click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Austrian Parliament Building

The Austrian Parliament Building in Vienna is where the two houses of the Austrian Parliament conduct their sessions. The building is located on the Ringstraße boulevard in the first district Innere Stadt, near Hofburg Palace and the Palace of Justice, it was built to house the two chambers of the Imperial Council, the bicameral legislature of the Cisleithanian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Since its construction, the Parliament Building has been the seat of these two houses, their successors—the National Council and the Federal Council —of the Austrian legislature; the foundation stone was laid in 1874. The architect responsible for its Greek Revival style was Theophil Hansen, he designed the building holistically. He was therefore responsible for the interior decoration, such as statues, furniture and numerous other elements. Hansen was honored by Emperor Franz Joseph with the title of Freiherr after its completion. Following heavy damage and destruction in World War II, most of the interior has been restored to its original splendour.

The parliament building covers over 13,500 square meters, making it one of the largest structures on Ringstraße. It contains over one hundred rooms, the most important of which are the Chambers of the National Council, the Federal Council, the former Imperial House of Representatives; the building includes committee rooms, lobbies, dining rooms and gymnasiums. One of the building's most famous features is the Pallas Athena fountain in front of the main entrance, built by Carl Kundmann after plans from Hansen, from 1898 to 1902 and it is a notable Viennese tourist attraction; the Parliament Building is the site of important state ceremonies, most notably the swearing-in ceremony of the President of Austria and the state speech on National Day each October 26. The building is associated with the two parliamentary bodies, as is shown by the use of the term Hohes Haus as a metonym for "Parliament". Parliamentary offices spill over into nearby buildings, such as the Palais Epstein; the constitution known as the February Patent promulgated in 1861 created an Imperial Council as an Austrian legislature, a new building had to be constructed to house this constitutional organ.

The original plan was to construct two separate buildings, one for the House of Lords and one for the House of Deputies. However, after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise which created the Dual-Monarchy in 1867, the Kingdom of Hungary received its own separate legislative body, the re-established Diet, the original plan for two buildings was dropped; the precursor to the present building was the temporary House of Representatives, located on Währinger Straße, a street off the newly laid out Ringstraße boulevard. It was erected within six weeks in March and April 1861 according to plans designed by Ferdinand Fellner, a famous Austrian theatre architect. In its layout with a ramp and a lobby area, the Abgeordnetenhaus was a model for the Parliament Building. Completed on 25 April 1861 this temporary structure was opened by Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, soon afterwards mocked Schmerlingtheater, after Minister Anton von Schmerling, it was used by the deputies of Cisleithania until the completion of the present-day parliament building in 1883, while the House of Lords met at the Estates House of Lower Austria the seat of the Lower Austrian Landtag assembly.

The site for the new building was on the city's ancient walls. In his famous decree Es ist Mein Wille of 1857, Emperor Franz Joseph I had laid down plans for the Ringstraße to replace the old city walls; the parliament building was supposed to feature prominently on the boulevard, in close proximity to Hofburg Palace and the Vienna City Hall. An Imperial Commission was appointed to consider a design for a Parliament building. Influenced by the industrialist and politician Nikolaus Dumba, the Commission decided that its style should be classical, the argument being that classical Greek architecture was appropriate for a Parliament because of the connection to the Ancient Greeks and the ideal of democracy. After studying rival proposals, the Imperial Commission chose the plan by Theophil Hansen, who could rely on his drafts for Zappeion Hall in Athens. In 1869 the k.k. Ministry of the Interior gave von Hansen the order to design the new Austrian parliament building. Ground was broken in June 1874.

At the same time, work commenced on the nearby Kunsthistorisches Museum and Naturhistorisches Museum on Maria-Theresien-Platz, the City Hall, the University. In November 1883 the offices of the House of Representatives were put to use. On 4 December 1883 the House of Representatives held its first session under its president, Franz Smolka. On 16 December 1884 the House of Lords under its president, Count Trauttmansdorff, held its first session. Both chambers would continue to meet in the building until the end of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918; the official name of the building was Reichsratsgebäude, the street behind the building, the Reichsratsstraße, still recalls this former name. The word "Parliament" however was in use since the beginning as well; the building saw tumultuous years during the late years of the declining multi-ethnic Austrian monarchy stretching from Dalmatia to Bukovina, as the House of Representatives was fractious with tensions among liberals and conservatives, German nationalists and Young Czech d

Barry George

Barry Michael George is a British man, found guilty of the murder of British television presenter Jill Dando, whose conviction was subsequently overturned on appeal. Dando's profile and popularity ensured high public interest in the case; when no motive could be found, no evidence emerged from criminals or British intelligence of a contract or conspiracy to kill Dando, police began to reassess evidence, set aside at the start of the inquiry. George was in the area at the time, sought to plant false alibis, had a history of violence and stalking women, took photos of female TV presenters and despite denials was found to have possessed a gun. However, when arrested a year after the murder, the only non-circumstantial evidence was a single particle of firearm discharge residue—a speck that matched the ammunition used in the killing, he was convicted of murder, but the forensic evidence was discounted and his conviction was subsequently judged unsafe by the Court of Appeal, was quashed in 2007.

After a retrial, he was acquitted on 1 August 2008. His claims for compensation for wrongful imprisonment have been dismissed. Barry George was born in London, his parents had married in July 1954. He was the youngest of three children, his sister Michelle Diskin, who lives in Ireland, is five years older. George has epilepsy, his parents divorced in December 1973. At 14, George attended the publicly funded Heathermount boarding school in Sunningdale, for children with emotional and behavioural difficulties. After leaving school without qualifications, his only employment was as a messenger at BBC Television Centre on a fixed term contract for six months, his interest in the BBC endured until his arrest. George has exhibited an interest in celebrities. George adopted several pseudonyms, starting at school, where he used the name Paul Gadd, the real name of singer Gary Glitter. In 1980, after George failed in his attempt to join the Metropolitan Police, he posed as a policeman, having obtained false warrant cards.

For this he was prosecuted. In May 1980, he appeared in court clad in glam rock clothing and untruthfully stated his name to be Paul Gadd, stated his occupation as'unemployed musician' and former managing director of a company that handled three rock bands. At Kingston Magistrates' Court he was convicted and fined £25. In the early 1980s he appeared in a local newspaper claiming to be the winner of the British Karate Championship, he gave his name as Paul Gadd and his occupation as'a singer with the band Xanadu and a session musician with the Electric Light Orchestra'. He was exposed as a fraud by another newspaper, he assumed the identity of the cousin of Electric Light Orchestra singer Jeff Lynne and created a fictional company called Xanadu Constructional and Mechanical Engineers. In 1980, George was discharged the following year, he adopted the persona of SAS member Tom Palmer, one of the soldiers who ended the 1980 Iranian Embassy Siege. George was charged with two counts of indecent assault in June 1981.

He claimed to be a stuntman. In March 1983 George was convicted at the Old Bailey under the pseudonym of Steve Majors for the February 1982 attempted rape of a woman in Acton, for which he served 18 months of a 33-month sentence. On 10 January 1983, as was revealed after his arrest for the Dando murder, George had been found in the grounds of Kensington Palace, at that time the home of Prince Charles and Diana, Princess of Wales, he had been discovered hiding in the grounds wearing a balaclava and carrying a poem he had written to Prince Charles. On 2 May 1989 at Fulham register office, George married a 35-year-old Japanese student, Itsuko Toide, in what Toide described as a marriage "of convenience – but nonetheless violent and terrifying". After four months she reported to the police. On 29 October 1989, George was arrested and charged, but the case was dropped and did not go to court. In April 1990, again in January 1992, George was arrested and charged with indecent assault. Neither case went to court.

Before his trial for the Dando murder, George was diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. Prosecution psychologists studying George concluded that he had several different personality disorders: antisocial, histrionic and paranoid, as well as somatization and factitious disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, he was said to be epileptic and to have an IQ of 75. George has been likened to a "lone obsessive, Walter Mitty-type figure" for his desire to impersonate famous figures. Jill Dando was shot dead outside her home on 26 April 1999. George was arrested for her murder on 25 May 2000, charged on 29 May 2000, he was convicted by a majority of 10 to one, given a sentence of life imprisonment on 2 July 2001. This verdict was considered unsafe by some obse

Cotangent bundle

In mathematics differential geometry, the cotangent bundle of a smooth manifold is the vector bundle of all the cotangent spaces at every point in the manifold. It may be described as the dual bundle to the tangent bundle; this may be generalized to categories with more structure than smooth manifolds, such as complex manifolds, or algebraic varieties or schemes. In the smooth case, any Riemannian metric or symplectic form gives an isomorphism between the cotangent bundle and the tangent bundle, but they are not in general isomorphic in other categories. Let M be a smooth manifold and let M×M be the Cartesian product of M with itself; the diagonal mapping Δ sends a point p in M to the point of M×M. The image of Δ is called the diagonal. Let I be the sheaf of germs of smooth functions on M×M which vanish on the diagonal; the quotient sheaf I / I 2 consists of equivalence classes of functions which vanish on the diagonal modulo higher order terms. The cotangent sheaf is defined as the pullback of this sheaf to M: Γ T ∗ M = Δ ∗.

By Taylor's theorem, this is a locally free sheaf of modules with respect to the sheaf of germs of smooth functions of M. Thus it defines a vector bundle on M: the cotangent bundle. Smooth sections of the cotangent bundle are called one-forms. A smooth morphism ϕ: M → N of manifolds, induces a pullback sheaf ϕ ∗ T ∗ N on M. There is an induced map of vector bundles ϕ ∗ → T ∗ M; the tangent bundle of the vector space R n is T R n = R n × R n, the cotangent bundle is T ∗ R n = R n × ∗, where ∗ denotes the dual space of covectors, linear functions v ∗: R n → R. Given a smooth manifold M ⊂ R n embedded as the vanishing locus of a smooth function f, its tangent bundle is: T M =, where d f x is the covector defined by the directional derivative d f x = ∂ f ∂ v = ∇ f ⋅ v, its cotangent bundle consists of pairs, where f = 0 and we take the covector v ∗ in the quotient space of ∗ modulo the line generated by d f x. Of course, the dot product identifies the quotient space ∗ / R d f x with the orthogonal space to the gradient ∇ f, so the two bundles are isomorphic.

For example, let M be the 3-sphere given by the vanishing locus of x 2 + y 2 + z 2 + w 2 = 1 in R 4. Its tangent bundle is the set of with x

Katabangan language

Katabangan is an extinct Aeta language, spoken in the Bondoc Peninsula of Quezon Province, southern Luzon in the Philippines. It is misspelled "Katabaga" in Ethnologue; the Katabangan have switched to Tagalog. Katabangan is used by some people in the Bikol Region to refer to mixed-blood Agta. Zubiri believes it is related to Agta of the Lopez-Guinayangan area, to the Manide of western and central Camarines Norte; the language was listed by Garvan. Katabaga is in fact a misspelling of Katabangan, the name that the people use to refer to themselves; some people in the Bikol Region use the term Katabangan to refer to mixed-blood Agta in the region. Lobel reports from a 2006 visit. According to Lobel, if the Katabangan did in fact speak one of the Philippine Negrito languages before, it would have been related to Agta of the Lopez-Guinayangan area or to Manide based on its present-day location. Louward Allen Zubiri reports; the community was granted an ancestral domain title by the government of the Philippines in 2015.

There are families living in Mulanay, Gumaca and Alabat. Zubiri compares a few Katabagan lexical items remembered by elders and notes clear similarities with Inagta Alabat and Manide

Alcuin College, York

Alcuin College is a college of the University of York located on Siward's Howe. It is one out of 9 colleges at the university, being the nearest to the library on the Heslington West part of the campus. Alcuin College is one of the University of York's first colleges, established in 1967 alongside Vanbrugh College, it was opened in 1969 by Lord Clark, the Chancellor of the University. It is located on Siward's Howe, it is believed to be the burial site of Eric Bloodaxe, King of Northumbria and of Norway. From early days of the college an uproar for secession of the college from the remainder of the university has been present, it is a self-styled Separatist Movement and at times presented as a running gag at the University of York about Alcuinites. For many years Alcuin College was much the outcast on the university campus, the only college physically separate from the others except for a bridge from the library, a narrow bridge from Langwith and a walkway to the chemistry department. Overlooking University Road was Alcuin's bar.

In 1995 this was transformed from a traditional British pub style bar to a 1950s American theme bar - the only themed college bar on campus. The bar was decorated in American 1950s paraphanelia such as busts of Marilyn Monroe and a full-size pink cadillac that appeared to be crashing through the wall; the bar's terrace was immensely popular with students in the summer. The bar incorporated a burger bar and the staff all wore uniforms of stripes. In the new century, the bar was renamed B Henry's, after Brian Henry, a college porter of many years who had retired, on opening was immensely popular despite its distant location compared to the rest of campus. In 2007 the bar once again went under transformation; the Cocktail Bar". In 2008, a move by commercial services to close B Henry's triggered a large campaign to save the bar; this campaign had the backing of the whole college and the students union as a whole, but it was unsuccessful. In 2013, the Student Union named it The Kitchen at Alcuin. Most The Kitchen at Alcuin has taken to being open longer hours, now closing at 8pm and having a pizza'dinner' style menu.

Recent events such as YUSU's Keep Cool at exam time campaign, the Alcuin 50th Anniversary and Envirocuin have seen The Kitchen at Alcuin being used as a more general venue for activities outside of normal opening hours. Sometimes referred to as the "Ensuite-Elite", Alcuin is best known for the ensuite bathrooms that come as standard with every room and the general quality of the rooms, most of which were built, it does not possess a bar, but has two food venues, the Alcuin Bistro and The Kitchen at Alcuin café. The college accommodation is divided into blocks. There are several teaching blocks and is home of several departments including Economics and Chemistry, as well as the University Library. Following Vanbrugh B and C block's conversion to offices, the uprooted residents moved to the newly made P and Q blocks and referred to themselves as Valcuin members. In addition to P and Q blocks, a new JCR building was built, an extra launderette near the JCR; the JCR was opened in May 2006, six months than planned.

The Seebohm Rowntree Building was added in 2002, contains teaching facilities. Like the other York colleges, Alcuin has its own Student Association; the Student Association takes on the responsibility of the day-to-day running of the college activities and is responsible for supporting students, providing social and cultural activities and developing the College community. The 2018 CSAC committee executive are: Emily Ferriby-Gotts, President Bethan Williams, Secretary Matt Heslop, Treasurer Ellie Cummings, VP for Events Lucy Horsnell, VP for Wellbeing and Support Jessamy Ahmed, VP for Business and Marketing Sandhiya Chavda, VP for Ethics and Activities Alcuin College is notable for hosting many popular student events; the CSAC hosts its regular pub quizzes at the local campus bar. Over the past years the Alcuin CSAC have branded their events by incorporating'AL' into the title, examples include'TropicAL','AnimAL' and TerritoriAL'. More however, this tradition has been discarded with the coming in of newer CSACs.

Popular past events include'Das Sexy Sexy German Teckno Disko Party' and its subsequent follow ups'Das Sexy Sexy German Teckno Disko Party' parts zwei, vier and fünf. Continuing with a music theme Alcuin has introduced Alcuin Live Lounge over the past few years, where current and ex-students of Alcuin attend The Kitchen at Alcuin for a chilled night of live music given by students and members of the community. Alcuin hosts a yearly winter ball, the most attended Alcuin event of the year. Traditionally a spring ball was held with the most recent being a Masquerade ball in 2017, however 2018 saw the introduction of a new Alcuin led event,'Event X,' whereby the event is to change theme each year but be held on campus as an alternative to a formal in the Spring Term; the first Event X: Prom was a success bringing together not only students from Alcuin, but other colleges in Hendrix Hall with free Pic'N'Mix and a live student band. Event X Titles 2018.

Merlin (poem)

Merlin is a lost epic poem of the Arthurian legend in which the French knight-poet Robert de Boron reworked Geoffrey of Monmouth's material about the legendary figure of Merlin, writing in Old French sometime in either the late 12th or early 13th century. Merlin tells the stories of the origin and early life of Merlin, his role in the birth of Arthur, how Arthur became the king of Britain, it emphasises Merlin's power to prophesy as well as his connection to the Holy Grail. Merlin introduced a number of new motifs that became popular in medieval and Arthuriana ensuring the lasting place of Merlin as a key character in the story of King Arthur; the story of Merlin is related to Robert's two other poems that feature Merlin as an integral character. Its medieval prose retelling and its continuations, collectively known as the Prose Merlin were incorporated directly into the Vulgate and the Post-Vulgate cycles of French chivalric romances during the early 13th century. Writing Merlin, Robert de Boron seems to have been by Wace's Roman de Brut, an Anglo-Norman adaptation of Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae.

The poem is an allegorical tale. Only 504 lines of Merlin in its original poem form have survived to this day, but its contents are known from the prose version. Together with the other poems attributed to Robert de Boron, the surviving Joseph and the lost Perceval, it forms a trilogy centered around the Holy Grail. In all of Robert's works, Merlin's part and role in the Arthurian legend becomes much greater than in previous texts when compared to only one minor appearance among all five Arthurian works of Chrétien de Troyes, his "Little Grail Cycle" tells the story of the Arthurian myth as rewritten for the Holy Grail: brought from the Middle East to Britain by followers of Joseph of Arimathea, the Grail is recovered by Arthur's knight Percival as foretold in one of the prophecies in Merlin. In an alternate theory postulated by Linda Gowans against the accepted conventional scholarship of Merlin, prose version is the original one and the poem is unfinished because its author has given up on it.

She furthermore doubted Robert's authorship of either. Note: All names and events as in the Middle English anonymous prose version; the first part introduces the character of Blaise, a cleric and clerk, pictured as writing down Merlin's deeds, explaining how they came to be known and preserved. The text claims that it is only his translation of a Latin book written by a Blaise as dictated to him by Merlin himself. Merlin begins with the scene of a council of demons plotting to create the future Merlin as their agent on Earth to undo the work of Christ, but their plan is foiled and the mother names the child Merlin after her father, it continues with the story of the usurper king Vortiger and his tower, featuring the seven-year-old Merlin with amazing prophetic powers. Following Vortiger's death, which Merlin predicted, he assists the new king Pendragon and his brother Uter in their bloody war against Saxon invaders erecting Stonehenge as burial place for the fallen Britons and inspiring the creation of the Round Table.

This is followed by the account of Uter's war with the Duke of Tintagel for the latter's wife Ygerne, during which Merlin's magic, including many instances of shapeshifting, enables Uter to sleep with Ygerne and conceive Arthur, destined to become the Emperor of Rome. After Uter kills his rival and forcibly marries Ygerne, the newborn Arthur is given into the foster care of Antor, while Ygerne's daughters from the previous marriage are wed to King Lot and King Ventres, her illegitimate daughter Morgan is sent away to a nunnery and becomes known as Morgan le Fay; the poem seems to have ended with the "sword in the stone" story, in which Arthur proves he is to become Britain's high king by a divine destiny. This has been the first instance of this motif to appear in Arthurian literature; the following is the complete text of the mid-15th-century English translation, with modern conventions for punctuation and capitalization, of the prose version: The Birth of Merlin Vortiger's Tower Vortiger's Demise.

It is uncertainly associated with an anonymous romance known as Ditot Perceval, which contains elements from Chrétien de Troyes' own unfinished Perceval and its Second Continuation. It might be a reworked prose'translation' of Robert's poem or just an unofficial attempt to complete the trilogy, appearing in only two of the many surviving manuscripts of the prose renditions of Merlin, one of which claims it was the work of Blase as dictated by Merlin himself, it includes a separate section known as the Mort Artu a further continuation, seems to have in turn served as a source for such works as Perlesvaus. The poem Merlin itself was recast into prose c. 1210 as the Pro