White Hall, Alabama
White Hall is a town in Lowndes County, United States. The community was named for a plantation, destroyed in an 1882 tornado. At the 2010 census the population was 858, down from its record high of 1,014 in 2000, it is part of the Montgomery Metropolitan Statistical Area. It was established during the Great Depression in 1935 as a New Deal project under the Resettlement Administration, similar to the town of Skyline, although it was aimed towards blacks, who made up the majority population in the area; the town did not incorporate until 1979. White Hall is located at 32°18′50″N 86°42′50″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 15.5 square miles, of which 15.5 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,014 people, 361 households, 266 families residing in the town; the population density was 65.6 people per square mile. There were 398 housing units at an average density of 25.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.03% Black or African American, 1.38% White, 0.10% Native American, 0.20% Asian, 0.30% from two or more races.
0.79% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 361 households out of which 40.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.5% were married couples living together, 35.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.3% were non-families. 23.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.81 and the average family size was 3.33. In the town, the population was spread out with 32.4% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 25.7% from 25 to 44, 20.8% from 45 to 64, 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 77.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 70.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $18,158, the median income for a family was $21,875. Males had a median income of $20,885 versus $18,125 for females; the per capita income for the town was $10,062. About 29.4% of families and 31.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.8% of those under age 18 and 47.5% of those age 65 or over.
Ben Wallace, NBA basketball player Battle of Holy Ground
Benton is a town in Lowndes County, United States. Its population was 49 at the 2010 census. Benton is located at 32°18′22″N 86°49′3″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.3 square miles, of which 0.3 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. Settled in 1832 on land owned by James Maull, it was known as Maull's Landing, before it was renamed and incorporated as Benton in 1834, it was named after Thomas Hart Benton the U. S. Senator from Missouri, who had served under General Andrew Jackson in the Creek Campaign. During the steamboat era, it was a major trading stop along the Alabama River. Maull's son, auctioned off lots in 1855, that were incorporated into the town; the earliest year any population figures were returned by the U. S. Census for the area was in 1870, when Benton Beat returned 2,627 residents, the majority of whom were newly emancipated blacks. In 1880, Lowndes County was subdivided further into 20 beats, the Benton Beat fell to 1,094 residents.
In 1890, it declined to 994, for the first time, the town of Benton was reported separately with a population of 265. Benton's incorporation would lapse shortly and with the shift to railroads, followed by the outmigration of the majority black population, it would dwindle in size; the Benton Precinct would fall from 1,049 in 1900, down to 409 by 1950, before all the county precincts were eliminated and redistricted into census divisions. In 1964, Benton was reincorporated; as of 1990, it has declined to just under 50 residents and has held steady as of 2010. Out of Lowndes County's seven incorporated communities, it is one of only two with a white majority, Lowndesboro being the other, it is one of the smallest incorporated communities in the state. Benton, Alabama can be confused in genealogy research with Calhoun County, known as Benton County from 1832 to 1858, and, originally named for Senator Benton, but renamed because of his unpopular political views by the late 1850s; as of the census of 2000, there were 47 people, 18 households, 14 families residing in the town.
The population density was 153.4 people per square mile. There were 19 housing units at an average density of 62.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 76.60% White and 23.40% Black or African American. There were 18 households out of which 38.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 72.2% were married couples living together, 5.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 16.7% were non-families. 16.7% of all households were made up of individuals and none had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 2.87. In the town, the population was spread out with 29.8% under the age of 18, 34.0% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, 17.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 123.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 135.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $90,000, the median income for a family was $92,113.
Males had a median income of $41,250 versus $26,875 for females. The per capita income for the town was $28,035. There were 7.7% of families and 7.5% of the population living below the poverty line, including 14.3% of under eighteens and none of those over 64. David Gordon Lyon, Hollis Chair at Harvard Divinity School and founding curator of Semitic Museum Bill Traylor, African American self-taught artist Zeke Wilson, former Major League Baseball pitcher
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, a variety of vocal techniques. A person who sings is called a vocalist. Singers perform music that can be sung without accompaniment by musical instruments. Singing is done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists. Singers may perform as soloists or accompanied by anything from a single instrument up to a symphony orchestra or big band. Different singing styles include art music such as opera and Chinese opera, Indian music and religious music styles such as gospel, traditional music styles, world music, blues and popular music styles such as pop, electronic dance music and filmi. Singing arranged or improvised, it may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort or ritual, as part of music education or as a profession. Excellence in singing requires time, dedication and regular practice.
If practice is done on a regular basis the sounds can become more clear and strong. Professional singers build their careers around one specific musical genre, such as classical or rock, although there are singers with crossover success, they take voice training provided by voice teachers or vocal coaches throughout their careers. In its physical aspect, singing has a well-defined technique that depends on the use of the lungs, which act as an air supply or bellows. Though these four mechanisms function independently, they are coordinated in the establishment of a vocal technique and are made to interact upon one another. During passive breathing, air is inhaled with the diaphragm while exhalation occurs without any effort. Exhalation may be aided by lower pelvis/pelvic muscles. Inhalation is aided by use of external intercostals and sternocleidomastoid muscles; the pitch is altered with the vocal cords. With the lips closed, this is called humming; the sound of each individual's singing voice is unique not only because of the actual shape and size of an individual's vocal cords but due to the size and shape of the rest of that person's body.
Humans have vocal folds which can loosen, tighten, or change their thickness, over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. The shape of the chest and neck, the position of the tongue, the tightness of otherwise unrelated muscles can be altered. Any one of these actions results in a change in pitch, timbre, or tone of the sound produced. Sound resonates within different parts of the body and an individual's size and bone structure can affect the sound produced by an individual. Singers can learn to project sound in certain ways so that it resonates better within their vocal tract; this is known as vocal resonation. Another major influence on vocal sound and production is the function of the larynx which people can manipulate in different ways to produce different sounds; these different kinds of laryngeal function are described as different kinds of vocal registers. The primary method for singers to accomplish this is through the use of the Singer's Formant, it has been shown that a more powerful voice may be achieved with a fatter and fluid-like vocal fold mucosa.
The more pliable the mucosa, the more efficient the transfer of energy from the airflow to the vocal folds. Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the voice. A register in the voice is a particular series of tones, produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, possessing the same quality. Registers originate in laryngeal function, they occur. Each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds; the occurrence of registers has been attributed to effects of the acoustic interaction between the vocal fold oscillation and the vocal tract. The term "register" can be somewhat confusing; the term register can be used to refer to any of the following: A particular part of the vocal range such as the upper, middle, or lower registers. A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice. A phonatory process A certain vocal timbre or vocal "color" A region of the voice, defined or delimited by vocal breaks.
In linguistics, a register language is a language which combines tone and vowel phonation into a single phonological system. Within speech pathology, the term vocal register has three constituent elements: a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, a certain series of pitches, a certain type of sound. Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register, the modal register, the falsetto register, the whistle register; this view is adopted by many vocal pedagogues. Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is en
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Lowndesboro is a town in Lowndes County, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 115, down from 140 in 2000, it is part of the Montgomery Metropolitan Statistical Area. Although incorporated in 1856 by an act of the state legislature, it lapsed and was not reincorporated until 1962; as of the 2000 and 2010 U. S. Censuses, along with Benton, are the only two towns in Lowndes County with a white majority of residents. Both are the 7th smallest communities. Known as McGill's Hill, the community began attracting settlers following the conclusion of the Creek War. In 1832, the residents changed the name to Lowndesboro in honor of U. S. Congressman William Lowndes, the son of Rawlins Lowndes, an early South Carolina governor. With its proximity to the Alabama River, the community had grown into a prosperous town by the 1830s. Many wealthy planters settled in the area, leaving a legacy of historic mid-19th-century architecture that survived intact into the modern era. A brief skirmish was fought at Lowndesboro in April 1865 between a group of Confederate cavalry and advance troops of the Union Army during Wilson's Raid.
Federal troops occupied the town after driving off the Confederate force, with little destruction noted from the occupation, thus preserving many of the antebellum houses and structures in the Lowndesboro Historic District. Like many small Southern communities with an economy based on cotton production and trade, Lowndesboro declined in the post-war years. At least attributed to this decline was the survival of much of the pre-war architecture into the 20th century, making it a unique assemblage of 19th-century architecture. Today much of the town is included in the Lowndesboro Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Dicksonia Plantation ruins are a notable place of interest. Lowndesboro was the site of a number of significant events in the civil rights movement. On March 25, 1965, civil rights worker Viola Liuzzo was shot to death during a high-speed chase by Ku Klux Klan members on U. S. Route 80, while driving to Montgomery to pick up a group of demonstrators waiting to return to Selma after the Selma-to-Montgomery march.
The Klansmen spotted the white Liuzzo and her black passenger, Leroy Moton, at a stoplight in Selma, catching up to the pair about two miles west of Lowndesboro. In 1966 a number of Lowndes County African-American families were evicted from their homes in retaliation for their participation in the movement. Twenty of these families set up a tent city outside of Lowndesboro rather than flee the area. Lowndesboro is located at 32°16′23″N 86°36′36″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.8 square miles, all land. Lowndesboro appeared on the 1850 and 1880 U. S. Census records, it did not appear again until 1970. In 1880, it was the largest town in the county with 472 residents, ahead of Fort Deposit and White Hall, the only two other communities separately returned; as of the census of 2000, there were 140 people, 58 households, 40 families residing in the town. The population density was 176.0 people per square mile. There were 62 housing units at an average density of 77.9 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the town was 71.43% White, 25.00% Black or African American, 1.43% from other races, 2.14% from two or more races. 3.57% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 58 households out of which 29.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.2% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.0% were non-families. 29.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.98. In the town, the population was spread out with 27.1% under the age of 18, 4.3% from 18 to 24, 27.9% from 25 to 44, 17.1% from 45 to 64, 23.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $27,917, the median income for a family was $35,833.
Males had a median income of $23,750 versus $41,250 for females. The per capita income for the town was $17,101. There were 16.0% of families and 29.7% of the population living below the poverty line, including 39.4% of under eighteens and 38.6% of those over 64. Private schoolsLowndes Academy Noble C. Powell, prominent leader in the Episcopal Church in the United States of America Lowndesboro Historic District Meadowlawn Plantation Dicksonia Plantation Hasan Kwame Jeffries. Bloody Lowndes: Civil Rights and Black Power in Alabama's Black Belt. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-4305-8. Retrieved 8 January 2013
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for