SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Autocannon

An autocannon or automatic cannon is a large automatic, rapid-fire projectile weapon that fires armour-piercing and/or explosive shells, as opposed to the bullet fired by a machine gun. Autocannons have a longer range and a larger calibre than machine guns, but are smaller than tank guns, field guns or other artillery; when used on its own, the word "autocannon" indicates a non-rotary weapon. When multiple rotating barrels are involved, the word "rotary" is added, such a weapon is referred to as a "rotary autocannon". Modern autocannons are not single soldier-portable or stand-alone units due to high weight and recoil; as such, ammunition is fed from a belt to reduce reloading or for a faster rate of fire, but a magazine remains an option. Common types of ammunition, among a wide variety, include HEIAP, high-explosive dual-purpose and more specialised armour-piercing types composite rigid and discarding sabot. Although capable of generating a high rate of fire, autocannons overheat if used for sustained fire, are limited by the amount of ammunition that can be carried by the weapons systems mounting them.

Both the US 25 mm Bushmaster and the British 30 mm Rarden have slow rates of fire so as not to use ammunition too quickly. The rate of fire of a modern autocannon ranges from 90 rounds per minute, to 2,500 rounds per minute with the GIAT 30. Systems with multiple barrels can have rates of fire of over 10,000 rounds per minute; such high rates of fire are employed by aircraft in air-to-air combat and close air support attacks on ground targets, where the target dwell time is short and weapons are operated in brief bursts. The first modern autocannon was the British QF 1 pounder known as the "pom-pom"; this was an enlarged version of the Maxim gun, the first successful automatic machine gun, requiring no outside stimulus in its firing cycle other than holding the trigger. The pom-pom fired 1 pound gunpowder-filled explosive shells at a rate of over 200 rounds a minute: much faster than conventional artillery while possessing a much longer range and more firepower than the infantry rifle. In 1913, Reinhold Becker and his Stahlwerke Becker firm designed the 20mm Becker cannon for the German Empire's perceived need for heavy-calibre aircraft armament, was assisted by the Imperial Government's Spandau Arsenal in perfecting the ordnance.

Although only about 500+ examples of the original Becker design were made during World War I, the design's patent was acquired by the Swiss Oerlikon Contraves firm in 1924, with the Third Reich's Ikaria-Werke firm of Berlin using Oerlikon design patents in creating the MG FF wingmount cannon ordnance, in Imperial Japan, their navy's adoption and production of the Type 99 cannon in 1939 was based on the Becker/Oerlikon design's principles. During the First World War, autocannons were used in the trenches as an anti-aircraft gun; the British used pom-pom guns as part of their air defences to counter the German Zeppelin airships that made regular bombing raids on London, but they were of little value, as their shells neither ignited the hydrogen of the Zeppelins, nor caused sufficient loss of gas to bring them down. Attempts to use them in aircraft failed as the weight limited both speed and altitude, thus making successful interception impossible; the more effective QF 2 pounder naval gun would be developed during the war to serve as an anti-aircraft and close range defensive weapon for naval vessels.

Autocannons would serve in a much greater capacity during the Second World War. During the inter-war years, aircraft underwent an evolution and the all-metal monoplane, pioneered as far back as the end of 1915 replaced wood and fabric biplanes; the subsequent increase in speed and durability reduced the window of opportunity for defence. Heavier anti-aircraft cannon had difficulty tracking fast-moving aircraft and were unable to judge altitude or distance, while machine guns possessed insufficient range and firepower to bring down aircraft consistently. Weapons such as the Oerlikon 20 mm, the Bofors 40 mm and various German Rheinmetall autocannons would see widespread use by both sides during the Second World War. Continued ineffectiveness against aircraft despite the large numbers installed during the second World War led, in the West, to the removal of all shipboard anti-aircraft weapons in the early post-war period; this was only reversed with the introduction of computer-controlled systems.

The German Panzer II light tank, one of the most numerous in German service during the invasion of Poland and the campaign in France, used a 20 mm autocannon as its main armament. Although ineffective against tank armour during the early years of the war, the cannon was effective against light-skinned vehicles as well as infantry and was used by armoured cars. Larger examples, such as the 40 mm Vickers S, were mounted in ground attack aircraft to serve as an anti-tank weapon, a role to which they were suited as tank armour is lightest on top. Polish 20 mm. Unlike the Oerlikon, it was effective against all the tanks fielded in 1939 because it was built as an upgrade to the Oerlikon, Hispano-Suiza, Madsen. It, with great difficulty, proved c

Felony Investigative Assistance Team

The Felony Investigative Assistance Team is a multi-jurisdictional police task force comprising 16 law enforcement agencies in Cook County, DuPage County, Illinois, ]. The taskforce covers 300,000 residents in those jurisdictions, it is broken down into five units. FIAT began in the 1970s as a group of small police departments in DuPage County, identified the need to pool detectives for major investigations. Smaller law enforcement agencies having only a few detectives needed to "borrow" more investigators for crimes such as murder, sexual assault, robbery, or burglary; when FIAT began, all the chiefs of police signed a mutual aid agreement which formalized the process of requesting additional detectives. With a single telephone call, a process to gather these detectives could be underway. In 1999, the chiefs of those departments saw the need for a tactical unit that could respond to special emergencies such as hostage incidents, barricaded gunmen, active shooters, high-risk warrant service; the acronym SWAT was used to denote Special Tactics.

The team's motto is In Hoc Signo Vinces. Since FIAT has expanded to include a pool of traffic crash reconstructionists for fatal or serious injury accidents, as well as a police K9 response group. Now police dogs from member agencies can be called upon to assist in a variety of incidents. Brookfield, Illinois Burr Ridge, Illinois Clarendon Hills, Illinois Darien, Illinois Downers Grove DuPage County Hinsdale, Illinois http://villageofhinsdale.org Illinois State Police Lisle, Illinois Lombard, Illinois Oak Brook, Illinois http://oak-brook.org Warrenville, Illinois Westmont, Illinois Willowbrook, Illinois Winfield, Illinois Wood Dale, Illinois Woodridge, Illinois http://www.vil.woodridge.il.us/ FIAT's only unstaffed unit is activated like an in-advance mutual aid plan. No officers are assigned. A FIAT-member agency may request a number of officers for a special event within its jurisdiction Member agencies are notified ahead of time to assign any officer to the event. Officers assigned to FIAT are specialized within a single component.

Officers have collateral duty, maintaining responsibilities at a home agency until an emergency activation. The staffed units are: Special Weapons and Tactics Canine Response Group Major Case Unit Traffic Crash Reconstruction Unit The SWAT unit is the most recognized element of FIAT, it is a full-service SWAT team that contains 50 personnel: tactical officers, crisis negotiators, police/fire dispatchers, tactical paramedics, snipersTraining The SWAT Team trains on a regular basis. The officers assigned to SWAT are called to handle these high-risk incidents, but remain at their local police agencies when not training or handling emergencies; the SWAT Team fields a Mobile Training Team which provides updated tactical and firearms training to officers of the member agencies. Organization The Team holds various ranks similar to US military unit; the Team maintains: Commander Assistant Commander Tactical Team Leaders Sniper Team Leader Tactical Dispatch Team Leader Tactical Medic Team Leader Crisis Negotiations Team Leader various Assistant Team Leaders DuPage Co State's Attorney Liaison Officers and Dispatchers Officers assigned to one of FIAT's staffed units must first be employed by a member law enforcement agency.

The selection process is different for each unit. FIAT does not employ anyone. Officers are paid by their home agencies. On August 1, 2019 The FIAT Board of Directors voted to dissolve FIAT and combined with Du Page Major Crimes to form a new multi-component task force called Metropolitan Emergency Response and Investigation Team All funds and equipment owned by FIAT was transferred over to MERIT. Felony Investigative Assistance Team Illinois Tactical Officers Association National Tactical Officers Association

Bombus inexspectatus

Bombus inexspectatus is an endangered species of bumblebee native to Europe. Bombus inexspectatus occurs in Austria, Italy and Switzerland; the species inhabits high mountain habitats on the southern slopes, in the alpine and subalpine zone in open areas and on the edges of woodland habitat. It occurs in the Alps. Populations may occur in the Pyrenees, but its presence there is as yet unconfirmed; this distribution is fragmented, it is that B. inexspectatus is a relictual species that once occurred more but became limited to mountaintops as conditions changed. Like some other bumblebee taxa, this species is a social parasite, it can not maintain its own colony. B. inexspectatus lives inside the nest of the more common red-shanked bumblebee. It is supported by its host, as it cannot produce the wax used to build nests and it does not have pollen baskets on its legs. Thus, it is an obligate social parasite, one that must be supported by another species, rather than a facultative parasite, which can live on its own if necessary.

This species has evolved obligate parasitism separately from the few other taxa that practice it, such as the cuckoo bees. This bee is related to its host, a condition known as Emery's rule. In fact, the two are sometimes confused. B. ruderarius is the only known host for this species. The species has been classified as Endangered on the IUCN Red List; the bee is rare with geographically separated populations, available high-mountain habitat is shrinking due to climate change. Its parasitic lifestyle makes it susceptible to indirect damage from population reductions in its host species