Lu Ronghua

Lu Ronghua is a Chinese male racewalker who competed in the 20 kilometres race walk. He was the 2005 champion in that event at the Asian Athletics Championships. Lu had his first international success at the 2002 World Junior Championships in Athletics, where he was the bronze medallist in the 10,000 metres race walk behind Russian Vladimir Kanaykin and fellow Chinese Xu Xingde, he competed on the IAAF Race Walking Challenge in 2004, taking fourth in the Kunshan 20 km walk just one second off his personal best with a time of 1:20:55 hours. He finished the distance in under one hour twenty minutes at the start of the 2005 season, crossing the line in a much improved time of 1:18:50 hours to place runner-up at the Dudinska Patdesiatka, he was sixth against an international field at the Grande Prémio Internacional de Rio Maior em Marcha Atlética and set a new best in the 50 kilometres race walk at 3:45:05 hours. This built up to his selection for the 2005 Asian Athletics Championships where he defeated South Korea's Kim Hyun-sub to take the gold medal.

In 2006 he failed to improve, having a season's best of only 1:21:48 hours and he ranked 27th at the 2006 IAAF World Race Walking Cup, leaving China in fourth place in the men's team rankings. He set a time of 1:20:16 hours in Shenzhen in 2007 but again fell to a lower standard at the 2008 IAAF World Race Walking Cup, finishing in 1:22:41 hours in 26th place; the Chinese men's team fared worse than two years earlier as Lu was the second highest finisher, after Han Yucheng in 22nd. After a time of 1:22:16 hours in Jinan in 2009, he ceased competing at a high level. Lu Ronghua at World Athletics

A. L. Kroeber

Alfred Louis Kroeber was an American cultural anthropologist. He received his PhD under Franz Boas at Columbia University in 1901, the first doctorate in anthropology awarded by Columbia, he was the first professor appointed to the Department of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley. He played an integral role in the early days of its Museum of Anthropology, where he served as director from 1909 through 1947. Kroeber provided detailed information about Ishi, the last surviving member of the Yahi people, whom he studied over a period of years, he was the father of the acclaimed novelist and writer of short stories Ursula K. Le Guin. Kroeber was born in Hoboken, New Jersey, to upper middle-class parents: Florence Kroeber, who immigrated at the age of 10 to the United States with his parents and family from Germany, Johanna Muller, of German descent, his family moved into New York when Alfred was quite young, he was tutored and attended private schools there. He had three younger siblings and all had scholarly interests.

The family was bilingual, speaking German at home, Kroeber began to study Latin and Greek in school, beginning a lifelong interest in languages. He attended Columbia College at the age of 16, joining the Philolexian Society and earning an AB in English in 1896 and an MA in Romantic drama in 1897. Changing fields to the new one of anthropology, he received his PhD under Franz Boas at Columbia University in 1901, basing his 28-page dissertation on decorative symbolism on his field work among the Arapaho, it was the first doctorate in anthropology awarded by Columbia. Kroeber spent most of his career in California at the University of California, Berkeley, he was both a Professor of Anthropology and the Director of what was the University of California Museum of Anthropology. The anthropology department's headquarters building at the University of California is named Kroeber Hall in his honor, he was associated with Berkeley until his retirement in 1946. Kroeber married Henrietta Rothschild in 1906.

She died in 1913, after several years of illness. In 1926 he married again, to Theodora Kracaw Brown, a widow whom he met as a student in one of his graduate seminars, they had two children: Karl Kroeber, a literary critic, the science fiction writer Ursula Kroeber Le Guin. In addition, Alfred adopted Theodora's sons by her first marriage and Clifton Brown, who both took his surname. In 2003, Clifton and Karl Kroeber published a book of essays on Ishi's story, which they co-edited, Ishi in Three Centuries; this is the first scholarly book on Ishi to contain essays by academics. Alfred Kroeber died in Paris on October 5, 1960. Although he is known as a cultural anthropologist, he did significant work in archaeology and anthropological linguistics, he contributed to anthropology by making connections between archaeology and culture, he conducted excavations in New Mexico and Peru. In Peru he helped found the Institute for Andean Studies with the Peruvian anthropologist Julio C. Tello and other major scholars.

Kroeber and his students did important work collecting cultural data on western tribes of Native Americans. The work done in preserving information about California tribes appeared in Handbook of the Indians of California. In that book, Kroeber first described a pattern in California groups where a social unit was smaller and less hierarchically organized than a tribe, elaborated upon in The Patwin and their Neighbors in which Kroeber first coined the term "tribelet" to describe this level of organization. Kroeber is credited with developing the concepts of culture area, cultural configuration, cultural fatigue. Kroeber's influence was so strong that many contemporaries adopted his style of beard and mustache as well as his views as a cultural historian. During his lifetime, he was known as the "Dean of American Anthropologists". Kroeber and Roland B. Dixon were influential in the genetic classification of Native American languages in North America, being responsible for theoretical groupings such as Penutian and Hokan, based on common languages.

He is noted for working with Ishi, claimed to be the last California Yahi Indian. His second wife, Theodora Kracaw Kroeber, wrote a well-known biography of Ishi in Two Worlds. Kroeber's relationship with Ishi was the subject of a film, The Last of His Tribe, starring Jon Voight as Kroeber and Graham Greene as Ishi. Kroeber's textbook, was used for many years. In the late 1940s, it was one of ten books required as reading for all students during their first year at Columbia University, his book, Configurations of Cultural Growth, had a lasting impact on social scientific research on genius and greatness. Kroeber served early on as the plaintiffs' director of research in Indians of California v. the United States, a land claim case. His associate director and the director of research for the federal government in the case had both been students of his: Omer Stewart of the University of Colorado, Ralph Beals of the University of California, Los Angeles, respectively. Kroeber's impact on the Indian Claims Commission may well have established the way expert witnesses presented testimony before the tribunal.

Several of his former students served as expert witnesses.