Industrial engineering is a branch of engineering which deals with the optimization of complex processes, systems or organizations. Industrial engineers work to eliminate waste of time, materials, man-hours, machine time, according to the Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers, they figure out how to do things better, they engineer processes and systems that improve quality and productivity. Some engineering universities and educational agencies around the world have changed the term industrial to broader terms such as production or systems, the various topics concerning industrial engineers include, Process engineering, operation and optimization of chemical and biological processes. Systems engineering, a field of engineering that focuses on how to design. Safety engineering, a discipline which assures that engineered systems provide acceptable levels of safety. Value engineering, a method to improve the value of goods or products. Quality engineering, a way of preventing mistakes or defects in manufactured products, Project management, is the process and activity of planning, organizing and controlling resources and protocols to achieve specific goals in scientific or daily problems.
It includes the movement and storage of raw materials, work-in-process inventory, the practice of designing products, systems or processes to take proper account of the interaction between them and the people that use them. Logistics, the management of the flow of goods between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to some requirements. Many of the tools and principles of engineering can be applied to the configuration of work activities within a project. The application of engineering and operations management concepts and techniques to the execution of projects has been thus referred to as Project Production Management. Traditionally, an aspect of industrial engineering was planning the layouts of factories and designing assembly lines. And now, in manufacturing systems, industrial engineers work to eliminate wastes of time, materials, energy. There is a consensus among a historian that the roots of the Industrial Engineering Profession date back to the Industrial Revolution.
The concept of the system had its genesis in the factories created by these innovations. Eli Whitney and Simeon North proved the feasibility of the notion of Interchangeable parts in the manufacture of muskets, under this system, individual parts were mass-produced to tolerances to enable their use in any finished product. The result was a significant reduction in the need for skill from specialized workers, frederick Taylor is generally credited as being the father of the Industrial Engineering discipline. He earned a degree in engineering from Stevens University
Horsepower is a unit of measurement of power. There are many different standards and types of horsepower, two common definitions being used today are the mechanical horsepower, which is approximately 746 watts, and the metric horsepower, which is approximately 735.5 watts. The term was adopted in the late 18th century by Scottish engineer James Watt to compare the output of engines with the power of draft horses. It was expanded to include the power of other types of piston engines, as well as turbines, electric motors. The definition of the unit varied among geographical regions, most countries now use the SI unit watt for measurement of power. With the implementation of the EU Directive 80/181/EEC on January 1,2010, units called horsepower have differing definitions, The mechanical horsepower, known as imperial horsepower equals approximately 745.7 watts. It was defined originally as exactly 550 foot-pounds per second [745.7 N. m/s), the metric horsepower equals approximately 735.5 watts. It was defined originally as 75 kgf-m per second is approximately equivalent to 735.5 watts, the Pferdestärke PS is a name for a group of similar power measurements used in Germany around the end of the 19th century, all of about one metric horsepower in size.
The boiler horsepower equals 9809.5 watts and it was used for rating steam boilers and is equivalent to 34.5 pounds of water evaporated per hour at 212 degrees Fahrenheit. One horsepower for rating electric motors is equal to 746 watts, one horsepower for rating Continental European electric motors is equal to 735 watts. Continental European electric motors used to have dual ratings, one British Royal Automobile Club horsepower can equal a range of values based on estimates of several engine dimensions. It is one of the tax horsepower systems adopted around Europe, the development of the steam engine provided a reason to compare the output of horses with that of the engines that could replace them. He had previously agreed to take royalties of one third of the savings in coal from the older Newcomen steam engines and this royalty scheme did not work with customers who did not have existing steam engines but used horses instead. Watt determined that a horse could turn a mill wheel 144 times in an hour, the wheel was 12 feet in radius, the horse travelled 2.4 × 2π ×12 feet in one minute.
Watt judged that the horse could pull with a force of 180 pounds-force. So, P = W t = F d t =180 l b f ×2.4 ×2 π ×12 f t 1 m i n =32,572 f t ⋅ l b f m i n. Watt defined and calculated the horsepower as 32,572 ft·lbf/min, Watt determined that a pony could lift an average 220 lbf 100 ft per minute over a four-hour working shift. Watt judged a horse was 50% more powerful than a pony, engineering in History recounts that John Smeaton initially estimated that a horse could produce 22,916 foot-pounds per minute
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
His assassination in Sarajevo precipitated Austria-Hungarys declaration of war against Serbia. This caused the Central Powers and Serbias allies to declare war on each other, Franz Ferdinand was born in Graz, the eldest son of Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria and of his second wife, Princess Maria Annunciata of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. In 1875, when he was eleven years old, his cousin Duke Francis V of Modena died. Franz Ferdinand thus became one of the wealthiest men in Austria, in 1889, Franz Ferdinands life changed dramatically. His cousin Crown Prince Rudolf committed suicide at his lodge in Mayerling. This left Franz Ferdinands father, Karl Ludwig, as first in line to the throne, Karl Ludwig died of typhoid fever in 1896. Henceforth, Franz Ferdinand was groomed to succeed to the throne, despite this burden, he did manage to find time for travel and personal pursuits, such as the trip round the world he embarked on in 1892. After visiting India he spent time hunting kangaroos and emus in Australia in 1893, travelled on to Nouméa, New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, New Guinea, Hong Kong and Japan.
After sailing across the Pacific on the RMS Empress of China from Yokohama to Vancouver he crossed the United States and this caused both barrels of the gun he was carrying to be discharged, the shot passing within a few feet of the archduke and myself. I have often wondered whether the Great War might not have been averted, or at least postponed, had the archduke met his death there, Franz Ferdinand had a fondness for trophy hunting that was excessive even by the standards of European nobility of this time. In his diaries he kept track of an estimated 300,000 game kills,5,000 of which were deer, about 100,000 trophies were on exhibit at his Bohemian castle at Konopiště which he stuffed with various antiquities, his other great passion. Franz Ferdinand, like most males in the ruling Habsburg line and he was frequently and rapidly promoted, given the rank of lieutenant at age fourteen, captain at twenty-two, colonel at twenty-seven, and major general at thirty-one. While never receiving formal training, he was considered eligible for command.
He exerted influence on the armed forces even when he did not hold a command through a military chancery that produced and received documents. This was headed by Alexander Brosch von Aarenau and eventually employed a staff of sixteen and his authority was reinforced in 1907 when he secured the retirement of the Emperors confidant Friedrich von Beck-Rzikowsky as Chief of the General Staff. Becks successor, Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf, was personally selected Franz Ferdinard, in 1894 Franz Ferdinand met Countess Sophie Chotek at a ball in Prague. To be eligible to marry a member of the Imperial House of Habsburg, the Choteks were not one of these families, although they did include among their ancestors, in the female line, princes of Baden, Hohenzollern-Hechingen, and Liechtenstein. One of Sophies direct ancestors was Albert IV, Count of Habsburg, she was descended from Elisabeth of Habsburg, Franz Ferdinand was a descendant of King Rudolf I
The Austro-Daimler 6 was a series of Austrian six-cylinder water-cooled inline SOHC-camshaft aero engines first produced in 1910 by the Austro-Daimler company. The first Austro-Daimler six-cylinder engine was designed by Dr-Ing Ferdinand Porsche to be an engine from the outset. Of high quality manufacture the Austro-Daimler was modestly rated at relatively low rpm, the single-overhead cam valvetrain was driven from the crankshaft through the usual vertically-oriented shaft as the contemporary Mercedes D. The Austro-Daimler inspired many imitators such as the Mercedes D. II, Benz Bz. IV, modest availability of the Austro-Daimler engines forced some aircraft manufacturers to substitute Mercedes engines in their aircraft, due to greater availability. Data from, Austro-Daimler 90 hp 6-cyl, the original low capacity version developing 90 hp, introduced in 1910. Up-rated with a capacity of 13.9 l, from 130 mm bore and 175 mm stroke, developing 120 hp at 1,200 rpm, developing 160 hp, introduced in 1913.
Developing 185 hp, introduced in 1916, up-rated with a capacity of 15.03 l, from 135 mm bore and 175 mm, developing 200 hp at 1,350 rpm, introduced in December 1916. 210 hp, introduced in late 1917, developing 225 hp, introduced in 1918
Puch is a manufacturing company located in Graz, Austria. The company was founded in 1899 by the industrialist Johann Puch and produced automobiles, mopeds and it was a subsidiary of the large Steyr-Daimler-Puch conglomerate. From 1889 Johann Puch worked as an agent for Humber vehicles and manufacturer of Styria safety bicycles in a workshop in Graz. Cyclists like Josef Fischer, winning the first edition of Paris–Roubaix in 1896, popularized Styria bicycles which were exported to England. By 1895, Puch already employed more than 300 workers producing about 6000 bikes a year, in 1897 Puch left the company after a dispute with his business partners. Two years he founded the Erste Steiermärkische Fahrradfabrik AG in Graz, Puchs company became successful through innovation and quality handicraft, rapidly expanding over time. It soon began producing motorcycles and mopeds, the main production plant, called Einser-Werk, was constructed in the south of Graz, in the district of Puntigam. Production of engines was started in 1901 and cars followed in 1904, in 1906 the production of the two-cylinder Puch Voiturette began and in 1909 a Puch car broke the world high-speed record with 130,4 km/h.
In 1910, Puch is known to have produced sedans for members of the Habsburg imperial family, in 1912 Johann Puch went into retirement and became the companys honorary president. In that year the company employed about 1,100 workers and produced 16,000 bicycles and over 300 motorcycles, Puch automobiles were successful at the pre-war Österreichische Alpenfahrt rally and from 1913, the four-cylinder 38 PS Type VIII Alpenwagen was manufactured in Graz. During World War I, Puch became an important vehicle supplier to the Austro-Hungarian Army, with the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian empire following the War, the market for automobiles shrank and production was discontinued. However, again in 1919, the new Type XII Alpenwagen was developed, in 1923 the Italian engineer and FIAT agent Giovanni Marcellino is said to have been sent by the banks to wind up the Puch factory in Graz. Instead of which, within a few weeks he had settled down to live in the town, taking his inspiration from industrial counter-piston engines, the new engine benefited from the improved breathing of the Italian original, to which he added asymmetric port timing.
In 1931 Puch won the German Grand Prix with a supercharged split-single, in 1928 the company merged with Austro-Daimler into the new Austro-Daimler-Puchwerke. This company in its turn merged in 1934 with Steyr-Werke AG to form the Steyr-Daimler-Puch conglomerate, like all enterprises of its kind, the Puch production plants had to change to arms production during World War II. The existing capacity was insufficient, therefore a second plant was constructed and opened in 1941 in Thondorf, in the three original assembly halls, luxury vehicles for the American market were produced. Steyr-Daimler-Puch is one of the known to have benefited from slave labor housed in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp system during World War II. Slaves from the camp started to be used in a profitable system used by 45 engineering and war-effort companies
Fiat Automobiles S. p. A. is the largest automobile manufacturer in Italy, a subsidiary of FCA Italy S. p. A. which is part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. Fiat Automobiles S. p. A. was formed in January 2007 when Fiat reorganized its automobile business, Fiats main market is Europe, mainly focused in Italy. Historically successful in citycars and supermini sector, currently Fiat has a range of models focused on two segments. Fiat does not currently offer any large family car, nor an executive car - these market segments have, to some extent been covered by the Lancia and Alfa Romeo brands, which Fiat owns. Fiats share of the European market shrank from 9.4 per cent in 2000 to 5.8 per cent in the summer of 2004, at this point Sergio Marchionne was appointed as Fiats chief executive. By March 2009 their market share had expanded to 9.1 per cent, Fiats built their five-story Lingotto plant in 1915 through 1918, at the time it was Europes largest car manufacturing plant. Later the Mirafiori plant was built, in Turin, to prepare for production of the all-new Fiat 128, Fiat opened their Rivalta plant in October 1968.
Until the 128 entered production, the plant was used to build versions of the 850 and 124 as well as parts for the Fiat Dino. Fiats 2014 range of car engines comprised eleven units, eight petrols. The second generation Punto was a seller in the UK after its October 1999 launch. The original Fiat 500 had been one of the few competitors for the iconic Mini during its 1960s heyday. Fiat has invested for a time in South America, mainly in Brazil. They built their first Brazilian car plant in the Greater Belo Horizonte city of Betim in 1973, recently a brand new model developed in Brazil has been launched, the Fiat Uno. Other European models are imported to Brazil, Fiat 500. Some others are still in production, Idea, Fiat has a long history in the United States. In 1908, the Fiat Automobile Co. was established in the country and a plant in Poughkeepsie, N. Y. began producing Fiats a year later, like the Fiat 60 HP and the Fiat 16-20 HP. These luxury cars were produced long before Chrysler Corp. was formed in 1925 from older manufacturers that were acquired by Walter P.
Chrysler, the New Jersey factory was closed when the U. S. entered World War I in 1917. Fiat returned to North America in the 1950s, selling the original 500, Fiat 600 Multipla, Fiat 1100, Fiat 1200, for example the Fiat 124 Sport Spider and the Fiat X1/9
In the Low Countries, literally steward, designated a medieval official and a national leader. For the last half century of its existence, it became a hereditary role. His son, Prince William V, was the last stadtholder of the republic, whose own son, King William I, became the first king of the Netherlands. The Dutch Monarchy is thus descended from the first stadtholder of the young Republic, William of Orange, the title stadtholder is roughly comparable to Englands historic title Lord Lieutenant. Its component parts literally translate as place holder, or as a cognate, stead holder. Note, that is not the word for the rank of lieutenant. Stadtholders in the Middle Ages were appointed by feudal lords to represent them in their absence, if a lord had several dominions, some of these could be ruled by a permanent stadtholder, to whom was delegated the full authority of the lord. A stadtholder was thus more powerful than a governor, who had limited authority. The local rulers of the independent provinces of the Low Countries made extensive use of stadtholders, in the 15th century the Dukes of Burgundy acquired most of the Low Countries, and these Burgundian Netherlands mostly each had their own stadtholder.
Only the Prince-Bishopric of Liège and two smaller territories remained outside his domains, stadtholders continued to be appointed to represent Charles and King Philip II, his son and successor in Spain and the Low Countries. Due to the centralist and absolutist policies of Philip, the power of the stadtholders strongly diminished. The stadtholder no longer represented the lord but became the highest executive official, although each province could assign its own stadtholder, most stadtholders held appointments from several provinces at the same time. As these councils themselves appointed most members of the states, the stadtholder could very indirectly influence the general policy, in the army, he could appoint officers by himself, in the navy only affirm appointments of the five admiralty councils. Legal powers of the stadtholder were thus limited, and by law he was a mere official. His real powers, were greater, especially given the martial law atmosphere of the permanent Eighty Years War.
Maurice of Orange after 1618 ruled as a dictator. The leader of the Dutch Revolt was William the Silent, he had been appointed stadtholder in 1572 by the first province to rebel and his personal influence and reputation was subsequently associated with the office and transferred to members of his house. Maurice in 1618 and William III of Orange from 1672 replaced entire city councils with their partisans to increase their power, by intimidation, the stadtholders tried to extend their right of affirmation
Ferdinand Porsche was an automotive engineer and founder of the Porsche car company. He is best known for creating the first gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle, the Volkswagen Beetle, in addition, Porsche designed the 1923 Benz Tropfenwagen, which was the first racing car with a mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout. Porsche was an important contributor to the German war effort during World War II. He was involved in the production of advanced tanks such as the VK4501, Tiger I, Tiger II, Porsche was a member of the German Nazi party and allegedly the SS. He was a recipient of the German National Prize for Art and Science, the SS-Ehrenring and he was called the Great German Engineer by Nazi propaganda. In 1996 Porsche was inducted into the International Motorsports Hall of Fame, Ferdinand Porsche was born to German-speaking parents in Maffersdorf, northern Bohemia, part of the Austrian Empire at that time, and today part of the Czech Republic. Ferdinand was his parents third child and his father, Anton Porsche, was a master panel-beater.
He showed an aptitude for mechanical work at a very early age. He attended classes at the Imperial Technical School in Reichenberg at night while helping his father in his shop by day. Thanks to a referral, Porsche landed a job with the Béla Egger Electrical company in Vienna when he turned 18, in Vienna he would sneak into the local university whenever he could after work. Other than attending classes there, Porsche never received any higher engineering education, during his five years with Béla Egger, Porsche first developed the electric hub motor. After the breakup of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the end of World War I, in 1934 Adolf Hitler or Joseph Goebbels made Porsche a naturalized German citizen. In 1898, Porsche joined the Vienna-based factory Jakob Lohner & Company, which produced coaches for Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria as well as for the monarchs of the UK, and Romania. Jakob Lohner had begun construction of automobiles in 1896 under Ludwig Lohner in the suburb of Floridsdorf.
Their first design was the Egger-Lohner vehicle, first unveiled in Vienna, Austria, on 26 June 1898, Porsche had engraved the code P1 onto all the key components. The Egger-Lohner was a car driven by two electric motors within the front wheel hubs, powered by batteries. This drive train construction was expanded to four-wheel drive, by mounting two more electric motors to the rear wheels, and a four-motor example was ordered by Englishman E. W. Hart in 1900. In December that year, the car was displayed at the Paris World Exhibition under the name Toujours-Contente, even though this one-off vehicle had been commissioned for the purposes of racing and record-breaking, its 1,800 kg of lead–acid batteries was a severe shortcoming
Steyr-Daimler-Puch was a large manufacturing conglomerate based in Steyr, which was broken up in stages between 1987 and 2001. The component parts and operations continued to exist under separate ownership, the company, initially known as Josef und Franz Werndl and Company was founded in 1864 as a rifle manufacturer. It grew rapidly during the First World War, by the end of which it employed 14,000 people, the company began producing bicycles in 1894, and Steyr automobiles after 1918. It was heavy and well-built, if a little cumbersome, however, the small but luxurious 1.5 L six Type XII of the late twenties won international motor press acclaim. The company changed it name to Steyr-Werke AG in 1924, in 1934, Steyr merged with Austro-Daimler-Puch to form Steyr-Daimler-Puch. The request was approved and prisoners were brought by guarded train from the Mauthausen-Gusen camp complex at Gusen 30 km distant and this was approved and prisoners were used for facilities construction, and to supplant manufacturing labor.
This practice heretofore was not common at other larger German companies, though others followed suit including Mercedes-Benz and MAN. The vehicle range was for use, including the Steyr RSO Raupenschlepper Ost with an air-cooled 3.5 L V8 engine designed by Ferdinand Porsche. War-time production there included arms, assault rifles, machine guns. After the war, Steyr-Daimler-Puch built Diesel engined trucks and buses and heavy tractors, Steyr assembled the FIAT 1100E, put their own engine in a Fiat 1400, renaming the car the Steyr 2000. From 1957 through to the early 1970s it produced the tiny Puch 500 under license from FIAT, the Haflinger was produced from 1959–1974, the Pinzgauer from 1971–2000, and the Puch G from 1979. The Austro-Daimler branch built heavy tractors and trucks for the imperial Austrian army, the main Steyr civil agricultural tractor production started in 1947. After the war Steyr-Daimler-Puch resumed manufacturing bicycles and mopeds, gradually establishing distributors in countries to manage their sales.
Steyr made bicycles for sale for other retailers, most notably Sears, in the mid 1970s Steyr-Daimler-Puch America was incorporated in Connecticut to manage importation and distribution of bicycles and mopeds. Puch Austro-Daimler bicycles remained in production at Graz in Austria until the motorcycle and bicycle fabrication portions of the company there were sold in the mid 1987 to Piaggio & C, because of their extreme durability and toughness Steyr products won many enthusiastic friends around the world. Other production lines were spun off or sold outright to form independent companies, including Puchs motorcycle division going to Piaggio. In 1990, the engine division was spun off into Steyr Motorentechnik GmbH. Steyr Landmaschinentechnik AG was sold to Case Corporation in 1996 and renamed Case Steyr Landmaschinentechnik, in 1998, the production of military vehicles was sold to an Austrian investor company, which named it Steyr-Daimler-Puch Spezialfahrzeug GmbH