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Autechre are an English electronic music duo consisting of Rob Brown and Sean Booth, both from Rochdale, Greater Manchester. Formed in 1987, they are one of the best known acts signed to UK electronic label Warp Records, through which all of Autechre's full-length albums have been released beginning with their 1993 debut Incunabula, they gained initial recognition when they were featured on Warp's 1992 compilation Artificial Intelligence. Influenced by styles such as electro and acid house, the music of Autechre has evolved throughout their career from early, melodic techno recordings to works considered abstract and experimental, featuring complex algorithm-generated production and few stylistic conventions, their work has been associated with the 1990s electronic genre known as intelligent dance music, though Booth has dismissed the label as "silly." Brown and Booth met through Manchester's graffiti scene in 1987. Influenced by electro, hip-hop, acid house, they began trading mixtapes and creating their own compositions while collecting a handful of cheap equipment, most notably a Casio SK-1 sampler and a Roland TR-606 drum machine.

Their first release was Lego Feet, a 12" recorded under an alias of the same name brought out by Manchester's Skam Records. Their first release as Autechre was the single "Cavity Job" in 1991, released on Hardcore Records. Booth and Brown pronounce the name Autechre with a Rochdale accent. However, they have explained. Booth said: "The first two letters were intentional, because there was an'au' sound in the track, the rest of the letters were bashed randomly on the keyboard. We had this track title for ages, we had written it on a cassette, with some graphics, it looked good, we began using it as our name."Two more tracks appeared in 1992 under the now finalised Autechre name, on the Warp Records compilation Artificial Intelligence, part of the series of the same name. The compilation contained "The Egg" reworked for their first full-length release under the title "Eggshell". In 1993 Warp released their debut album, which became a surprise success, reaching the top of the UK Indie Chart; the album had a cool, calculated feel, with clear techno and electro roots, but showed hints of the rhythmic flourishes and tuned percussion that would become an important feature of their work.

An EP of remixes of Incunabula's "Basscadet" was released in 1994, with animated computer graphics for the Bcdtmx version created by Jess Scott-Hunter. This music video featured on MTV Europe's Party Zone when Autechre were interviewed during the show in September that year. 1994 saw the release of Amber, an album featuring a more ambient, less percussive approach than their debut. The Anti EP was released shortly before Amber and is, as of yet, the only Autechre release to have an explicit purpose: it was a protest against the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994, which would prohibit raves, defined as any gathering of nine or more people where rave music is played. Rave music was defined as music which "includes sounds wholly or predominantly characterized by the emission of a succession of repetitive beats"; the record came wrapped in a seal, on, printed a legal warning: "Flutter has been programmed in such a way that no bars contain identical beats and can therefore be played at both forty five and thirty three revolutions under the proposed new law.

However we advise DJs to have a lawyer and musicologist present at all times to confirm the non repetitive nature of the music in the event of police harassment." In a 2008 interview with Pitchfork Media, Rob Brown mentioned that Incunabula and Amber retrospectively sounded "cheesy". Brown clarified that "they were more simple, but not in a shit way." 1995 saw the release of Tri Repetae, their third album, as well as the EPs Anvil Vapre and Garbage, featuring a monochrome cover designed by The Designers Republic, with whom Autechre have long held a close association. Tri Repetae and its associated EPs were combined into a two disc set entitled Tri Repetae++, released in the United States. An official promotional video was created for "Second Bad Vilbel" from Anvil Vapre by English visual artist Chris Cunningham; the "Second Bad Vilbel" video featured cut shots of industrial machinery and robotic movement, synchronised with the music. Cunningham re-edited the video in 2002, following his disappointment with the original: "It was intended to be abstract but it didn't quite work out that way".

A two track vinyl-only EP entitled We R Are Why, was available to buy during certain concerts and via mail order during 1996. In 1995, Autechre's track "Nonima" was featured on Mind The Gap Volume 5, a Belgian compilation of electronic music. Autechre released three records in 1997: the full length Chiastic Slide, the EPs Envane, Cichlisuite; the latter EP consists of five remixed versions of "Cichli" from Chiastic Slide. Radio Mix was released in 1997. An untitled record followed in 1998, it has been seen as a transitional work, with Brown commenting in 2005 that "a lot of people have cited it as a classic Autechre album because it bridges the gap between the guys who liked our old stuff and the guys who got propelled on to our new stuff."1999 saw the release of their first Peel session EP, consisting of three tracks broadcast on John Peel's show for BBC Radio 1 in October 1995, as well as

Neoscona domiciliorum

Neoscona domiciliorum known as the spotted orbweaver or redfemured spotted orbweaver, is a spider in the family Araneidae. The specific epithet domiciliorum means "of dwellings" in Latin and refers to the fact that this species is found living on buildings, it is endemic to the United States southeast of a line joining Texas and Massachusetts. The female spotted orbweaver is seven to sixteen millimetres long and is sparsely covered in short gray hairs; the grayish abdomen has lateral broad, black stripes on either side with a thin transverse white band near the front making a pale cruciform shape. The first segment of each leg is red while the remaining segments are banded in pale gray; the underside is dark with four white spots on the abdomen, red at the tip. The male is about eight millimetres long and has a small, linear abdomen; as in other species in the genus Neoscona, there is a characteristic longitudinal groove on the carapace which separates them from species in Araneus. This species is endemic to southeastern parts of the United States and has been recorded in Alabama, Connecticut, Georgia, Iowa, Louisiana, Maryland, Missouri, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Texas and West Virginia.

This species is found in woodland habitats moist woods dominated by hardwood trees. It is found on buildings under the eaves where it may go unnoticed because of its nocturnal habits; the web is built by the female spotted orbweaver and is replaced, being built at dusk and taken down before daybreak. Late in the season the web may be left in place during the day because the female has greater nutritional needs at this time when she is preparing for egg laying; the web is placed vertically on a building. In contrast to webs built by species of Araneus, the hub is open and is crossed by only one or two threads; the orb of the web may be fifty centimetres in diameter with long frame lines attached to shrubs or to the ground. A retreat formed of leaves or debris bound together with silk is built near one end of a frame line; this is for use during the day as at night the spider occupies the hub of the web and is alert to every tremor

One member, one vote

In the parliamentary politics of the United Kingdom and Canada, one member, one vote is a method of selecting party leaders by a direct vote of the members of a political party. Traditionally, these objectives have been accomplished either by a party convention, a vote of members of parliament, or some form of electoral college. OMOV backers claim that OMOV enhances the practice of democracy, because ordinary citizens will be able to participate. Detractors counter that allowing those unversed in the issues to help make decisions makes for bad governance; the first OMOV leadership selection process in Canada was held by the Parti Québécois, ending on 29 September 1985. In English-speaking Canada, the principle of OMOV has for years been a major commitment of Vaughan L. Baird. Long a proponent of the election process that empowers all members of a party to choose their leaders, Baird was instrumental in having the provincial constituency of Morris, Manitoba put forward the principle of OMOV to the provincial Progressive Conservative Party on 5 November 1985.

After the Morris victory, Baird wrote to every national and provincial party in Canada and urged them to do the same. Soon after, the Manitoba Liberal Party adopted the principle. Alberta PCs used the method in electing Ralph Klein as their new leader in December 1992; the Progressive Conservative Party of Manitoba adopted the process in early 1987, but the party hierarchy had it revoked. Though again adopted by the party in 1994, OMOV was revoked a second time in November 1995. On November 17, 2001, with only three votes in opposition, OMOV was passed by the Progressive Conservative Party of Manitoba. In 1995, the New Democratic Party moved some way towards OMOV when they developed a series of regional primary elections prior to their convention. In the subsequent contest, his party went further adopted a modified OMOV process for the 2003 NDP leadership election in which the vote was calculated so that ballots cast by labour delegates had 25% weight in the total result, while votes cast by all party members on an OMOV had a weight of 75%.

When the federal Liberal government changed the election finances law, soon after Jack Layton won the NDP's leadership in the modified OMOV election on January 23, 2003, the party implemented full OMOV for its next leadership convention. The Bloc Québécois first used OMOV in its 1997 leadership election. In 1991, the Alberta Progressive Conservatives changed its rules for selecting a party leader, moving from a traditional delegate-based leadership convention to an OMOV system. Four party leaders were chosen using this system: Ralph Klein. However, the Alberta PC party ended this system in 2016; the Conservative Party of Canada uses a weighted OMOV system in which all ridings are accorded an equal number of points and those points are distributed to candidates proportionately to how party members in that riding vote. The Canadian Alliance used a pure OMOV system but in merger negotiations with the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada it was agreed to adopt the weighted system used in the 1998 Progressive Conservative leadership election in order to encourage leadership candidates to seek support across the country.

In 2009, the Liberal Party of Canada adopted a weighted membership vote in which each riding counts in the final tally. This is not a one-member, one vote system because, by definition, members have a variable number of votes depending on the riding they live in. However, it is similar to one member, one vote in that every party member is entitled to cast a ballot; the 2009 convention was conducted according to the old rules. However, as this convention did not feature a contested race but was a ratification of Michael Ignatieff's leadership, the last example of a full-blown delegated federal leadership convention being the 2006 convention that elected Stéphane Dion. In the United Kingdom, the methods of selecting party leaders developed as parliamentary parties took shape and grew more rigid over time, in some cases many decades after their counterparts elsewhere in the Commonwealth – for example, the Conservative Party did not adopt a formal method for choosing its leaders until 1965. Traditionally, members of Parliament have played a major role in selecting a party leaders, based on the belief that since a leader had to work with his or her parliamentary party, their views on who the leader should be had to be paramount.

In recent years, all major parties have implemented reforms to allow ordinary party members a say in the choosing of a new leader, while still allowing MPs a central role in the leadership selection process. The Liberal Democrats are the most longstanding example of a national UK party using the one-member, one-vote voting system, it has been used since the party's foundation in 1988. Rather than having a'runoff', the Liberal Democrats use the Alternative Vote system of preference voting. Liberal Democrat MPs have no special voting rights when choosing the leader – however, a prospective candidate must be a sitting Liberal Democrat MP with the support of at least ten percent of the parliamentary party in order to stand in a leadership election; until 1981, the Labour Party leader was chosen by a secret ballot of Labour MPs. One-member, one-vote for the election of the party's leader was first proposed at Labour's Wembley Special Conference in 1981, but was opposed by Tony Benn, who instead initiated an electoral college comprising different interest groups in the party: a trade union section comprising 40% of the total vote, consisting of block votes cast by union General Secretaries, another section of 30% comprising the Parliamentary Labour Party

No Thoroughfare

No Thoroughfare is a stage play and novel by Charles Dickens and Wilkie Collins, both released in December 1867. In 1867 Charles Dickens and Wilkie Collins collaborated to produce a stage play titled No Thoroughfare: A Drama: In Five Acts; the two had collaborated on the play The Frozen Deep. This was the last stage production to be associated with Dickens, who died in June 1870; the play opened at the Adelphi Theatre on 26 December 1867. The novel No Thoroughfare was first published in 1867, in the Christmas number of Dickens's periodical All The Year Round. There are thematic parallels with other books from Dickens's mature writings, including Little Dorrit and Our Mutual Friend; the publication of the story in All The Year Round represents an early example of commercial merchandising, promoting the story to those who were aware of the stage play, the play to those who had read the book. The chapters of the book are referred to as'acts', match the acts of the play. In the book Collins assisted in Act 1 and Act 4.

The story contains crafted descriptions, well-drawn and diverse characters and exotic backgrounds, semi-concealed identities, brinkmanship with death, the eventual triumph of Good over Evil, many other elements expected in classic Dickens. At 48,000 words it is the length of many modern novels. Two boys from the Foundling Hospital are given the same name, with disastrous consequences in adulthood. After the death of one – now a proprietor of a wine merchant's company – the executors, to right the wrong, are commissioned to find a missing heir, their quest takes them from wine cellars in the City of London to the sunshine of the Mediterranean – across the Alps in winter. Danger and treachery would prevail were it not for the courage of the heroine, a faithful company servant; the stage play follows a similar plotline, but is compressed and made dramatic in the fourth act, set in the Swiss Alps. The tension builds to a spectacular scene in which Obenreizer, the villain, confronts the hero George Vendale, at the side of a mountain gorge.

It has been performed only once since the 1867 West End premiere, in 1904 at a small theatre in Islington. However, on June 3, 2007, Primavera Productions produced a staged reading, directed by Tom Littler, at the King's Head Theatre in London; the reading starred Louise Brealey as Marguerite. No Thoroughfare at Project Gutenberg No Thoroughfare public domain audiobook at LibriVox

Billiards and Snooker Control Council

The Billiards and Snooker Control Council was the governing body of the games of English billiards and snooker. It was formed in 1919 by the union of the Billiards Control Club; the B&SCC went into voluntary liquidation in 1992 and its assets were acquired by the World Professional Billiards and Snooker Association. Until 1971 the body was known as the Billiards Control Council. On 1 February 1885, a meeting took place at The Sportsman's offices to consider revising the rules of billiards, chaired by a Mr A. H. Collins-Orme and attended by the majority of the prominent professional billiards players; this followed an article written by journalist Alf Burnett criticising the existing rules. Burnett and Peter Jennings contacted the players with a view to getting together to rewrite the rules. Collins-Orme proposed; this was agreed, "The Billiard Association of Great Britain and Ireland and the Colonies" was formed. Ten players were tasked with authoring a new set of rules for English billiards, they were John Roberts Jr. Joseph Bennett, Fred Bennett, George Collins, William Cook, John Roberts Sr.

Billy Mitchell, John North, W. J. Peall, John Roberts Sr, Joe Sala and Tom Taylor; the group met weekly in a dining area at the Royal Aquarium, finished writing the rules on 21 September 1886. The rules were published soon after that. Sydenham Dixon, a staff member at The Sportsman was the driving force behind the formation of the Billiards Association, the newspaper retained a strong influence over the association's affairs; the influence of the paper over the Association led to prominent player John Roberts Jr refusing to recognise the Association's authority. The Association came to be recognised as the governing body for billiards, organised amateur and professional championships, they produced templates for standard pocket sizes, which tables had to conform to if breaks made on them were to be recognised in official records.. The Billiards Association's control over the game was challenged by the Billiards Control Council, formed in 1908, which issued a different set of rules; the key differences in the BCC's version were that a player could not make more than two miss shots successively, a simpler explanation of penalties.

The professional players changed their allegiance to the newer Control Council, the professional championships were played under BCC rules, whilst most amateurs continued to play under Billiards Association rules. The two organisations decided that it was in their mutual interest to amalgamate, formed the Billiards Association and Control Club renamed the Billiards Association and Control Council, in 1919. In 1935, the Women's Billiards Association affiliated to the BA&CC and on 10 June 1936, the Billiards Association and Control Council agreed to take over management of the WBA. Lord Lonsdale, president of the BA&CC became president of the WBA. Leslie Driffield, a member of the BA&CC Council was present at a meeting where he the Council nominated him as the challenger to Rex Williams for the professional Billiards Championship. Williams declined to play Driffield within the five months time limit that the BA&CC Council had set, which expired on 7 July 1970, forfeited the title, contested between Driffield and Jack Karnehm in June 1971.

On 1 October 1970, the Professional Billiard Players Association, reestablished in 1968 Williams and seven other players, disaffiliated from the BA&CC. The Professional Billiard Players Association changed its name to the World Professional Billiards and Snooker Association on 12 December 1970, declared itself the governing body for the professional game, recognising Williams as champion. Driffield and Karnehm were, at first, the only two professionals to recognise the BA&CC as continuing to have authority over the game; the BA&CC had its own premises for the first time in 1970, when it opened offices and a match room, based in Haringey. Vera Selby and Alf Nolan were among the players who took part in exhibition matches at the official opening. On 21 January 1971 the Billiards Association and Control Council changed its name to the Billiards and Snooker Control Council; the B&SCC had a proportional representation system of delegate voting that meant that the representatives from just two English counties and Yorkshire, could outvote the rest of the world.

A World Billiards and Snooker Council was established in 1971, following a meeting of a number of national associations at a hotel in Malta during the IBSF World Billiards Championship. The associations were dissatisfied that the B&SCC was controlling both the UK and international games. Player and journalist Clive Everton served as the first secretary, his office served as the first office of the WB&SC. In 1973, the WB&SC renamed itself as the International Billiards and Snooker Federation and began to control non-professional billiards and snooker championships. At the beginning of the 1990s, the B&SCC was struggling financially as a result of the removal of its Sports Council funding; the London and Home Counties Billiards and Snooker Association cut links with the B&SCC in 1990, to start a new English Billiards and Snooker Federation. In 1992, the World Professional Billiards and Snooker Association was expected to take over the B&SCC, but following a vote of the B&SCC members approving this, the WPBSA discovered that the B&SCC had undeclared contingent liabilities of £100

Official Journal of the European Union

The Official Journal of the European Union is the official gazette of record for the European Union. It is published every working day in all of the official languages of the communautary level of EU, except Irish. Only legal acts published in the Official Journal are binding, it was first published on 30 December 1952 as the Official Journal of the European Coal and Steel Community. This was renamed Official Journal of the European Communities with the establishment of the European Community before taking its current title when the Treaty of Nice entered into force on 1 February 2003. Since 1998 the Journal has been available online via the EUR-Lex service; as of 1 July 2013, the electronic version of the Official Journal bears legal value instead of the paper version. Each issue is published as a set of documents in PDF/A format plus one XML document ensuring the overall coherency through hashes and a qualified electronic signature extended with a trusted time stamp; the Journal comprises two series: The L series contains EU legislation including regulations, decisions and opinions.

The C series contains reports and announcements including the judgments of the European Court of Justice and the General Court. There is a supplementary S series which contains invitations to tender, other documents relating to the EU Procurement Directives; the S Series is the only series, not issued in every working language of the Union. Each contracting authority issues notices in the language of its choice. EUR-Lex Directive European Documentation Centre European Union law Community acquis Public journal Federal Register Official Journal of the European Patent Office Publications Office of the European Union Tenders Electronic Daily Search the OJEU Online OJEU Wiki Online version of the Official Journal Supplement to the Official Journal of the European Union Explanation of the Official Journal of the European Union from the EU Publications Office