Mont Cenis is a massif and pass in Savoie, which forms the limit between the Cottian and Graian Alps. The pass connects Val-Cenis in France in the northwest with Susa in Italy in the southeast. In the Middle Ages, pilgrims passing through Moncenisio and Susa Valley came to Turin along a road called the Via Francigena, with a final destination of Rome, it was one of the most used Alpine passes from the Middle Ages to the nineteenth century. The pass was part of the border between the two countries from the annexation of Savoy to the Second French Empire in 1861 until the 1947 Treaty of Paris, but is now located in France; the treaty allowed Savoy to retrieve its political boundaries. It has been part of Route nationale 6. A road over the pass was built between 1810 by Napoleon; the Mont Cenis Pass Railway was opened alongside the road in 1868, but was dismantled in 1871, on the opening of the Fréjus Rail Tunnel. It was the first railway based on the Fell mountain railway system and was worked by English engine-drivers.
The Fréjus Rail Tunnel acquired the alternative, geographically incorrect, name of Mont Cenis Tunnel because the traffic which used the Mont Cenis Pass was transferred to it. This tunnel is 27.4 km 17 miles southwest of the pass, below the Col du Fréjus. From Chambéry the line runs up the Isère valley, but soon bears through that of the Arc or the Maurienne past Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne to Modane; the tunnel is 13 km in length, leads to Bardonecchia, some way below which, at Oulx the line joins the road from the Col de Montgenèvre. Thence the valley of the Dora Riparia is followed to Turin; the carriage road mounts the Arc valley for 25.7 km / 16 mi from Modane to Lanslebourg, whence it is 12.9 km / 8 mi to the hospice, a little way beyond the summit of the pass. The descent lies through the Cenis valley to Susa. To the southwest of the Mont Cenis is the Little Mont Cenis which leads from the summit plateau of the main pass to the Etache valley on the French slope and so to Bramans in the Arc valley.
This pass was crossed in 1689 by the Vaudois, is believed by some authors to have been the pass used by Hannibal to cross the Alps. The term "Mont Cenis" could derive from mont des cendres. According to tradition, following a forest fire, a great quantity of ashes accumulated on the ground, thus the name; the path of ashes was found during the building work of the route. Being a pass in the Alps, the Mont Cenis was used in several notable incidents in history. One example is the descent of Constantine I to Italy, it was the site of a military victory by the French Army of the Alps, led by General-in-Chief Alex Dumas over Piedmontese forces in April 1794, a victory that enabled the French Army of Italy to invade and conquer the Italian peninsula. It was the principal route for crossing the Alps between Italy until the 19th century, it was used as the main passage by which Charlemagne crossed with his army to invade Lombardy in 773, by Napoleon I. When the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont ceded Savoy to France, in 1860, the Mont Cenis became a frontier pass, a part of Savoy was left on the Italian side.
It was therefore fortified as a protection against an invasion of the Val di Susa route towards Turin. In 1874-1880 the Italian Regio Esercito built three stone forts: Fort Cassa, Fort Varisello and Fort Roncia, supported by several batteries and fortifications, such as those at top of Mont Malamot. Two further armored batteries, La Court and Paradiso, were added in the early 20th century, while the Fascist government built here part of its underground Alpine Wall. All these fortifications are now in French territory after the boundaries revision in 1947 allowing Savoy to get its historical territory back; the pass of Mont Cenis has been featured 5 times in the Tour de France. It has been classified hors-catégorie since 1999. For the 5 years that the pass was on the Tour, the following cyclists have crossed the pass in the lead: 1949 - Giuseppe Tacca, France 1956 - Federico Bahamontes, Spain 1961 - Emmanuel Busto, France 1992 - Claudio Chiappucci, Italy 1999 - Dimitri Konyshev, RussiaIn the 2013 Giro d'Italia, the pass was featured in the 15th stage on May 19, 2013.
Jardin botanique de Mont Cenis, an alpine botanical garden List of highest paved roads in Europe List of mountain passes This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Mont Cenis". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. P. 762. Val Cenis official website Profile on climbbybike.com Both Sides: Cycling Map and Photos Géologie aux alentours du col du Mont-Cenis Montcenis Comment en 1812 le pape Pie VII faillit mourir à l'hospice du Mont-Cenis. Chemin de Fer du Mont-Cenis Lac du Mont-Cenis Col du Petit Mont-Cenis Mont Cenis on Google Maps
Brescello is a comune in the Province of Reggio Emilia in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna, located about 80 kilometres northwest of Bologna and about 25 kilometres northwest of Reggio Emilia. As of 31 December 2016, it had a population of 5,621. Situated in the northwestern side of the province, close to the borders with the provinces of Parma and Mantua, Brescello lies on the southern shore of the river Po, near the confluence with the Enza; the municipality borders Boretto, Mezzani, Poviglio and Viadana. Located near the Po river, remains of this ancient town's Roman roots – it was called Brixellum or Brixillum during the Roman era – can still be seen in the Antiquarium, via Cavallotti 12, where ancient Roman relics and sculptures are on display. A bishop Cyprianus of Brixillum was present at a synod held in Milan in 451, but the bishopric came to an end when in the early 7th century the Byzantines destroyed the town to prevent it falling into the hands of the Lombard king Agilulf. No longer a residential bishopric, Brixillum is now listed by the Catholic Church.
Today, the town is most famous for being the set for the film series of Peppone and Don Camillo, played by Gino Cervi and Fernandel and based on the books by Giovannino Guareschi. Brescello has dedicated a museum to these two character, which houses many props, including a tank, used in a scene from Don Camillo e l'onorevole Peppone; the current church was rebuilt between 1829 and 1837 replacing the ancient medieval church that once stood here. Inside it has a nave and two aisles with six side altars, three on each side, with large archways that divide the nave from the aisles, an impressive wooden crucifix by Bruno Avesani. On the side of the main altar, there is a plaster statue of Padre Pio made by the local sculptor Carlo Pisi, in the curvature of the apse, there is the chorus seating made from inlaid wood, with a large painting by Carlo Zatti above it; the original altar is now located in the central chapel in the left aisle. Near it is the wooden, gold-leaf central pulpit; the facade, dominated by the 1896 bell tower, has two statues, one of the Virgin and one of the patron Saint Genesius, both by Innocente Franceschini, placed on the facade in 1899.
The bell tower has five bells. On the night of April 5, 2010, a fire damaged some furniture; this Benedictine monastery was built in the 15th century for the secluded monks of the Saint Benedict order who remained there until the beginning of the Cisalpine Republic. Renovated, it is now home to a Cultural Center which houses the Museum of Peppone and Don Camillo, a day care, the library, the Municipal Council, the Auser Center and the Municipal Police. Adjacent to the Museum, is a park where the remaining part of the original church of the old cloister of the Benedictine monks can be seen. In the center of the park there is the bust of Giovannino Guareschi inaugurated in 1995. Antonio Panizzi, patriot and bibliographer Mario Nizolio and scholar Begun in 2003, the festival is dedicated to documentaries and works of fiction that focus on Italy: its places, traditions and culture; the event is promoted by the Municipality of Brescello together with the Pro Loco Association and the Videoclub of Brescello, with the patronage of the Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Minister of Cultural Activities and Heritage.
The 2015 festival was held on June 20–23. This two-day event, taking place in June every other year, is an historical reenactment organised by the local archeological society; the event is organised to celebrate and remember the events which connect the village to the Roman emperor Otho. During the event it is possible to experience how life in Ancient Rome was thanks to the many workshops, the ludi, the traditional market on the main square and the traditional dinner taking place during the evening; the 2015 edition was held on June 13–14. Media related to Brescello at Wikimedia Commons Brescello official website
Bavaria the Free State of Bavaria, is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner. With an area of 70,550.19 square kilometres, Bavaria is the largest German state by land area comprising a fifth of the total land area of Germany. With 13 million inhabitants, it is Germany's second-most-populous state after North Rhine-Westphalia. Bavaria's main cities are Nuremberg; the history of Bavaria includes its earliest settlement by Iron Age Celtic tribes, followed by the conquests of the Roman Empire in the 1st century BC, when the territory was incorporated into the provinces of Raetia and Noricum. It became a stem duchy in the 6th century AD following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, it was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire, became an independent kingdom, joined the Prussian-led German Empire while retaining its title of kingdom, became a state of the Federal Republic of Germany. The Duchy of Bavaria dates back to the year 555. In the 17th century AD, the Duke of Bavaria became a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Kingdom of Bavaria existed from 1806 to 1918. In 1946, the Free State of Bavaria re-organised itself on democratic lines after the Second World War. Bavaria has a unique culture because of the state's Catholic majority and conservative traditions. Bavarians have traditionally been proud of their culture, which includes a language, architecture, festivals such as Oktoberfest and elements of Alpine symbolism; the state has the second largest economy among the German states by GDP figures, giving it a status as a rather wealthy German region. Modern Bavaria includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia and Swabia; the Bavarians emerged in a region north of the Alps inhabited by Celts, part of the Roman provinces of Raetia and Noricum. The Bavarians spoke Old High German, unlike other Germanic groups, they did not migrate from elsewhere. Rather, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by the Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century; these peoples may have included the Celtic Boii, some remaining Romans, Allemanni, Thuringians, Scirians, Heruli.
The name "Bavarian" means "Men of Baia" which may indicate Bohemia, the homeland of the Celtic Boii and of the Marcomanni. They first appear in written sources circa 520. A 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the diocese was named after an ancient Bohemian king, Boiia, in the 14th century BC. From about 554 to 788, the house of Agilolfing ruled the Duchy of Bavaria, ending with Tassilo III, deposed by Charlemagne. Three early dukes are named in Frankish sources: Garibald I may have been appointed to the office by the Merovingian kings and married the Lombard princess Walderada when the church forbade her to King Chlothar I in 555, their daughter, became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords. Garibald's successor, Tassilo I, tried unsuccessfully to hold the eastern frontier against the expansion of Slavs and Avars around 600. Tassilo's son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between 610 and 616.
After Garibald II little is known of the Bavarians until Duke Theodo I, whose reign may have begun as early as 680. From 696 onwards he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and strengthen Christianity in his duchy, his son, led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in 714, married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand. At Theodo's death the duchy was reunited under his grandson Hugbert. At Hugbert's death the duchy passed from neighboring Alemannia. Odilo issued a law code for Bavaria, completed the process of church organization in partnership with St. Boniface, tried to intervene in Frankish succession disputes by fighting for the claims of the Carolingian Grifo, he was defeated near Augsburg in 743 but continued to rule until his death in 748. Saint Boniface completed the people's conversion to Christianity in the early 8th century. Tassilo III succeeded his father at the age of eight after an unsuccessful attempt by Grifo to rule Bavaria.
He ruled under Frankish oversight but began to function independently from 763 onwards. He was noted for founding new monasteries and for expanding eastwards, fighting Slavs in the eastern Alps and along the River Danube and colonising these lands. After 781, his cousin Charlemagne began to pressure Tassilo to submit and deposed him in 788; the deposition was not legitimate. Dissenters attempted a coup against Charlemagne at Tassilo's old capital of Regensburg in 792, led by his own son Pépin the Hunchback; the king had to drag Tassilo out of imprisonment to formally renounce his rights and titles at the Assembly of Frankfurt in 794. This is the last appearance of Tassilo in the sources, he died a monk; as all of his family were forced into monasteries, this was the end of the Agilolfing dynasty. For the next 400 years numerous families held the duchy for more than three generations. With the revolt of duke Henry the Quarrelsome in 976, Bavaria lost large territories in the south and
Northern Italy is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy. Non-administrative, it consists of eight administrative Regions in northern Italy: Aosta Valley, Liguria, Emilia-Romagna, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol; as of 2014, its population was 27,801,460. Rhaeto-Romance and Gallo-Italic languages are spoken in the region, as opposed to the Italo-Dalmatian languages spoken in the rest of Italy. For statistic purposes, the Istituto Nazionale di Statistica uses the terms Northwest Italy and Northeast Italy for two of Italy's five statistical regions in its reporting; these same subdivisions are used to demarcate first-level Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics regions within the European Union, the Italian constituencies for the European Parliament. Northern Italy was called by different terms in different periods of History. During ancient times the terms Cisalpine Gaul, Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata were used to define that part of Italy inhabited by Celts during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.
Conquered by the Roman Republic in the 220s BC, it was a Roman province from c. 81 BC until 42 BC, when it was merged into Roman Italy. Until that time, it was considered part of Gaul that part of Gaul on the "hither side of the Alps", as opposed to Transalpine Gaul. After the fall of the Roman Empire and the settlement of the Lombards the name Langobardia Maior was used, in the Early Middle Ages, to define the domains of the Lombard Kingdom in Northern Italy; the Lombard territories beyond were called Langobardia Minor, consisting of the Duchies of Spoleto and Benevento. During the Late Middle Ages, after the fall of the northern part of the Lombard Kingdom to Charlemagne, the term Longobardia was used to mean Northern Italy within the medieval Kingdom of Italy; as the area became partitioned in regional states the term Lombardy subsequentially shifted to indicate only the area of the Duchies of Milan, Mantua and Modena and only to the area around Milan. In late modern period the term High Italy was used, for example by the Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale Alta Italia during the second World War.
Starting from the 1960s the term Padania was sometimes used as geographical synonym of Po Valley. The term appeared sparingly until the early 1990s, when Lega Nord, a federalist and, at times, separatist political party in Italy, proposed Padania as a possible name for an independent state in Northern Italy. Since it has carried strong political connotations. In pre-Roman centuries it was inhabited by different peoples among whom the Ligures, the ancient Veneti, who prospered through their trade in amber and breeding of horses, the Etruscans, who colonized Northern Italy from Tuscany, founded the city of Bologna and spread the use of writing; these people founded several cities like Turin and Milan and extended their rule from the Alps to the Adriatic Sea. Their development was halted by the Roman expansion in the Po Valley from the 3rd century BC onwards. After centuries of struggle, in 194 BC the entire area of what is now Northern Italy became a Roman province with the name of Gallia Cisalpina.
The Roman culture and language overwhelmed the former civilization in the following years, Northern Italy became one of the most developed and rich areas of the western half of the empire with the construction of a wide array of roads and the development of agriculture and trade. In late antiquity the strategic role of Northern Italy was emphasized by the moving of the capital of the Western Empire from Rome to Mediolanum in 286 and to Ravenna from 402 until the empire collapsed in 476. After the fall of the Western Empire, Northern Italy suffered from destruction brought about by migration from Germanic peoples and from the Gothic War. In the 570s the Germanic Lombards, or Longobardi, entered Northern Italy from Friuli and founded a long-lasting reign that gave the medieval name to the whole Northern Italy and the current name to the Lombardy region. After the initial struggles, relationships between the Lombard people and the Latin-speaking people improved. In the end, the Lombard language and culture assimilated with the Latin culture, leaving evidence in many names, the legal code and laws, other things.
The end of Lombard rule came in 774, when the Frankish king Charlemagne conquered Pavia, deposed Desiderius, the last Lombard king, annexed the Lombard Kingdom to his empire changing the name in Kingdom of Italy. The former Lombard dukes were replaced by Frankish counts, prince-bishops or marquises. In the 10th century Northern Italy was formally under the rule of the Holy Roman Empire but was in fact divided in a multiplicity of small, autonomous city-states, the medieval communes and maritime republic; the 11th century marked a significant boom in Northern Italy's economy, due to improved trading and agricultural innovations, culture flourished as well with many universities founded, among them the University of Bologna, the oldest university in Europe. The increasing richness of the city-states made them able to defy the traditional feudal supreme power, represented by the German emperors and their local vassals; this process led to the creation of different Lombard Leagues formed by allied cities of Lombardy that defeated the Hohenstaufen Emperor Frederick I, at Legnano, his grandson Frederick II, at Parma, becoming independent from the German emperors.
The Leagues failed to develop from an
Verona is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, with 258,108 inhabitants. It is one of the seven provincial capitals of the region, it is the third largest in northeast Italy. The metropolitan area of Verona covers an area of 1,426 km2 and has a population of 714,274 inhabitants, it is one of the main tourist destinations in northern Italy, because of its artistic heritage and several annual fairs and operas, such as the lyrical season in the Arena, the ancient amphitheater built by the Romans. Two of William Shakespeare's plays are set in Verona: Romeo and Juliet and The Two Gentlemen of Verona, it is unknown if Shakespeare visited Verona or Italy, but his plays have lured many visitors to Verona and surrounding cities. The city has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO because of its urban structure and architecture; the precise details of Verona's early history remain a mystery. One theory is. With the conquest of the Valley of the Po, the Veronese territory became Roman. Verona became a Roman colonia in 89 BC.
It was classified as a municipium in 49 BC, when its citizens were ascribed to the Roman tribe Poblilia or Publicia. The city became important. Stilicho defeated Alaric and his Visigoths here in 403. But, after Verona was conquered by the Ostrogoths in 489, the Gothic domination of Italy began. Theoderic the Great was said to have built a palace there, it remained under the power of the Goths throughout the Gothic War, except for a single day in 541, when the Byzantine officer Artabazes made an entrance. The defections that took place among the Byzantine generals with regard to the booty made it possible for the Goths to regain possession of the city. In 552 Valerian vainly endeavored to enter the city, but it was only when the Goths were overthrown that they surrendered it. In 569, it was taken by Alboin, King of the Lombards, in whose kingdom it was, in a sense, the second most important city. There, Alboin was killed by his wife in 572; the dukes of Treviso resided there. Adalgisus, son of Desiderius, in 774 made his last desperate resistance in Verona to Charlemagne, who had destroyed the Lombard kingdom.
Verona became the ordinary residence of the kings of Italy, the government of the city becoming hereditary in the family of Count Milo, progenitor of the counts of San Bonifacio. From 880 to 951 the two Berengarii resided there. Otto I ceded to Verona the marquisate dependent on the Duchy of Bavaria; when Ezzelino III da Romano was elected podestà in 1226, he converted the office into a permanent lordship. In 1257 he caused the slaughter of 11,000 Paduans on the plain of Verona. Upon his death, the Great Council elected Mastino I della Scala as podestà, he converted the "signoria" into a family possession, though leaving the burghers a share in the government. Failing to be re-elected podestà in 1262, he effected a coup d'état, was acclaimed capitano del popolo, with the command of the communal troops. Long internal discord took place before he succeeded in establishing this new office, to, attached the function of confirming the podestà. In 1277, Mastino della Scala was killed by the faction of the nobles.
The reign of his son Alberto as capitano was a time of incessant war against the counts of San Bonifacio, who were aided by the House of Este. Of his sons, Bartolomeo and Cangrande I, only the last shared the government. By war or treaty, he brought under his control the cities of Padua and Vicenza. At this time before the Black death the city was home to more than 40,000 people. Cangrande was succeeded by sons of Alboino. Mastino continued his uncle's policy, conquering Brescia in 1332 and carrying his power beyond the Po, he purchased Lucca. After the King of France, he was the richest prince of his time, but a powerful league was formed against him in 1337 – Florence, the Visconti, the Este, the Gonzaga. After a three years war, the Scaliger dominions were reduced to Vicenza. Mastino's son Cangrande II was a cruel and suspicious tyrant, he was killed by his brother Cansignorio, who beautified the city with palaces, provided it with aqueducts and bridges, founded the state treasury. He killed his other brother, Paolo Alboino.
Fratricide seems to have become a family custom, for Antonio, Cansignorio's natural brother, slew his brother Bartolomeo, thereby arousing the indignation of the people, who deserted him when Gian Galeazzo Visconti of Milan made war on him. Having exhausted all his resources, he fled from Verona at midnight, thus putting an end to the Scaliger domination, however, survived in its monuments; the year 1387 is the year of the famous Battle of Castagnaro, between Giovanni Ordelaffi, for Verona, John Hawkwood, for Padua, the winner. Antonio's son Canfrancesco attempted in vain to recover Verona. Guglielmo, natural son of Cangrande II, was more fortunate; the last representatives of the Scaligeri live
Trento is a city on the Adige River in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol in Italy. It is the capital of the autonomous province of Trento. In the 16th century, the city was the location of the Council of Trent. Part of Austria and Austria-Hungary, it was annexed by Italy in 1919. With 120,000 inhabitants, Trento is the third largest city in the Alps and second largest in the Tyrol. Trento is an educational, scientific and political centre in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, in Tyrol and Northern Italy in general; the University of Trento ranks 2nd among'medium sized' Universities in the Census ranking and 5th in the Il Sole 24 Ore ranking of Italian universities. The city contains a picturesque Medieval and Renaissance historic centre, with ancient buildings such as Trento Cathedral and the Castello del Buonconsiglio. Together with other Alpine towns Trento engages in the Alpine Town of the Year Association for the implementation of the Alpine Convention to achieve sustainable development in the Alpine Arc.
Trento was awarded the title of Alpine Town of the Year 2004. The city ranks among Italian cities for quality of life, standard of living, business and job opportunities, being ranked 5th in 2017. Trento is one of the nation's wealthiest and most prosperous cities, with its province being one of the richest in Italy, although poorer than its neighbors Lombardy and South Tyrol, with a GDP per capita of €31,200 and a GDP of €16.563 billion. The township of Trento encompasses the city centre as well as many suburbs of varied geographical and population conditions. Various distinctive suburbs still retain their traditional identity of rural or mountain villages. Trento lies in a wide glacial valley known as the Adige valley, just south of the Dolomite Mountains, where the Fersina River and Avisio rivers join the Adige River. River Adige is one of the three primary south-flowing Alpine rivers; the valley is surrounded by mountains, including Vigolana, Monte Bondone, Paganella and Monte Calisio. Nearby lakes include Lake Levico, Lake Garda and Lake Toblino.
Frazioni, or subdivisions of Trento: In 2007, there were 112,637 people residing in Trento, of whom 48% were male and 52% were female. Minors totalled 18.01 percent of the population compared to pensioners. This compares with the Italian average of 19.94 percent. The average age of Trento residents is 41 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Trento grew by 5.72 percent, while Italy as a whole grew by 3.56 percent. The current birth rate of Trento is 9.61 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births. As of 2006, 92.68% of the population was Italian. The largest immigrant group came from other European countries: 4.13%, North Africa: 1.08%, the Americas: 0.85%. Trento Informa reports that in 2011 there were 117,190 people residing in Trento, of whom 48.5% aged between 45 and 65. The average age was 43.1 years. 13,535 were foreigners. The origins of this city on the river track to Bolzano and the low Alpine passes of Brenner and the Reschen Pass over the Alps are disputed.
Some scholars maintain it was a Rhaetian settlement: the Adige area was however influenced by neighbouring populations, including the Veneti, the Etruscans and the Gauls. According to other theories, the latter did instead found the city during the 4th century BC. Trento was conquered by the Romans in the late 1st century BC, after several clashes with the Rhaetian tribes. Before the Romans, Trento was a Celtic village. In reality, the name derives from Trent, a tribute to the Celtic god of the waters; the Romans is a tribute to the Roman god Neptune. The Latin name is the source of the adjective "tridentine". On the old city hall, a Latin inscription is still visible: "Montes argentum mihi dant nomenque Tridentum", attributed to Fra' Bartolomeo da Trento. Tridentum became an important stop on the Roman road. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the independent bishopric of Trento was conquered by Ostrogoths, Byzantines and Franks becoming part of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1027, Emperor Conrad II created the Prince-Bishops of Trento, who wielded both temporal and religious powers.
In the following centuries, the sovereignty was divided between the Bishopric of Trent and the County of Tyrol. Around 1200, Trento became a mining center of some significance: silver was mined from the Monte Calisio - Khalisperg, Prince-Bishop Federico Wanga issued the first mining code of the alpine region. In the 14th century, the region of Trento was part of Austria; the dukes of Austria were the counts of Tyrol and dominated the region for six centuries. A dark episode in the history of Trento was the Trento blood libel; when a 3-year-old Christian boy, Simonino known
Brenner Pass is a mountain pass through the Alps which forms the border between Italy and Austria. It is one of the principal passes of the Eastern Alpine range and has the lowest altitude among Alpine passes of the area. Dairy cattle graze in alpine pastures throughout the summer in valleys beneath the pass and on the mountains above it. At lower altitudes, farmers log plant crops and harvest hay for winter fodder. Many of the high pastures are at an altitude of over 1,500 metres; the central section of Brenner Pass covers a four-lane motorway and railway tracks connecting Bozen/Bolzano in the south and Innsbruck to the north. The village of Brenner consists of an outlet shopping centre, fruit stores, cafés, hotels and a gas station, it has a population of 400 to 600. Prenner was the name of a nearby farm which derived from its former owner; the farm of a certain Prennerius is mentioned in documents in 1288, a certain Chunradus Prenner de Mittenwalde is mentioned in 1299. The name Prenner is traced back to the German word for somebody.
A name for the pass itself appears for the first time in 1328 as ob dem Prenner. The Romans regularised the mountain pass at Brenner, under frequent use during the prehistoric eras since the most recent Ice Age. Brenner Pass, was not the first trans-Alpine Roman road to become regularised under the Roman Empire; the first Roman road to cross the Alpine range, Via Claudia Augusta, connected Verona in northern Italy with Augusta Vindelicorum in the Roman province of Raetia. Via Augusta was completed in 46–47 AD; the Roman road that physically crossed over Brenner Pass did not exist until the 2nd century AD. It took the "eastern" route through the Puster Valley and descended into Veldidena, where it crossed the Inn and into Zirl and arrived at Augsburg via Garmisch-Partenkirchen; the Alamanni crossed the Brenner Pass southward into modern-day Italy in 268 AD, but they were stopped in November of that year at the Battle of Lake Benacus. The Romans kept control over the mountain pass until the end of their empire in the 5th century.
During the High Middle Ages, Brenner Pass was a part of the important Via Imperii, an imperial road linking the Kingdom of Germany north of the Alps with the Italian March of Verona. In the carolingian Divisio Regnorum of 806 the Brenner region is called per alpes Noricas, the transit through the Noric Alps. Since the 12th century, Brenner Pass was controlled by the Counts of Tyrol within the Holy Roman Empire. Emperor Frederick Barbarossa made frequent uses of the Brenner Pass to cross the Alps during his imperial expeditions of Italy; the 12th-century Brenner Pass was a trackway for mule carts. Modernisation of Brenner Pass started in 1777, when a carriage road was laid out at the behest of Empress Maria Theresa. Modernisation further took place under the Austrian Empire and the Brenner Railway, completed in stages from 1853 to 1867, it became the first trans-Alpine railway at high altitude. Completion of the railway enabled the Austrians to move their troops more efficiently. At the end of World War I in 1918, the control of Brenner Pass became shared between Italy and Austria under the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye.
The Treaty of London secretly awarded Italy the territories south of Brenner Pass for supporting the Entente Powers. Welschtirol/Trentino, along with the southern part of County of Tyrol, was transferred to Italy, Italian troops occupied Tyrol and arrived at Brenner Pass in 1919 to 20. During World War II, German Führer Adolf Hitler and Italian Duce Benito Mussolini met at Brenner Pass to celebrate their Pact of Steel on 18 March 1940. Brenner Pass was part of the ratlines that were used by some fleeing Nazis after the German surrender in 1945; the motorway E45, Brenner Autobahn/Autostrada del Brennero, begins in Innsbruck, runs through Brenner Pass, Bozen/Bolzano and finishes outside Modena. It is one of the most important routes of north-south connections in Europe. After the signing of the Schengen Agreement in 1992 and Austria's subsequent entry into the European Union in 1995, customs and immigration posts at Brenner Pass were removed in 1997. However, Austria reinstituted border checks in 2015 as a response to the European migrant crisis.
In April 2016, Austria announced it would build a 370-meter long fence at the Pass but clarify that "it would be used only to "channel" people and was not a barrier." The Europabrücke, located halfway between Innsbruck and the Brenner Pass, is a large concrete bridge carrying the six-lane Brenner Autobahn over the valley of Sill River. At a height of 180 metres and span of 820 metres, the bridge was celebrated as a masterpiece of engineering upon its completion in 1963, it is a site. The ever-increasing freight and leisure traffic, has been ca