William Taylor (man of letters)
He was born in Norwich, England on 7 November 1765, the only child of William Taylor, a wealthy Norwich merchant with European trade connections, by his wife Sarah, second daughter of John Wright of Diss, Norfolk. William Taylor was taught Latin and Dutch by John Bruckner, pastor of the French and Dutch Protestant churches in Norwich, in preparation for continuing his father's continental trading in textiles. In 1774 he was transferred to Palgrave Academy, Suffolk, by Rochemont Barbauld, whose wife Anna Letitia Barbauld Taylor regarded as a strong influence. For three years his school companion was Frank Sayers, to be a lifelong friend. In August 1779 his father took him from school. During the next three years he spent much of his time abroad. Firstly he visited the Netherlands and Italy, learning languages and business methods. In 1781, he left home again, spent a year in Detmold, staying with an Alsatian Protestant pastor called Roederer, absorbing German literature under the influence of Lorenz Benzler.
Roederer gave him introductions to August Ludwig von Schlözer the historian at Göttingen, to Goethe at Weimar. After further German travels he returned to Norwich on 17 November 1782. Taylor was a Unitarian who attended Norwich, he became the leading figure of Norwich's literary circles, a political radical. He applauded the French Revolution and argued for universal suffrage and the end of all governmental intervention in the affairs of religion, he wrote in the 18th century tradition of latitudinarian criticism of the Bible. In the period 1793 to 1799 he wrote over 200 reviews in periodicals, following his concept of "philosophical criticism". From 1783 Taylor was engaged in his father's business. In May and June 1784 he was in Scotland with Sayers. A second journey to Edinburgh in 1788 followed a breakdown in Sayers' health. In November 1789 Taylor's father was made secretary of a Revolution Society in Norwich, formed to commemorate the Glorious Revolution of 1688. In May 1790 Taylor made a visit to France, spent time at the National Assembly.
He returned somewhat sceptical whether its members' rhetoric matched their intentions, but translated a number of its decrees for the Revolution Society. Before the end of 1790 two new clubs were formed in Norwich, of which Taylor became a member, the "Tusculan School" for political discussion, the Speculative Society, founded by William Enfield for philosophical debate. Taylor became a leader of the Speculative Club, it lasted to 1797. Around this point in time, Taylor persuaded his father to retire on his fortune; the firm was dissolved in 1791. Taylor resisted his father's wish to put him into a London bank. William Taylor senior gave up his position as secretary to the Revolution Society by early 1792. In May 1794 government repression of radicals meant the Norwich Revolution Society closed down officially. In late 1794 a Norwich periodical, The Cabinet, was set up, publishing articles taking an anti-government view, it was supposed to be the work of a "Society of Gentlemen", the group behind it being related to the Tusculan School, which dissolved or went underground in mid-1794: it was edited by Charles Marsh, Taylor contributed, along with other like-minded young radicals, such as Thomas Starling Norgate and Amelia Alderson.
They had tacit support including Enfield and Edward Rigby. It appeared for a year from September 1794, proposing in fact a moderate intellectual line. Taylor was nicknamed godless Billy for his radical views, he was a heavy drinker, of whom his contemporary Harriet Martineau said: his habits of intemperance kept him out of the sight of ladies, he got round him a set of ignorant and conceited young men, who thought they could set the whole world right by their destructive propensities. David Chandler writes in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography that Taylor was homosexual. Taylor's friendship with Robert Southey began early in 1798, when Southey, having placed his brother Henry Herbert Southey with George Burnett at Great Yarmouth, visited Norwich as Taylor's guest. Much of their correspondence to 1821 is given by John Warden Robberds in his Memoir of Taylor. In 1802, during the Peace of Amiens, Taylor embarked on another tour of Europe, visiting France and German on business, he stayed with Lafayette at Lagrange.
In Paris he met Thomas Holcroft, Thomas Paine, Thomas Manning. From 1811 American and other business losses made money tight. Taylor applied in 1812, at Southey's suggestion, for the post of keeper of manuscripts in the British Museum, on the resignation of Francis Douce. Unmarried, Taylor lived with his parents, he had a daily routine of studying in the morning, walking in the afternoon followed by bathing in the River Wensum, from a bath house upstream from the city and its pollution. In the evening he liked to socialise and discuss linguistics and philosophy in society. Three early poetic translations from German brought him to notice. Georg Herzfeld wrongly assigned to him the political song, The Trumpet of Liberty, first published in the Norfolk Chronicle on 16 July 1791, having been sung on 14 July at a dinner commemorating the fall of the Bastille.
Periodical literature is a category of serial publications that appear in a new edition on a regular schedule. The most familiar example is the magazine published weekly, monthly, or quarterly. Newspapers published daily or weekly, are speaking, a separate category of serial. Other examples of periodicals are newsletters, literary magazines, academic journals, science magazines and comic books; these examples are published and referenced by volume and issue. Volume refers to the number of years the publication has been circulated, issue refers to how many times that periodical has been published during that year. For example, the April 2011 publication of a monthly magazine first published in 2002 would be listed as, "volume 10, issue 4". Roman numerals are sometimes used in reference to the volume number; when citing a work in a periodical, there are standardized formats such as The Chicago Manual of Style. In the latest edition of this style, a work with volume number 17 and issue number 3 may be written as follows: James M. Heilman, Andrew G. West.
"Wikipedia and Medicine: Quantifying Readership and the Significance of Natural Language." Journal of Medical Internet Research 17, no. 3. Doi:10.2196/jmir.4069. Periodicals are classified as either popular or scholarly. Popular periodicals are magazines. Scholarly journals are most found in libraries and databases. Examples are the Journal of Social Work. Trade magazines are examples of periodicals, they are written for an audience of professionals in the world. As of the early 1990s, there were over 6,000 academic, scientific and trade publications in the United States alone; these examples are related to the idea of an indefinitely continuing cycle of production and publication: magazines plan to continue publishing, not to stop after a predetermined number of editions. A novel, in contrast, might be published in monthly parts, a method revived after the success of The Pickwick Papers by Charles Dickens; this approach is called part-publication when each part is from a whole work, or a serial, for example in comic books.
It flourished during the nineteenth century, for example with Abraham John Valpy's Delphin Classics, was not restricted to fiction. The International Standard Serial Number is to serial publications what the International Standard Book Number is to books: a standardized reference number. Postal services carry periodicals at a preferential rate. Partwork
The Story of My Experiments with Truth
The Story of My Experiments with Truth is the autobiography of Mohandas K. Gandhi, covering his life from early childhood through to 1921, it was written in weekly instalments and published in his journal Navjivan from 1925 to 1929. Its English translation appeared in installments in his other journal Young India, it was initiated at the insistence of Swami Anand and other close co-workers of Gandhi, who encouraged him to explain the background of his public campaigns. In 1999, the book was designated as one of the "100 Best Spiritual Books of the 20th Century" by a committee of global spiritual and religious authorities; this section is written by Mahadev Desai who translated the book from Gujarati to English in 1940. In this preface Desai notes that the book was published in two volumes, the first in 1927 and second in 1929, he mentions that the original was priced at ₹1 and had a run of five editions by the time of the writing of his preface. 50,000 copies had been sold in Gujarati but since the English edition was expensive it prevented Indians from purchasing it.
Desai notes the need to bring out a cheaper English version. He mentions that the translation has been revised by an English scholar who did not want his name to be published. Chapters XXIX-XLIII of Part V were translated by Desai's colleague Pyarelal; the introduction is written by Gandhi himself mentioning how he has resumed writing his autobiography at the insistence of Jeramdas, a fellow prisoner in Yerwada Central Jail with him. He mulls over the question a friend asked him about writing an autobiography, deeming it a Western practice, something "nobody does in the east". Gandhi himself agrees that his thoughts might change in life but the purpose of his story is just to narrate his experiments with truth in life, he says that through this book he wishes to narrate his spiritual and moral experiments rather than political. The first part narrates incidents of Gandhi's childhood, his experiments with eating meat, drinking and subsequent atonement. There are two texts, he records the profound impact of the play Harishchandra and says,"I read it with intense interest...
It haunted me and I must have acted Harishchandra to myself times without number." Another text he mentions reading that affected him was Shravana Pitrabhakti Nataka, a play about Shravana's devotion to his parents. Gandhi got married at the age of 13. In his words, "It is my painful duty to have to record here my marriage at the age of thirteen... I can see no moral argument in support of such a preposterously early marriage." Another important event documented in this part is the demise of Gandhi's father Karamchand Gandhi. Gandhi wrote the book to deal with his experiment for truth, his disdain for physical training at school gymnastics has been written about in this part. After a long history of antagonism, the British and the Dutch shared power in South Africa, with Britain ruling the regions of Natal and Cape Colony, while the Dutch settlers known as the Boers taking charge in the Orange Free State and the Transvaal, two independent republics; the white settler and the independent Boer states continued to engage in volatile interactions with the British, so a threat of violent eruptions always loomed large.
In order to placate both the Boer and other white settlers, the British adopted a number of racist policies, while the Indians, most of them working on sugar and coffee plantations, did not suffer as much as the black population, they experienced a treatment as second-class citizens. The initial story of Gandhi’s travails in South Africa and of his systematic struggle against oppression is well known. Gandhi experienced the sting of humiliation during his long African sojourn; the incident at Maritzburg, where Gandhi was thrown off the train has become justly famous. When Gandhi, as a matter of principle, refused to leave the first class compartment, he was thrown off the train. Gandhi had difficulty being admitted to hotels, saw that his fellow-Indians, who were manual laborers, experienced more unjust treatment. Soon after his arrival, Gandhi's initial bafflement and indignation at racist policies turned into a growing sense of outrage and propelled him into assuming a position as a public figure at the assembly of Transvaal Indians, where he delivered his first speech urging Indians not to accept inequality but instead to unite, work hard, learn English and observe clean living habits.
Although Gandhi's legal work soon start to keep him busy, he found time to read some of Tolstoy's work, which influenced his understanding of peace and justice and inspired him to write to Tolstoy, setting the beginning of a prolific correspondence. Both Tolstoy and Gandhi shared a philosophy of non-violence and Tolstoy's harsh critique of human society resonated with Gandhi's outrage at racism in South Africa. Both Tolstoy and Gandhi considered themselves followers of the Sermon on the Mount from the New Testament, in which Jesus Christ expressed the idea of complete self-denial for the sake of his fellow men. Gandhi continued to seek moral guidance in the Bhagavad-Gita, which inspired him to view his work not as self-denial at all, but as a higher form of self-fulfillment. Adopting a philosophy of selflessness as a public man, Gandhi refused to accept any payment for his work on behalf of the Indian population, preferring to support himself with his law practice alone, but Gandhi's personal quest to define his own philosophy with respect to religion did not rely on sacred texts.
At the time, he engaged in active correspondence with a educated and spiritual Jain from Bombay, his friend
Paganism, is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for people in the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism. This was either because they were rural and provincial relative to the Christian population, or because they were not milites Christi. Alternate terms in Christian texts for the same group were hellene and heathen. Ritual sacrifice was an integral part of ancient Graeco-Roman religion and was regarded as an indication of whether a person was pagan or Christian. Paganism was a pejorative and derogatory term for polytheism, implying its inferiority. Paganism has broadly connoted the "religion of the peasantry", During and after the Middle Ages, the term paganism was applied to any non-Abrahamic or unfamiliar religion, the term presumed a belief in false god. Most modern pagan religions existing today - Modern Paganism, or Neopaganism - express a world view, pantheistic, polytheistic or animistic; the origin of the application of the term pagan to polytheism is debated.
In the 19th century, paganism was adopted as a self-descriptor by members of various artistic groups inspired by the ancient world. In the 20th century, it came to be applied as a self-descriptor by practitioners of Modern Paganism, Neopagan movements and Polytheistic reconstructionists. Modern pagan traditions incorporate beliefs or practices, such as nature worship, that are different from those in the largest world religions. Contemporary knowledge of old pagan religions comes from several sources, including anthropological field research records, the evidence of archaeological artifacts, the historical accounts of ancient writers regarding cultures known to Classical antiquity, it is crucial to stress right from the start that until the 20th century, people did not call themselves pagans to describe the religion they practised. The notion of paganism, as it is understood today, was created by the early Christian Church, it was a label that Christians applied to others, one of the antitheses that were central to the process of Christian self-definition.
As such, throughout history it was used in a derogatory sense. The term pagan is derived from Late Latin paganus, revived during the Renaissance. Itself deriving from classical Latin pagus which meant'region delimited by markers', paganus had come to mean'of or relating to the countryside','country dweller','villager', it is related to pangere and comes from Proto-Indo-European *pag-. The adoption of paganus by the Latin Christians as an all-embracing, pejorative term for polytheists represents an unforeseen and singularly long-lasting victory, within a religious group, of a word of Latin slang devoid of religious meaning; the evolution occurred only in the Latin west, in connection with the Latin church. Elsewhere, Hellene or gentile remained the word for pagan. Medieval writers assumed that paganus as a religious term was a result of the conversion patterns during the Christianization of Europe, where people in towns and cities were converted more than those in remote regions, where old ways lingered.
However, this idea has multiple problems. First, the word's usage as a reference to non-Christians pre-dates that period in history. Second, paganism within the Roman Empire centred on cities; the concept of an urban Christianity as opposed to a rural paganism would not have occurred to Romans during Early Christianity. Third, unlike words such as rusticitas, paganus had not yet acquired the meanings used to explain why it would have been applied to pagans. Paganus more acquired its meaning in Christian nomenclature via Roman military jargon. Early Christians saw themselves as Milites Christi. A good example of Christians still using paganus in a military context rather than religious is in Tertullian's De Corona Militis XI. V, where the Christian is referred to as paganus: Paganus acquired its religious connotations by the mid-4th century; as early as the 5th century, paganos was metaphorically used to denote persons outside the bounds of the Christian community. Following the sack of Rome by the Visigoths just over fifteen years after the Christian persecution of paganism under Theodosius I, murmurs began to spread that the old gods had taken greater care of the city than the Christian God.
In response, Augustine of Hippo wrote De Civitate Dei Contra Paganos. In it, he contrasted the fallen "city of Man" to the "city of God" of which all Christians were citizens. Hence, the foreign invaders were "not of the city" or "rural"; the term pagan is not attested in the English language until the 17th century. In addition to infidel and heretic, it was used as one of several pejorative Christian counterparts to gentile as used in Judaism, to kafir and mushrik as in Islam. In the Latin-speaking Western Roman Empire of the newly Christianizing Roman Empire, Koine Greek became associated with the traditional polytheistic religion of Ancient Greece, regarded as a foreign language in the west. By the latter half of the 4th century in the Greek-speaking Eastern Empire, pagans were—paradoxically—most called Hellenes; the word entirely
David Copperfield is the eighth novel by Charles Dickens. The novel's full title is The Personal History, Adventures and Observation of David Copperfield the Younger of Blunderstone Rookery, it was first published as a serial in 1849–50, as a book in 1850. The novel features the character David Copperfield, is written in the first person, as a description of his life until middle age, with his own adventures and the numerous friends and enemies he meets along his way, it is his journey of change and growth from infancy to maturity, as people enter and leave his life and he passes through the stages of his development. It has been called his masterpiece, "the triumph of the art of Dickens", which marks a turning point in his work, the point of separation between the novels of youth and those of maturity. Though written in the first person, David Copperfield is considered to be more than an autobiography, going beyond this framework in the richness of its themes and the originality of its writing, which makes it a true autobiographical novel.
In the words of the author, this novel was "a complicated weaving of truth and invention". Some elements of the novel follow events in Dickens's own life, it was Dickens' favourite among his own novels. In the preface to the 1867 edition, Dickens wrote, "like many fond parents, I have in my heart of hearts a favourite child, and his name is David Copperfield."Dickens wrote this novel without an outline, unlike the way he wrote Dombey and Son, the previous novel. He wrote chapter summaries; some aspects of the story were fixed in his mind from the start, but others, like the obsession of Mr Dick with Charles I, the profession of David Copperfield as a writer, the sad fate of Dora, were not decided by Dickens until the serial publications were underway. At first glance, the work is modeled in the loose and somewhat disjointed way of "personal histories", popular in the United Kingdom of the 18th century, it begins, like other novels by Dickens, with a rather bleak painting of the conditions of childhood in Victorian England, notoriously when the troublesome children are parked in infamous boarding schools he strives to trace the slow social and intimate ascent of a young man who, painfully providing for the needs of his good aunt while continuing his studies, ends up becoming a writer.
The novel has the changes that occur on the way to maturity. In addition, Dickens included many aspects of Victorian Era life that he wanted to highlight or wished to change, which were integrated into the story, using satire as one device; the plight of prostitutes and the attitude of middle class society to them, the status of women in marriage, the rigid class structure, are aspects that he highlighted, while the system for handling criminals, the quality of schools, the employment of children in the fast-spreading factories of the 19th century were aspects he wished to influence, to change for the better. He, among other authors, achieved success in bringing about changes regarding child labor and schooling for more children up to age 12; the story follows the life of David Copperfield from childhood to maturity. David was born in Blunderstone, England, six months after the death of his father. David spends his early years in relative happiness with his loving, childish mother and their kindly housekeeper, Clara Peggotty.
They call him Davy. When he is seven years old his mother marries Edward Murdstone. To get him out of the way, David is sent to lodge with Peggotty's family in Yarmouth, her brother, fisherman Mr Peggotty, lives in a house built in an upturned boat on the beach, with his adopted relatives Emily and Ham, an elderly widow, Mrs Gummidge. "Little Em'ly" is somewhat spoiled by her fond foster father, David is in love with her. They call him Master Copperfield. On his return, David is given good reason to dislike his stepfather, who believes in firmness, has similar feelings for Murdstone's sister Jane, who moves into the house soon afterwards. Between them they tyrannize his poor mother, making her and David's lives miserable, when, in consequence, David falls behind in his studies, Murdstone attempts to thrash him – to further pain his mother. David bites him and soon afterwards is sent away to Salem House, a boarding school, under a ruthless headmaster named Mr Creakle. There he befriends an older boy, James Steerforth, Tommy Traddles.
He develops an impassioned admiration for Steerforth, perceiving him as someone noble, who could do great things if he would, one who pays attention to him. David goes home for the holidays to learn. Shortly after David returns to Salem House, his mother and her baby die, David returns home immediately. Peggotty marries the local carrier, Mr Barkis. Murdstone sends David to work for a wine merchant in London – a business of which Murdstone is a joint owner. David's landlord, Wilkins Micawber, is arrested for debt and sent to the King's Bench Prison, where he remains for several months, before being released and moving to Plymouth. No one remains to care for David in London, so he decides to run away, with Micawber advising him to head to Dover, to find his only known remaining relative, his eccentric and kind-hearted great-aunt Betsey Trotwood, she had come to Blunderstone at his birth, only to depart in ire upon learning that he was not a girl. However, she takes pity on him and agrees to ra
Monthly Review (London)
The Monthly Review was an English periodical founded by Ralph Griffiths, a Nonconformist bookseller. The first periodical in England to offer reviews, it featured the novelist and poet Oliver Goldsmith as an early contributor. Griffiths himself, his wife Isabella Griffiths, contributed review articles to the periodical. Contributors included Dr. Charles Burney, John Cleland, Theophilus Cibber, James Grainger, Anna Letitia Barbauld, Elizabeth Moody, Tobias Smollett—who would go on to establish the Monthly's competitor in 1756, The Critical Review. William Kenrick, the "superlative scoundrel", was editor from 1759 to 1766. Volumes 1–81, May 1749–Dec. 1789. 1790–Nov. 1825. 1826–Dec. 1830. 1831–Dec. 1844. Many libraries have incorrectly catalogued the periodical as the London Monthly Review; each issue of the Monthly was divided into two sections: longer reviews of several pages were in the front section, short reviews of lesser works were featured in the back Monthly Catalogue, divided by genre headings.
List of nineteenth-century British periodicals List of eighteenth-century British periodicals List of eighteenth century journals Online scans of nearly all Monthly Review volumes
Daniel Defoe, born Daniel Foe, was an English trader, journalist and spy. He is most famous for his novel Robinson Crusoe, second only to the Bible in its number of translations, he has been seen as one of the earliest proponents of the English novel, helped to popularise the form in Britain with others such as Aphra Behn and Samuel Richardson. Defoe wrote many political tracts and was in trouble with the authorities, including a spell in prison. Intellectuals and political leaders paid attention to his fresh ideas and sometimes consulted with him. Defoe was a prolific and versatile writer, producing more than three hundred works—books and journals—on diverse topics, including politics, religion, marriage and the supernatural, he was a pioneer of business journalism and economic journalism. Daniel Foe was born in Fore Street in the parish of St Giles Cripplegate, London. Defoe added the aristocratic-sounding "De" to his name, on occasion claimed descent from the family of De Beau Faux, his birthdate and birthplace are uncertain, sources offer dates from 1659 to 1662, with the summer or early autumn of 1660 considered the most likely.
His father, James Foe, was a prosperous tallow chandler and a member of the Worshipful Company of Butchers. In Defoe's early life, he experienced some of the most unusual occurrences in English history: in 1665, 70,000 were killed by the Great Plague of London, the next year, the Great Fire of London left standing only Defoe's and two other houses in his neighbourhood. In 1667, when he was about seven, a Dutch fleet sailed up the Medway via the River Thames and attacked the town of Chatham in the raid on the Medway, his mother, had died by the time he was about ten. Defoe was educated at the Rev. James Fisher's boarding school in Pixham Lane in Surrey, his parents were Presbyterian dissenters, around the age of 14, he attended a dissenting academy at Newington Green in London run by Charles Morton, he is believed to have attended the Newington Green Unitarian Church and kept practising his Presbyterian religion. During this period, the English government persecuted those who chose to worship outside the Church of England.
Defoe entered the world of business as a general merchant, dealing at different times in hosiery, general woollen goods, wine. His ambitions were great and he was able to buy a country estate and a ship, though he was out of debt, he was forced to declare bankruptcy in 1692. On 1 January 1684, Defoe married Mary Tuffley at St Botolph's Aldgate, she was the daughter of a London merchant, receiving a dowry of £3,700—a huge amount by the standards of the day. With his debts and political difficulties, the marriage may have been troubled, but it lasted 50 years and produced eight children. In 1685, Defoe joined the ill-fated Monmouth Rebellion but gained a pardon, by which he escaped the Bloody Assizes of Judge George Jeffreys. Queen Mary and her husband William III were jointly crowned in 1688, Defoe became one of William's close allies and a secret agent; some of the new policies led to conflict with France, thus damaging prosperous trade relationships for Defoe, who had established himself as a merchant.
In 1692, Defoe was arrested for debts of £700, though his total debts may have amounted to £17,000. His laments were loud and he always defended unfortunate debtors, but there is evidence that his financial dealings were not always honest, he died with little evidence of lawsuits with the royal treasury. Following his release, he travelled in Europe and Scotland, it may have been at this time that he traded wine to Cadiz and Lisbon. By 1695, he was back in England, now formally using the name "Defoe" and serving as a "commissioner of the glass duty", responsible for collecting taxes on bottles. In 1696, he ran a tile and brick factory in what is now Tilbury in Essex and lived in the parish of Chadwell St Mary; as many as 545 titles have been ascribed to Defoe, ranging from satirical poems and religious pamphlets, volumes. Defoe's first notable publication was An essay upon projects, a series of proposals for social and economic improvement, published in 1697. From 1697 to 1698, he defended the right of King William III to a standing army during disarmament, after the Treaty of Ryswick had ended the Nine Years' War.
His most successful poem, The True-Born Englishman, defended the king against the perceived xenophobia of his enemies, satirising the English claim to racial purity. In 1701, Defoe presented the Legion's Memorial to Robert Harley Speaker of the House of Commons - and his subsequent employer - while flanked by a guard of sixteen gentlemen of quality, it demanded the release of the Kentish petitioners, who had asked Parliament to support the king in an imminent war against France. The death of William III in 1702 once again created a political upheaval, as the king was replaced by Queen Anne who began her offensive against Nonconformists. Defoe was a natural target, his pamphleteering and political activities resulted in his arrest and placement in a pillory on 31 July 1703, principally on account of his December 1702 pamphlet entitled The Shortest-Way with the Dissenters. In it, he ruthlessly satirised both the High church Tories and those Dissenters who hypocritically practised so-called "occasional conformity", such as his Stoke Newington neighbour Sir Thomas Abney.
It was published anonymously, but the t