines are Australopithecus, it includes the earlier Ardipithecus. All these related species are now sometimes collectively classified as a subtribe of the Hominini tribe called Australopithecina, they are the extinct, close relatives of humans and, with the extant genus Homo, comprise the human clade. Members of the human clade, i.e. the Hominini after the split from the chimpanzees, are now called Hominina. The terms australopithecine, et al. come from a former classification as members of a distinct subfamily, the Australopithecinae. Members of Australopithecus are sometimes referred to as the gracile australopithecines, while Paranthropus are called the "robust australopithecines"; the australopithecines occurred in the Plio-Pleistocene era and were bipedal, they were dentally similar to humans, but with a brain size not much larger than that of modern apes, with lesser encephalization than in the genus Homo. Humans may have descended from australopithecine ancestors and the genus Ardipithecus is a possible ancestor of the australopithecines.
Phylogeny of subtribe Australopithecina according to Briggs & Crowther 2008, p. 124. Australopithecina Australopithecus Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus anamensis Australopithecus bahrelghazali Australopithecus garhi Australopithecus sediba Paranthropus Paranthropus robustus Paranthropus boisei Paranthropus aethiopicus Ardipithecus Ardipithecus ramidus Ardipithecus kadabba The post-cranial remains of australopithecines show they were adapted to bipedal locomotion, but did not walk identically to humans, they have a high brachial index when compared to other hominins, they exhibit greater sexual dimorphism than members of Homo or Pan but less so than Gorilla or Pongo. It is thought that they weighed between 30 and 55 kilograms; the brain size may have been 350 cc to 600 cc. The postcanines were large, had more enamel compared to contemporary apes and humans, whereas the incisors and canines were small, there was little difference between the males' and females' canines compared to modern apes.
Most scientists maintain that one of the australopithecine species evolved into the genus Homo in Africa around two million years ago. However, there is no consensus on which species: "Determining which species of australopithecine is ancestral to the genus Homo is a question, a top priority for many paleoanthropologists, but one that will elude any conclusive answers for years to come. Nearly every possible species has been suggested as a candidate, but none are overwhelmingly convincing. Presently, it appears that A. garhi has the potential to occupy this coveted place in paleoanthropology, but the lack of fossil evidence is a serious problem. Another problem presents itself in the fact that it has been difficult to assess which hominid represents the first member of the genus Homo. Without knowing this, it is not possible to determine which species of australopithecine may have been ancestral to Homo." Marc Verhaegen has argued that an australopithecine species could have been ancestral to the genus Pan.
A minority held viewpoint among palaeoanthropologists is that australopithecines moved outside of Africa. A notable proponent of this theory is Jens Lorenz Franzen Head of Paleoanthropology at the Research Institute Senckenberg. Franzen argues that robust australopithecines had reached not only Indonesia, as Meganthropus, but China: "In this way we arrive at the conclusion that the recognition of australopithecines in Asia would not confuse but could help to clarify the early evolution of hominids on that continent; this concept would explain the scanty remains from Java and China as relic of an Asian offshoot of an early radiation of Australopithecus, followed much by an immigration of Homo erectus, became extinct after a period of coexistence." In 1957, an Early Pleistocene Chinese fossil tooth of unknown province was described as resembling P. robustus. Three fossilized molars from Jianshi, China were identified as belonging to an Australopithecus species; however further examination questioned this interpretation.
Liu et al. dispute the Jianshi-australopithecine link and argue the Jianshi molars fall within the range of Homo erectus: "No marked difference in dental crown shape is shown between the Jianshi hominin and other Chinese Homo erectus, there is no evidence in support of the Jianshi hominin's closeness to Australopithecus." But, Wolpoff notes that in China "persistent claims of australopithecine or australopithecine-like remains continue". Informative lecture on Australopithecines
Australopithecus afarensis is an extinct hominin that lived between 3.9 and 2.9 million years ago in Africa. A. afarensis was slenderly built, like the younger Australopithecus africanus. A. afarensis is thought to be more related to the genus Homo, whether as a direct ancestor or a close relative of an unknown ancestor, than any other known primate from the same time. Some researchers include A. afarensis in the genus Praeanthropus. The most famous fossil is the partial skeleton named Lucy found by Donald Johanson and colleagues, who, in celebration of their find played the Beatles song "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds". Australopithecus afarensis. Despite Laetoli being the type locality for A. afarensis, the most extensive remains assigned to the species are found in Hadar, Afar Region of Ethiopia, including the above-mentioned "Lucy" partial skeleton and the "First Family" found at the AL 333 locality. Other localities bearing A. afarensis remains include Omo, Maka and Belohdelie in Ethiopia, Koobi Fora and Lothagam in Kenya.
Compared to the modern and extinct great apes, A. afarensis has reduced canines and molars, although they are still larger than in modern humans. A. afarensis has a small brain size and a prognathic face. Considerable debate surrounds the locomotor behaviour of A. afarensis. Some studies suggest that A. afarensis was exclusively bipedal, while others propose that the creatures were arboreal. The anatomy of the hands and shoulder joints in many ways favour the latter interpretation. In particular, the morphology of the scapula appears to be ape-like and different from modern humans; the curvature of the finger and toe bones approaches that of modern-day apes, is suggestive of their ability to efficiently grasp branches and climb. Alternatively, the loss of an abductable great toe and therefore the ability to grasp with the foot suggests A. afarensis was no longer adapted to climbing. A number of traits in the A. afarensis skeleton reflect bipedalism, to the extent some researchers have suggested bipedality evolved long before A. afarensis.
In overall anatomy, the pelvis is far more human-like than ape-like. The iliac blades are short and wide, the sacrum is wide and positioned directly behind the hip joint, evidence of a strong attachment for the knee extensors is clear. While the pelvis is not wholly human-like, these features point to a structure that can be considered radically remodeled to accommodate a significant degree of bipedalism in the animals' locomotor repertoire; the femur angles in toward the knee from the hip. This trait would have allowed the foot to have fallen closer to the midline of the body, is a strong indication of habitual bipedal locomotion; the feet feature adducted big toes, making it difficult if not impossible to grasp branches with the hindlimbs. The loss of a grasping hindlimb increases the risk of an infant being dropped or falling, as primates hold onto their mothers while the mother goes about her daily business. Without the second set of grasping limbs, the infant cannot maintain as strong a grip, had to be held with help from the mother.
The problem of holding the infant would be multiplied if the mother had to climb trees. Bones of the foot indicate bipedality. Computer simulations using dynamic modeling of the skeleton's inertial properties and kinematics suggest A. afarensis was able to walk in the same way modern humans walk, with a normal erect gait or with bent hips and knees, but could not walk in the same way as chimpanzees. The upright gait would have been much more efficient than the bent knee and hip walking, which would have taken twice as much energy. A. Afarensis was quite an efficient bipedal walker over short distances, the spacing of the footprints at Laetoli indicates they were walking at 1.0 m/s or above, which matches human small-town walking speeds. Yet, this can be questioned, as finds of Australopithecus foot bones indicate the Laetoli footprints may not have been made by Australopithecus. Many scientists doubt the suggestion of bipedalism, argue that if Australopithecus did walk on two legs, it did not walk in the same way as humans.
The presence of a wrist-locking mechanism, might suggest they engaged in knuckle-walking.. The shoulder joint is oriented much more cranially than that in modern humans, but similar to that in the present-day apes. Combined with the long arms Au. afarensis is thought to have had, this is thought by many to be reflective of a heightened ability to use the arm above the head in climbing behaviour. Furthermore, scans of the skulls reveal a canal and bony labyrinth morphology, not supportive to proper bipedal locomotion. Upright bipedal walking is thought to have evolved from knuckle-walking with bent legs, in the manner used by chimpanzees and gorillas to move around on the ground, but fossils such as Orrorin tugenensis indicate bipedalism around 5 to 8 million years ago, in the same general period when genetic studies suggest the lineage of chimpanzees and humans diverged. Modern apes and their fossil ancestors show skeletal adaptations to an upright posture used in tree-climbing, upright
Mammals are vertebrate animals constituting the class Mammalia, characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females produce milk for feeding their young, a neocortex, fur or hair, three middle ear bones. These characteristics distinguish them from reptiles and birds, from which they diverged in the late Triassic, 201–227 million years ago. There are around 5,450 species of mammals; the largest orders are the rodents and Soricomorpha. The next three are the Primates, the Cetartiodactyla, the Carnivora. In cladistics, which reflect evolution, mammals are classified as endothermic amniotes, they are the only living Synapsida. The early synapsid mammalian ancestors were sphenacodont pelycosaurs, a group that produced the non-mammalian Dimetrodon. At the end of the Carboniferous period around 300 million years ago, this group diverged from the sauropsid line that led to today's reptiles and birds; the line following the stem group Sphenacodontia split off several diverse groups of non-mammalian synapsids—sometimes referred to as mammal-like reptiles—before giving rise to the proto-mammals in the early Mesozoic era.
The modern mammalian orders arose in the Paleogene and Neogene periods of the Cenozoic era, after the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs, have been among the dominant terrestrial animal groups from 66 million years ago to the present. The basic body type is quadruped, most mammals use their four extremities for terrestrial locomotion. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm bumblebee bat to the 30-meter blue whale—the largest animal on the planet. Maximum lifespan varies from two years for the shrew to 211 years for the bowhead whale. All modern mammals give birth to live young, except the five species of monotremes, which are egg-laying mammals; the most species-rich group of mammals, the cohort called placentals, have a placenta, which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Most mammals are intelligent, with some possessing large brains, self-awareness, tool use. Mammals can communicate and vocalize in several different ways, including the production of ultrasound, scent-marking, alarm signals and echolocation.
Mammals can organize themselves into fission-fusion societies and hierarchies—but can be solitary and territorial. Most mammals are polygynous. Domestication of many types of mammals by humans played a major role in the Neolithic revolution, resulted in farming replacing hunting and gathering as the primary source of food for humans; this led to a major restructuring of human societies from nomadic to sedentary, with more co-operation among larger and larger groups, the development of the first civilizations. Domesticated mammals provided, continue to provide, power for transport and agriculture, as well as food and leather. Mammals are hunted and raced for sport, are used as model organisms in science. Mammals have been depicted in art since Palaeolithic times, appear in literature, film and religion. Decline in numbers and extinction of many mammals is driven by human poaching and habitat destruction deforestation. Mammal classification has been through several iterations since Carl Linnaeus defined the class.
No classification system is universally accepted. George Gaylord Simpson's "Principles of Classification and a Classification of Mammals" provides systematics of mammal origins and relationships that were universally taught until the end of the 20th century. Since Simpson's classification, the paleontological record has been recalibrated, the intervening years have seen much debate and progress concerning the theoretical underpinnings of systematization itself through the new concept of cladistics. Though field work made Simpson's classification outdated, it remains the closest thing to an official classification of mammals. Most mammals, including the six most species-rich orders, belong to the placental group; the three largest orders in numbers of species are Rodentia: mice, porcupines, beavers and other gnawing mammals. The next three biggest orders, depending on the biological classification scheme used, are the Primates including the apes and lemurs. According to Mammal Species of the World, 5,416 species were identified in 2006.
These were grouped into 153 families and 29 orders. In 2008, the International Union for Conservation of Nature completed a five-year Global Mammal Assessment for its IUCN Red List, which counted 5,488 species. According to a research published in the Journal of Mammalogy in 2018, the number of recognized mammal species is 6,495 species included 96 extinct; the word "mammal" is modern, from the scientific name Mammalia coined by Carl Linnaeus in 1758, derived from the Latin mamma. In an influential 1988 paper, Timothy Rowe defined Mammalia phylogenetically as the crown group of mammals, the clade consisting of the most recent common ancestor of living monotremes and therian m
Yves Coppens is a French anthropologist and co-discoverer of the fossil known as "Lucy". A graduate from the University of Rennes, he has studied ancient hominids and has had multiple published works on this topic, has produced a film. On Saturday, 18 October 2014, Professor Coppens was named an Ordinary Member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences by Pope Francis. Coppens is one of the co-discoverers of Lucy along with Maurice Taieb. However, Richard Dawkins makes the following observation in The Ancestor's Tale: "Incidentally, I don't know what to make of the fact that in his native France, Yves Coppens is cited as the discoverer of Lucy as the'father' of Lucy. In the English-speaking world, this important discovery is universally attributed to Donald Johanson"; this confusion is. Donald Johanson, who lead the 1974 expedition, was the one; the "Rift Valley theory", proposed and supported by the Dutch primatologist Adriaan Kortlandt, became better known when it was espoused and renamed by Coppens as the "East Side Story".
However, this paradigm has been challenged by the discovery of Australopithecus bahrelghazali and Sahelanthropus tchadensis by Michel Brunet's team in Toumaï in Chad (2,500 km to west Rift Valley The main-belt asteroid 172850 Coppens was named in his honour. The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 21 March 2008. Yves Coppens chaired the commission which wrote the French Charter for the Environment of 2004. A Species Odyssey Lexnews Magazine interview with Yves Coppens
Homininae called "African hominids" or "African apes", is a subfamily of Hominidae. It includes two tribes, with their extant as well as extinct species: 1) the Hominini tribe ―and 2) the Gorillini tribe. Alternatively, the genus Pan is sometimes considered to belong to Panini. Homininae comprises all hominids; the Homininae cladogram has three main branches, which lead to gorillas, to humans and chimpanzees via the tribe Hominini and subtribes Hominina and Panina. There are two living species of Panina and two living species of gorillas, but only one extant human species. Traces of hypothetical Homo species, including Homo floresiensis and Homo denisova, have been found with dates as recent as 40,000 years ago. Organisms in this subfamily are described as hominine or hominines; until 1980, the family Hominidae meant humans only. Discoveries led to revised classifications, with the great apes united with humans as members of family Hominidae Further discoveries indicated that gorillas and chimpanzees are more related to humans than they are to orangutans, leading to their placement in subfamily Homininae as well.
The subfamily Homininae can be further subdivided into three branches: the tribe Gorillini, the tribe Hominini with subtribes Panina and Hominina. The Late Miocene fossil Nakalipithecus nakayamai, described in 2007, is a basal member of this clade, as is its contemporary Ouranopithecus, their existence suggests that the Homininae tribes diverged not earlier than about 8 million years ago. Today and gorillas live in tropical forests with acid soils that preserve fossils. Although no fossil gorillas have been reported, four chimpanzee teeth about 500,000 years old have been discovered in the East-African rift valley, where many fossils from the human lineage have been found; this shows. Homininae Udabnopithecus† Udabnopithecus garedziensis Tribe Dryopithecini† Oreopithecus Oreopithecus bambolii Nakalipithecus † Nakalipithecus nakayamai Anoiapithecus † Anoiapithecus brevirostris Dryopithecus † Dryopithecus wuduensis Dryopithecus fontani Hispanopithecus † Hispanopithecus laietanus Hispanopithecus crusafonti Neopithecus † Neopithecus brancoi Pierolapithecus† Pierolapithecus catalaunicus Rudapithecus† Rudapithecus hungaricus Samburupithecus† Samburupithecus kiptalami Tribe Gorillini Chororapithecus † Chororapithecus abyssinicus Genus Gorilla Western gorilla, Gorilla gorilla Western lowland gorilla, Gorilla gorilla gorilla Cross River gorilla, Gorilla gorilla diehli Eastern gorilla, Gorilla beringei Mountain gorilla, Gorilla beringei beringei Eastern lowland gorilla, Gorilla beringei graueri Tribe Hominini Sahelanthropus† Sahelanthropus tchadensis Orrorin† Orrorin tugenensis Subtribe Panina Genus Pan Chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes Central chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes troglodytes Western chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes verus Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes ellioti Eastern chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii Bonobo, Pan paniscus Subtribe Hominina Graecopithecus † Graecopithecus freybergi.
Note: Graecopithecus has been subsumed by other authors into Dryopithecus. The placement of Graecopithecus within the Hominina, as shown here, represents a hypothesis, but not scientific consensus. Ardipithecus† Ardipithecus ramidus Ardipithecus kadabba Kenyanthropus† Kenyanthropus platyops Praeanthropus†Praeanthropus bahrelghazali Praeanthropus anamensis Praeanthropus afarensis Australopithecus† Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus garhi Australopithecus sediba Paranthropus† Paranthropus aethiopicus Paranthropus robustus Paranthropus boisei Homo – immediate ancestors of modern humans Homo gautengensis† Homo rudolfensis† Homo habilis† Homo floresiensis† Homo erectus† Homo ergaster† Homo antecessor† Homo heidelbergensis† Homo cepranensis† Denisovans † Homo neanderthalensis† Homo rhodesiensis† Homo sapiens Anatomically modern human, Homo sapiens sapiens Homo sapiens idaltu† Archaic Homo sapiens † Red Deer Cave people† The age of the subfamily Homininae is estimated at some 14 to 12.5 million years.
Its separation into Gorillini and Hominini is estimated to have occurred at about 8 to 10 million years ago during the late Miocene, close to the age of Nakalipithecus nakayamai. There is evidence there was interbreeding of Gorillas and the Pan-Homo ancestors until right up to the Pan-Homo split. Recent studies of Ardipithecus ramidus and Orrorin tugenensis suggest some degree of bipedalism. Australopit