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Austro-Hungarian campaign in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1878

The campaign to establish Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina lasted from 29 July to 20 October 1878 against the local resistance fighters supported by the Ottoman Empire. The Austro-Hungarian Army entered the country in two large movements: one from the north into Bosnia, another from the south into Herzegovina. A series of battles in August culminated in the fall of Sarajevo on the 19th after a day of street-to-street fighting. In the hilly countryside a guerrilla campaign continued until the last rebel stronghold fell after their leader was captured. Following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78, the Congress of Berlin was organized by the Great Powers. By article 25 of the resulting Treaty of Berlin and Herzegovina remained under the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire, but the Austro-Hungarian Empire was granted the authority to occupy the vilayet of Bosnia and Herzegovina indefinitely, taking on its military defence and civil administration; the Austro-Hungarians received the right to indefinitely occupy strategic posts in the sanjak of Novi Pazar: The provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina shall be occupied and administered by Austria-Hungary.

The government of Austria-Hungary, not desiring to undertake the administration of the Sanjak of Novi-Pazar, which extends between Serbia and Montenegro in a South-Easterly direction to the other side of Mitrovitza, the Ottoman administration will continue to exercise its functions there. In order to assure the maintenance of the new political state of affairs, as well as freedom and security of communications, Austria-Hungary reserves the right of keeping garrisons and having military and commercial roads in the whole of this part of the ancient vilayet of Bosnia. To this end the governments of Austria-Hungary and Turkey reserve to themselves to come to an understanding on the details. Although the Ottomans protested the occupation of Novi Pazar, the Imperial and Royal Foreign Minister Gyula Andrássy secretly assured the former that the occupation in Novi Pazar was "to be regarded as provisional"; this Austro-Hungarian expansion southward at the expense of the Ottoman Empire was designed to prevent the extension of Russian influence and the union of Serbia and Montenegro.

The Austro-Hungarians expected no trouble in carrying out their occupation. It would be, in Andrássy's words, "a walk with a brass band"; this opinion did not take into account that the Serbs had just fought a war for independence from the Ottoman Empire, while Herzegovina had revolted. Resistance to the Austro-Hungarian takeover came from the Orthodox Serbs and the Bosnian Muslims at all from the Catholic Croats; the Muslim population stood to lose the most under the new Christian government. The resistors were characterised by the Austro-Hungarian government as "uncivilised" and "treacherous"; the Austro-Hungarian Army engaged in a major mobilization effort to prepare for the assault on Bosnia and Herzegovina, commanding by the end of June 1878 a force of 82,113 troops, 13,313 horses and 112 cannons in the VI, VII, XX, XVIII infantry divisions as well as a rear army in the Kingdom of Dalmatia. The primary commander was Josip Filipović; the occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina was over on 20 October.

The Ottoman army in Bosnia and Herzegovina at the time consisted of 40,000 troops with 77 cannons, that combined with local militias to around 93,000 men. Fierce resistance from Muslims was expected as Austro-Hungarians realized their occupation meant that Bosnian Muslims would lose their privileged status based on their religion; the original occupying force, the 13th Corps under General Josip Filipović, crossed the river Sava near Brod and Gradiška. The various Abteilungen assembled at Banja Luka and advanced down the road on the left side of the Vrbas river, they encountered resistance by local Muslims under the dervish Hadži Loja, supported by the evacuating Ottoman Army troops. On 3 August a troop of hussars was ambushed near Maglaj on the Bosna river, prompting Filipović to institute martial law. On 7 August a pitched battle was fought near Jajce and the Austro-Hungarian infantry lost 600 men. A second occupying force, the 18th Division of 9,000 men under General Stjepan Jovanović, advanced out of Austrian Dalmatia along the Neretva.

On 5 August the division captured the chief city of Herzegovina. On 13 August at Ravnice in Herzegovina more than 70 Hungarian officers and soldiers were killed in action. In response, the Empire mobilised the 4th and 5th Corps; the Austro-Hungarian troops were met with ferocious opposition from elements of both Muslim and Orthodox populations there, significant battles occurred near Čitluk, Stolac and Klobuk. Despite setbacks at Maglaj and Tuzla, Sarajevo was occupied in October 1878. On 19 August the Bosnian capital, Sarajevo, a town of 50,000 inhabitants at the time, was captured only after the deployment of 52 guns and violent street fighting. A day earlier Filipović had arrested the former Ottoman governor, Hafiz Pasha. A formal report of the Austro-Hungarian General Staff remarked "small windows and numerous roof gaps allowed the discharge of fire in different directions and the most sustainable defense" and "the accused insurgents, in the nearest houses, barricaded all entrances and kept up a destructive fire against the infantry."

According to Filipović's own account:"There ensued one of the most terrible battles conceivable. The troops were fired upon from every house, from every window, from each split d

Gennady S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan

Gennady S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan is an astrophysicist, he is known for predicting binary radio pulsars. Bisnovatyi-Kogan was a student at Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology from 1958-1964, he was a postgraduate student at Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics from 1964-1967. Bisnovatyi-Kogan's PhD thesis was titled "Late stages of stellar evolution", his doctoral thesis was titled "The equilibrium and stability of stars and stellar systems". He was employed as a Junior Scientific Fellow at Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics from 1967-1974. Since 1974 he has worked at the Russian Space Research Institute. Member of US/Russia Collaboration on Plasma Astrophysics List of Astronomers

Roadside Prophets

Roadside Prophets is a 1992 American comedy film written and directed by Abbe Wool, featuring musicians John Doe of the L. A. punk band X, Adam Horovitz of the Beastie Boys with cameo appearances by, amongst others, Timothy Leary, Arlo Guthrie, David Carradine, Flea, an uncharacteristic performance by John Cusack as Caspar, a self-styled "Symbionese" rebel, a early film performance by Don Cheadle. Joe, a Harley-riding factory worker, meets Dave, who tells him about a casino in the town of El Dorado before Dave is electrocuted in a video arcade. Following Dave's cremation, Joe decides to travel to Nevada to find Dave's beloved casino and spread his ashes in the desert to fulfill his last wish. While riding his motorcycle around Nevada, Joe meets Sam, traveling on his own motorcycle to find the Motel 9 in which his parents committed suicide; as Sam travels with Joe, the two develop an unlikely friendship and encounter numerous eccentric people during their travels. Filming locations for Roadside Prophets included Las Vegas, Valley of Fire State Park, Jackpot, Nevada.

Filming took place in White Pine County, including Ely and McGill. The film is named for the eccentric characters. Roadside Prophets was theatrically released on March 27, 1992, grossed $147,724 during its run. On website Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an 83 percent rating. Hal Hinson of The Washington Post wrote, "It's a sort of fairy tale, a'90s version of "Easy Rider," but it's so loosely strung together, so aimless and so willfully quirky, it gets lost in its own meanderings. Movies that try as hard to be hip as this one does are an arduous test of one's patience because the guise of hipness is an excuse for the writer-director not to bother himself with the basics of character, or motivation, or narrative sense. Things happen, without cause or explanation, that's that, because to concern yourself with such trivialities would be too conventional, well, uncool."Marc Savlov of The Austin Chronicle gave the film three and a half stars out of five, praised the performances of Cusack and Horovitz.

Savlov praised the film's rapid pace: "New characters are introduced every few minutes, spit out a few gobbets of weirdness or disgruntled home brew philosophy, vanish from the story. Odd as it may sound, it works and Wool's film ends up coming across like some sort of treatise on Nineties disaffection and a paean to following your heart and damn the torpedoes of logical lifestyles. It's a good message, a wonderful film, the type of which I think we'll be seeing more and more of as the decade progresses. Chris Hicks of Deseret News gave the film two stars out of four and wrote, "A quirky counterculture road picture, as aimless as its two protagonists,'Roadside Prophets' is never quite sure what it wants to be... but it's sure what it doesn't want to be. You'll find no run-of-the-mill, Hollywood happy-talk here.'Roadside Prophets' is a talky picture, full of goofy introspective ideas, but it has no intention of developing any of them." Hicks stated that the film "has its moments the bits by Guthrie and Cusack, who are gone before you realize who they are, Doe demonstrates a natural acting ability as a disillusioned guy whose life is going nowhere.

But the film just meanders pointlessly and some scenes are embarrassingly amateurish in their staging. It's like a home movie in some ways, it's not sharp-witted enough to attract anything more than a cult audience."Andrea LeVasseur of AllMovie gave the film three stars out of five and called it a "lighthearted bit of Americana," and "decent-enough entertainment." LeVasseur further wrote, "This hipster road movie has three things going wrong for it right away: It's coming straight out of the self-indulgent early'90s, it features rock stars as leading men, most of the other characters are just celebrity cameos. However bad it may seem, this heavy-handed lesson in pop philosophy is harmless enough. At the least, it's good nostalgia for the grunge era. One major asset is the lovely young Adam Horowitz. He's not only a pleasure to look at, but he creates a nice balance with the brooding biker chic of John Doe; the story itself is pretty shallow and easygoing, despite recurring attempts to create deep, existential moments.

But the plot is secondary to the good-natured mood and fondness for offbeat characters."TV Guide gave the film two stars out of five, called Doe's performance "fairly believable" but noted that Horovitz, "with his whining and goofy grin, seems as if he's about to break into a Jerry Lewis impression. TV Guide wrote, "The lack of plot could be overlooked if the folks Sam and Joe met on their journey were remotely memorable, but every encounter is the same: they run into some eccentric for four or five minutes, Sam proclaims that they're insane and drives off." TV Guide concluded, "What could have been a fun, or at least uniquely weird journey is defeated by a lackadaisical screenplay and a lack of imagination. If only the film had been as lively as its soundtrack". Roadside Prophets on IMDb Roadside Prophets at Box Office Mojo Roadside Prophets at AllMovie Roadside Prophets at the TCM Movie Database