SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Austro-Prussian War

The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War was a war fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, with each being aided by various allies within the German Confederation. Prussia had allied with the Kingdom of Italy, linking this conflict to the Third Independence War of Italian unification; the Austro-Prussian War was part of the wider rivalry between Austria and Prussia, resulted in Prussian dominance over the German states. The major result of the war was a shift in power among the German states away from Austrian and towards Prussian hegemony, impetus towards the unification of all of the northern German states in a Kleindeutsches Reich that excluded the German Austria, it saw the abolition of the German Confederation and its partial replacement by a North German Confederation that excluded Austria and the other South German states. The war resulted in the Italian annexation of the Austrian province of Venetia; the war erupted as a result of the dispute between Prussia and Austria over the administration of Schleswig-Holstein, which the two of them had conquered from Denmark and agreed to jointly occupy at the end of the Second Schleswig War in 1864.

The crisis started on 26 January 1866, when Prussia protested the decision of the Austrian Governor of Holstein to permit the estates of the duchies to call up a united assembly, declaring the Austrian decision a breach of the principle of joint sovereignty. Austria replied on 7 February, asserting that its decision did not infringe on Prussia's rights in the duchies. In March 1866, Austria reinforced its troops along its frontier with Prussia. Prussia responded with a partial mobilization of five divisions on 28 March. Bismarck made an alliance with Italy on 8 April, committing it to the war if Prussia entered one against Austria within three months, an obvious incentive for Bismarck to go to war with Austria within three months to divert Austrian strength away from Prussia. Austria responded with a mobilization of its Southern Army on the Italian border on 21 April. Italy called for a general mobilization on 26 April and Austria ordered its own general mobilization the next day. Prussia's general mobilization orders were signed in steps on 5, 7, 8, 10 and 12 May.

When Austria brought the Schleswig-Holstein dispute before the German Diet on 1 June and decided on 5 June to convene the Diet of Holstein on 11 June, Prussia declared that the Gastein Convention of 14 August 1865 had thereby been nullified and invaded Holstein on 9 June. When the German Diet responded by voting for a partial mobilization against Prussia on 14 June, Bismarck claimed that the German Confederation was ended; the Prussian Army invaded Hanover and the Electorate of Hesse on 15 June. Italy declared war on Austria on 20 June. For several centuries, Central Europe was split into a few large- or medium-sized states and hundreds of tiny entities, which while ostensibly being within the Holy Roman Empire ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor, operated in a independent fashion; when an existing Emperor died, seven secular and ecclesiastical princes would elect a new Emperor. Over time the Empire became smaller and by 1789 came to consist of German peoples. Aside from five years, the Habsburg family, whose personal territory was Austria, controlled the Emperorship from 1440 to 1806, although it became ceremonial only as Austria found itself at war at certain times with other states within the Empire, such as Prussia, which in fact defeated Austria during the War of Austrian Succession to seize the state of Silesia in 1742.

While Austria was traditionally considered the leader of the German states, Prussia became powerful and by the late 18th century was ranked as one of the great powers of Europe. Francis II's abolition of the office of Holy Roman Emperor in 1806 deprived him of his imperial authority over most of German-speaking Europe, though little true authority remained by that time. After 1815, the German states were once again reorganized into a loose confederation: the German Confederation, under Austrian leadership. Prussia had been contesting Austria's supremacy in Germany since at least 1850, when a war between the two powers had nearly erupted over Prussia's leadership of the Erfurt Union, though at that time Prussia had backed down. In reaction to the triumphant French nationalism of Napoleon I and as an organic feeling of commonality glorified during the Romantic era, German nationalism became a potent force during this period; the ultimate aim of most German nationalists was the gathering of all Germans under one state, although most accepted that the German portions of Switzerland would remain in Switzerland.

Two ideas of national unity came to the fore – one including and one excluding Austria. There are many interpretations of Otto von Bismarck's behaviour before the Austrian-Prussian war, which concentrate on whether he had a master plan that resulted in this war, the North German Confederation and the unification of Germany. Bismarck maintained that he orchestrated the conflict in order to bring about the North German Confederation, the Franco-Prussian War and the eventual unification of Germany. However, historian A. J. P. Taylor disputes his interpretation and believed that Bismarck did not have a master plan, but rather was an opportunist who took advantage of the favourable situations that presented themselves. Taylor thin

Centerfield, Utah

Centerfield is a city in southwestern Sanpete County, United States. The population was 1,367 at the 2010 census. Although Centerfield was a town in 2000, it has since been classified as a fifth-class city by state law; the community was so named on account of its location in the center of a wide valley. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.8 square miles, all of it land. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Centerfield has a semi-arid climate, abbreviated "BSk" on climate maps; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,048 people, 310 households, 252 families residing in the town. The population density was 581.6 people per square mile. There were 343 housing units at an average density of 190.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 92.94% White, 0.86% Native American, 0.10% Asian, 4.87% from other races, 1.24% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.49% of the population. Of the 310 households, 51.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.1% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.4% were non-families.

17.4% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.38 people, the average family size was 3.83. In the town, the population was spread out with 39.7% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 23.6% from 25 to 44, 17.9% from 45 to 64, 8.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 25 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $35,357, the median income for a family was $38,462. Males had a median income of $30,795 versus $17,917 for females; the per capita income for the town was $12,270. About 15.2% of families and 16.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.1% of those under age 18 and 16.9% of those age 65 or over. Centerfield was first known as Skin Town, it seems that about 1880, a new method for tanning cowhides was discovered and implemented in New York.

At the same time, Sanpete suffered a terrible winter with such deep snow that many cattle couldn't find enough forage and died. In order to keep their operations from being a total loss, the ranchers skinned the cows, used the new tanning method on the hides, hung them out on their fences to dry; the fact that all the fences were draped with cow hides led to the name “Skin Town”. It was called South Gunnison or Twin Town; when the town was incorporated in 1907, the residents chose the more dignified name of Centerfield because of the community's central location. Centerfield is an 1860s offshoot of Gunnison that evolved two miles south on US 89. Gunnison Field or Gunnison South was a natural site for farmers who worked small “squatters rights” plots of about five acres with oxen and hand plows. After the Indian troubles subsided and adobe houses began to appear. A late 1876 petition to ‘build a school convenient to our location’ was an early sign of independence from the mother colony. In 1882 a log cabin was built to serve as school and social hall.

The 1886-87 church was built of stone and a front tower was added in 1897. Community spirit was strong by that time, Canute Peterson chose a committee of four who named the place for its location in the fields between Gunnison and Axtell; the Gunnison Valley Sugar Company built a 500-ton factory in Centerfield, Utah in 1918. The Centerfield factory equipment came from the Washington State Sugar Company plant in Waverly, Washington; the Waverly factory, opened in December 1899, was considered inferior. The Utah Sugar management, including Cutler, advised Washington Sugar in 1901 for the 1902 season, but the factory closed in 1910, it was sold to Gunnison Sugar for $100,000, installed in Centerfield in 1917, was ready for the 1918 campaign. U-I went on an aggressive anticompetitive campaign against Gunnison Valley Sugar Company. In 1920, the William Wrigley Jr. Company purchased the factory to supply their chewing gum production. U-I acquired the Centerfield factory and company in 1940, they proceeded to close the factory in 1956, re-opened from 1958 to 1961 sold it as scrap in April, 1966.

List of cities and towns in Utah Official website

Stephen J. Murphy

Stephen J. Murphy is the Suffolk County Register of Deeds, serving since 2017. From 1997 until 2016, he served as an at-large member of the Boston City Council. Murphy was a member of the Boston City Council, he first joined the Council in February 1997, following the resignation of at-large member Richard P. Iannella, elected Register of Probate of Suffolk County. Murphy was elected to a two-year at-large term in November 1997, subsequently re-elected eight times, he served as President of the Council for three years. He lost his seat in the November 2015 election. Bernstein, David S.. "City Council Candidate Chat: Stephen Murphy". Boston. Retrieved February 21, 2018. Suffolk Registry of Deeds Murphy bio at Suffolk Registry of Deeds Murphy election history at ourcampaigns.com