Hank Klibanoff is an American journalist, now a professor at Emory University. He and Gene Roberts won the 2007 Pulitzer Prize for History for the book The Race Beat: The Press, the Civil Rights Struggle, the Awakening of a Nation. Hank Klibanoff was raised in Florence, Alabama, he got an early start in journalism delivering newspapers by bicycle. He graduated from Coffee High School in Florence and attended Washington University in St. Louis, where he studied under Howard Nemerov and received his B. A. in English. He subsequently received a master's degree in journalism from the Medill School of Northwestern University, he was managing editor of the Atlanta Journal-Constitution until June 24, 2008, when he stepped down. He had been deputy managing editor for The Philadelphia Inquirer, he had been a reporter for six years in Mississippi and three years at The Boston Globe. Klibanoff is the director of the journalism program at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, as well as the project managing editor of the Civil Rights Cold Case Project.
He hosts a podcast called Buried Truths about racial tensions in Georgia during and after the 1948 election. Https://www.npr.org/podcasts/577471834/buried-truths Klibanoff is father to 3 girls, Eleanor and Corinne. Hank Klibanoff at Library of Congress Authorities, with 1 catalog records
Civil rights movement
The civil rights movement in the United States was a decades-long struggle with the goal of enforcing constitutional and legal rights for African Americans that other Americans enjoyed. With roots that dated back to the Reconstruction era during the late 19th century, the movement achieved its largest legislative gains in the mid-1960s, after years of direct actions and grassroots protests that were organized from the mid-1950s until 1968. Encompassing strategies, various groups, organized social movements to accomplish the goals of ending legalized racial segregation, disenfranchisement, discrimination in the United States, the movement, using major nonviolent campaigns secured new recognition in federal law and federal protection for all Americans. After the American Civil War and the abolition of slavery in the 1860s, the Reconstruction Amendments to the United States Constitution granted emancipation and constitutional rights of citizenship to all African Americans, most of whom had been enslaved.
For a period, African Americans voted and held political office, but they were deprived of civil rights under Jim Crow laws, subjected to discrimination and sustained violence by whites in the South. Over the following century, various efforts were made by African Americans to secure their legal rights. Between 1955 and 1968, acts of nonviolent protest and civil disobedience produced crisis situations and productive dialogues between activists and government authorities. Federal and local governments and communities had to respond to these situations, which highlighted the inequities faced by African Americans across the country; the lynching of Chicago teenager Emmett Till in Mississippi, the outrage generated by seeing how he had been abused, when his mother decided to have an open-casket funeral, mobilized the African-American community nationwide. Forms of protest and/or civil disobedience included boycotts, such as the successful Montgomery Bus Boycott in Alabama. Moderates in the movement worked with Congress to achieve the passage of several significant pieces of federal legislation that overturned discriminatory practices and authorized oversight and enforcement by the federal government.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 expressly banned discrimination based on race, religion, sex, or national origin in employment practices. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 restored and protected voting rights for minorities by authorizing federal oversight of registration and elections in areas with historic under-representation of minorities as voters; the Fair Housing Act of 1968 banned discrimination in the rental of housing. African Americans re-entered politics in the South, across the country young people were inspired to take action. From 1964 through 1970, a wave of inner-city riots in black communities undercut support from the white middle class, but increased support from private foundations; the emergence of the Black Power movement, which lasted from about 1965 to 1975, challenged the established black leadership for its cooperative attitude and its practice of nonviolence. Instead, its leaders demanded that, in addition to the new laws gained through the nonviolent movement and economic self-sufficiency had to be developed in the black community.
Many popular representations of the movement are centered on the charismatic leadership and philosophy of the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. who won the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize for his role in non-violent, moral leadership. However, some scholars note that the movement was too diverse to be credited to any one person, organization, or strategy. Before the American Civil War four million blacks were enslaved in the South, only white men of property could vote, the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only. But some free states of the North extended the franchise and other rights of citizenship to African Americans. Following the Civil War, three constitutional amendments were passed, including the 13th Amendment that ended slavery. From 1865 to 1877, the United States underwent a turbulent Reconstruction Era trying to establish free labor and civil rights of freedmen in the South after the end of slavery. Many whites resisted the social changes, leading to insurgent movements such as the Ku Klux Klan, whose members attacked black and white Republicans to maintain white supremacy.
In 1871, President Ulysses S. Grant, the U. S. Army, U. S. Attorney General Amos T. Akerman, initiated a campaign to repress the KKK under the Enforcement Acts; some states were reluctant to enforce the federal measures of the act. In addition, by the early 1870s, other white supremacist and insurgent paramilitary groups arose that violently opposed African-American legal equality and suffrage and suppressing black voters, assassinating Republican officeholders. However, if the states failed to implement the acts, the laws allowed the Federal Government to ge
The Race Beat
The Race Beat: The Press, the Civil Rights Struggle, the Awakening of a Nation is a Pulitzer Prize-winning book written in 2006 by journalists Gene Roberts and Hank Klibanoff. The book is about the Civil Rights Movement in the United States about the role of newspapers and television. "Race Beat" refers to reporters. The book received the 2007 Pulitzer Prize for History, it was the necessary reading for the University Interscholastic League's Social Studies Competition in 2019
Carthage is a city in Leake County, United States. The population was 5,075 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Leake County. The largest chicken processing plant in the world is located in Carthage. Carthage was established in 1834, became the county seat; the Harris family were early settlers, named the town after their former home of Carthage, Tennessee. A courthouse and jail were built in 1836, a post office was established the following year. Carthage was incorporated in 1876. A brick courthouse replaced the previous one in 1877, was replaced again in 1910; the Carthaginian newspaper was established in 1872, remains in publication today. By 1900, agriculture was the primary industry in Leake County; the Pearl River, located 2 mi south of Carthage, was used to ship goods by steamboat to and from Jackson, the state capital. Although a railroad ran through Carthage, it did not play a significant role in the development of the town. In 1914, the Merrill Brothers Logging Company built a logging railroad from Canton to McAfee, passing through Carthage.
The line was taken over in 1927 by the Canton and Carthage Railroad, which established commercial service to Carthage. The railroad was abandoned in 1960. In 1927, Jackson's Daily Clarion Ledger wrote an article entitled "Carthage is a Good Progressive and Enterprising City - Thriving Center of Leake County Holds Modern Benefits". By Carthage had schools, churches, an ice plant, two banks, a Masonic Hall, a Coca-Cola bottling plant; the population had surpassed 2,000 by 1964, the town was reclassified as a city. A large area known as the "Carthage Historic District", comprising commercial and residential properties of various architectural styles, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the post office and the Jordan House are individually listed. When Carthage, Texas established in 1848, it was named after Mississippi; as early as 1948, Carthage began holding an annual "Tri-Racial Goodwill Festival", in which all citizens were included. Although the directors of the first festival separated whites, African Americans and Native Americans, this was corrected in subsequent years.
The local newspaper reported that at the 1949 festival, "friendship and goodwill fellowship permeated the air". In 1964, a group known as Americans for the Preservation of the White Race initiated a boycott in Carthage against white-owned businesses that were complying with the Civil Rights Act; when members of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee tried to open a Freedom School in Carthage, local whites told them their deed was invalid, threatened to burn the school. In 1967, shots were fired into the home of an NAACP worker in Carthage. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.4 square miles, of which 9.4 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. The geographic center of Mississippi is located 9 mi west-northwest of Carthage; as of the census of 2000, there were 4,637 people, 1,490 households, 1,065 families residing in the city. The population density was 495.9 people per square mile. There were 1,654 housing units at an average density of 176.9 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 52.86% White, 44.25% African American, 1.04% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.58% from other races, 0.82% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.94% of the population. There were 1,490 households out of which 37.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.8% were married couples living together, 23.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.5% were non-families. 25.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.12. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.1% under the age of 18, 11.7% from 18 to 24, 28.4% from 25 to 44, 18.1% from 45 to 64, 15.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $25,052, the median income for a family was $30,069.
Males had a median income of $27,060 versus $17,280 for females. The per capita income for the city was $12,986. About 21.5% of families and 26.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 39.6% of those under age 18 and 18.8% of those age 65 or over. The largest chicken processing plant in the world—able to process 2.5 million chickens per week—is located on Highway 35 north of Carthage. Owned by Choctaw Maid Farms, the plant was flanked by a large trailer park built in the mid-1990s to house the factory's growing Hispanic migrant workforce, the Hispanic population of Carthage increased from 1.9 percent to 12.3 percent between 2000 and 2010. The plant was purchased by Tyson Foods in 2003, employs 1,700; the Square Affair is held annually each May, features walks, runs, a children's fishing rodeo, an idol competition, fireworks, a basketball tournament. McMillian Park in Carthage has baseball diamonds, tennis courts, a fishing pond. Lincoln Park in Carthage has a baseball diamond, basketball court, walking trail, community center.
The City of Carthage is served by the Leake County School District. Carthage is served by Mississippi Highway 35, Mississippi Highway 16, Mississippi Highway 25; the Carthage-Leake County Airport is located north of the city. Carthage is protected by its own fire departments; the Baptist Medical Center in Carthage provides critical care. The Chambers Broth
Selma is a city in and the county seat of Dallas County, in the Black Belt region of south central Alabama and extending to the west. Located on the banks of the Alabama River, the city has a population of 20,756 as of the 2010 census; the city is best known for the 1960s Selma Voting Rights Movement and the Selma to Montgomery marches, beginning with "Bloody Sunday" in March 1965 and ending with 25,000 people entering Montgomery at the end of the last march to press for voting rights. This activism generated national attention to social justice and that summer, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was passed by Congress to authorize federal oversight and enforcement of constitutional rights of all citizens, it had been a trading market town during the years of King Cotton in the South. It was an important armaments manufacturing and iron shipbuilding center during the Civil War, surrounded by miles of earthen fortifications; the Confederate forces were defeated during the Battle of Selma. Before discovery and settlement, the area of present-day Selma had been inhabited for thousands of years by various warring tribes of Indians.
The Europeans encountered the historic Native American people known as the Muscogee, in the area for hundreds of years. French explorers and colonists were the first Europeans to explore this area. In 1732, they recorded the site of present-day Selma as Écor Bienville. Anglo-Americans called it the Moore's Bluff settlement. Selma was incorporated in 1820; the city was planned and named as Selma by William R. King, a politician and planter from North Carolina, a future Vice President of the United States; the name, meaning "throne", came from the Ossianic poem The Songs of Selma. During the Civil War, Selma was one of the South's main military manufacturing centers, producing tons of supplies and munitions, building Confederate warships such as the ironclad Tennessee; the Selma iron works and foundry was considered the second-most important source of weaponry for the South, after the Tredegar Iron Works in Richmond, Virginia. This strategic concentration of manufacturing capabilities made Selma a target of Union raids into Alabama late in the Civil War.
Because of its military importance, Selma had been fortified by three miles of earthworks that ran in a semicircle around the city. They were anchored on the south by the Alabama River; the works had been built two years earlier, while neglected for the most part since, were still formidable. They were 8 feet to 12 feet high, 15 feet thick at the base, with a ditch 4 feet wide and 5 feet deep along the front. In front of this was a 5 feet high picket fence of heavy posts planted in the ground and sharpened at the top. At prominent positions, earthen forts were built with artillery in position to cover the ground over which an assault would have to be made; the North had learned of the importance of Selma to the Confederate military, Federal military planned to take the city. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman first made an effort to reach it, but after advancing from the west as far as Meridian, within 107 miles of Selma, his forces retreated back to the Mississippi River. Gen. Benjamin Grierson, invading with a cavalry force from Memphis, was intercepted and returned.
On March 30, 1865, Union General James H. Wilson detached Gen. John T. Croxton's brigade to destroy all Confederate property at Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Wilson's forces captured a Confederate courier, found to be carrying dispatches from Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest describing his scattered forces. Wilson sent a brigade to destroy the bridge across the Cahaba River at Centreville, which cut off most of Forrest's reinforcements from reaching the area, he began a running fight with Forrest's forces. On the afternoon of April 1, after skirmishing all morning, Wilson's advanced guard ran into Forrest's line of battle at Ebenezer Church, where the Randolph Road intersected the main Selma road. Forrest had hoped to bring his entire force to bear on Wilson. Delays caused by flooding, plus earlier contact with the enemy, resulted in Forrest mustering fewer than 2,000 men, many of whom were not war veterans but home militia consisting of old men and young boys; the outnumbered and outgunned Confederates fought for more than an hour as reinforcements of Union cavalry and artillery were deployed.
Forrest was killed with his revolver. A Union cavalry charge broke the Confederate militia, causing Forrest to be flanked on his right, he was forced to retreat. Early the next morning, Forrest reached Selma. Taylor did so after giving Forrest command of the defense. Selma was protected by fortifications; the wall was deep, surrounded by a ditch and picket fence. Earthen forts were built to cover the grounds with artillery fire. Forrest's defenders consisted of his Tennessee escort company, McCullough's Missouri Regiment, Crossland's Kentucky Brigade, Roddey's Alabama Brigade, Frank Armstrong's Mississippi Brigade, General Daniel W. Adams' state reserves, the citizens of Selma who were "volunteered" to man the works. Altogether this force numbered less than 4,000; as the Selma fortifications were built to be defended by 20,000 men, Forrest's soldiers had to stand 10 to 12 feet apart to try to cover the works. Wilson's force arrived in fr
George H. Denny
George Hutcheson Denny was an American academic and former president at both Washington and Lee University and the University of Alabama. Both a football coach and an educator, he was appointed Washington and Lee's president in 1901, he remained in that spot until his resignation in 1912 to become president at Alabama. Denny served as president of Alabama from 1912 through 1936 and again as interim president in 1941 and 1942. Denny oversaw a major expansion of the physical campus during his tenure, he died at age 84 on April 1955, in Lexington, Virginia. Denny was born on December 1870, in Hanover County, Virginia to George H. and Charlotte M. Denny, he attended Hampden–Sydney College, where he earned his Bachelor of Arts in 1891 and his Master of Arts in 1892. In 1896 Denny was awarded his Doctor of Philosophy from the University of Virginia. During his education at University of Virginia, he became a member of the Sigma Chi Fraternity. After obtaining his doctorate, Denny returned to Hampden–Sydney, where he was a professor of Latin and German from 1896 though 1899.
He resigned to become a professor of Latin at Lee University. During his teaching tenure at Hampden–Sydney, Denny served as the head coach of their football team for the 1896 season. For the season, he led the Tigers to home victories over Randolph–Macon and Roanoke and a loss on the road against VPI en route to a record of two wins and one loss. Denny started his career at Washington and Lee University in 1899 and by 1900 he was appointed as the interim president of the school. In October 1901 the university trustees appointed him as the full-time president of the university. During his tenure as president, Denny oversaw increased enrollment at Washington and Lee, improved facilities and overall finances, he remained in the position of president through the fall of 1911 when he resigned in order to become the 15th president of the University of Alabama. Denny started his tenure at the University of Alabama in January 1912. During his period in office as university president, Denny oversaw a significant increase in enrollment and construction on-campus.
Both Denny Chimes and Bryant–Denny Stadium were named in his honor. He retired as president in 1936, but was reappointed as interim president from 1941 to 1942. After he completed his term as interim president, Denny retired to Lexington, Virginia, in 1943. Denny died on April 2, 1955, at a hospital in Lexington as a result of complications suffered after the amputation of his left leg. General Specific
Louisiana is a state in the Deep South region of the South Central United States. It is the 25th most populous of the 50 United States. Louisiana is bordered by the state of Texas to the west, Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, the Gulf of Mexico to the south. A large part of its eastern boundary is demarcated by the Mississippi River. Louisiana is the only U. S. state with political subdivisions termed parishes. The state's capital is Baton Rouge, its largest city is New Orleans. Much of the state's lands were formed from sediment washed down the Mississippi River, leaving enormous deltas and vast areas of coastal marsh and swamp; these contain a rich southern biota. There are many species of tree frogs, fish such as sturgeon and paddlefish. In more elevated areas, fire is a natural process in the landscape, has produced extensive areas of longleaf pine forest and wet savannas; these support an exceptionally large number of plant species, including many species of terrestrial orchids and carnivorous plants.
Louisiana has more Native American tribes than any other southern state, including four that are federally recognized, ten that are state recognized, four that have not received recognition. Some Louisiana urban environments have a multicultural, multilingual heritage, being so influenced by a mixture of 18th-century French, Spanish, Native American, African cultures that they are considered to be exceptional in the US. Before the American purchase of the territory in 1803, present-day Louisiana State had been both a French colony and for a brief period a Spanish one. In addition, colonists imported numerous African people as slaves in the 18th century. Many came from peoples of the same region of West Africa. In the post-Civil War environment, Anglo-Americans increased the pressure for Anglicization, in 1921, English was for a time made the sole language of instruction in Louisiana schools before a policy of multilingualism was revived in 1974. There has never been an official language in Louisiana, the state constitution enumerates "the right of the people to preserve and promote their respective historic and cultural origins."
Louisiana was named after Louis XIV, King of France from 1643 to 1715. When René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi River for France, he named it La Louisiane; the suffix -ana is a Latin suffix that can refer to "information relating to a particular individual, subject, or place." Thus Louis + ana carries the idea of "related to Louis." Once part of the French Colonial Empire, the Louisiana Territory stretched from present-day Mobile Bay to just north of the present-day Canada–United States border, including a small part of what is now the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The Gulf of Mexico did not exist 250 million years ago when there was but one supercontinent, Pangea; as Pangea split apart, the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico opened. Louisiana developed, over millions of years, from water into land, from north to south; the oldest rocks are exposed in areas such as the Kisatchie National Forest. The oldest rocks date back to the early Cenozoic Era, some 60 million years ago.
The history of the formation of these rocks can be found in D. Spearing's Roadside Geology of Louisiana; the youngest parts of the state were formed during the last 12,000 years as successive deltas of the Mississippi River: the Maringouin, Teche, St. Bernard, the modern Mississippi, now the Atchafalaya; the sediments were carried from north to south by the Mississippi River. In between the Tertiary rocks of the north, the new sediments along the coast, is a vast belt known as the Pleistocene Terraces, their age and distribution can be related to the rise and fall of sea levels during past ice ages. In general, the northern terraces have had sufficient time for rivers to cut deep channels, while the newer terraces tend to be much flatter. Salt domes are found in Louisiana, their origin can be traced back to the early Gulf of Mexico, when the shallow ocean had high rates of evaporation. There are several hundred salt domes in the state. Salt domes are important not only as a source of salt. Louisiana is bordered to the west by Texas.
The state may properly be divided into two parts, the uplands of the north, the alluvial along the coast. The alluvial region includes low swamp lands, coastal marshlands and beaches, barrier islands that cover about 20,000 square miles; this area lies principally along the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi River, which traverses the state from north to south for a distance of about 600 mi ) and empties into the Gulf of Mexico. The breadth of the alluvial region along the Mississippi is from 10 to 60 miles, along the other rivers, the alluvial region averages about 10 miles across; the Mississippi River flows along a ridge formed by its own natural deposits, from which the lands decline toward a river beyond at an average fall of six feet per mile. The alluvial lands along other streams present similar features; the higher and contiguous hill lands of the north and northwestern part of the state have an area of more than 25,000 square miles. They consist of prairie and woodl