Chain drive is a way of transmitting mechanical power from one place to another. It is used to convey power to the wheels of a vehicle bicycles and motorcycles, it is used in a wide variety of machines besides vehicles. Most the power is conveyed by a roller chain, known as the drive chain or transmission chain, passing over a sprocket gear, with the teeth of the gear meshing with the holes in the links of the chain; the gear is turned, this pulls the chain putting mechanical force into the system. Another type of drive chain is the Morse chain, invented by the Morse Chain Company of Ithaca, New York, United States; this has inverted teeth. Sometimes the power is output by rotating the chain, which can be used to lift or drag objects. In other situations, a second gear is placed and the power is recovered by attaching shafts or hubs to this gear. Though drive chains are simple oval loops, they can go around corners by placing more than two gears along the chain. By varying the diameter of the input and output gears with respect to each other, the gear ratio can be altered.
For example, when the bicycle pedals' gear rotate once, it causes the gear that drives the wheels to rotate more than one revolution. The oldest known application of a chain drive appears in the Polybolos, a repeating crossbow described by the Greek engineer Philon of Byzantium. Two flat-linked chains were connected to a windlass, which by winding back and forth would automatically fire the machine's arrows until its magazine was empty. Although the device did not transmit power continuously since the chains "did not transmit power from shaft to shaft, hence they were not in the direct line of ancestry of the chain-drive proper", the Greek design marks the beginning of the history of the chain drive since "no earlier instance of such a cam is known, none as complex is known until the 16th century." It is here that the flat-link chain attributed to Leonardo da Vinci made its first appearance."The first continuous and endless power-transmitting chain was depicted in the written horological treatise of the Song Dynasty Chinese engineer Su Song, who used it to operate the armillary sphere of his astronomical clock tower as well as the clock jack figurines presenting the time of day by mechanically banging gongs and drums.
The chain drive itself was given power via the hydraulic works of Su's water clock tank and waterwheel, the latter which acted as a large gear. Roller chain and sprockets is a efficient method of power transmission compared to belts, with far less frictional loss. Although chains can be made stronger than belts, their greater mass increases drive train inertia. Drive chains are most made of metal, while belts are rubber, urethane, or other substances. Drive belts can slip unless they have teeth, which means that the output side may not rotate at a precise speed, some work gets lost to the friction of the belt as it bends around the pulleys. Wear on rubber or plastic belts and their teeth is easier to observe, chains wear out faster than belts if not properly lubricated. One problem with roller chains is "the variation in speed, or surging, caused by the acceleration and deceleration of the chain as it goes around the sprocket link by link, it starts as soon as the pitch line of the chain contacts the first tooth of the sprocket.
This contact occurs at a point below the pitch circle of the sprocket. As the sprocket rotates, the chain is raised up to the pitch circle and is dropped down again as sprocket rotation continues; because of the fixed pitch length, the pitch line of the link cuts across the chord between two pitch points on the sprocket, remaining in this position relative to the sprocket until the link exits the sprocket. This rising and falling of the pitch line is what causes chordal effect or speed variation."In other words, conventional roller chain drives suffer the potential for vibration, as the effective radius of action in a chain and sprocket combination changes during revolution. If the chain moves at constant speed the shafts must accelerate and decelerate constantly. If one sprocket rotates at a constant speed the chain must accelerate and decelerate constantly; this is not an issue with many drive systems. Toothed belt drives are designed to avoid this issue by operating at a constant pitch radius.
Chains are narrower than belts, this can make it easier to shift them to larger or smaller gears in order to vary the gear ratio. Multi-speed bicycles with derailleurs make use of this; the more positive meshing of a chain can make it easier to build gears that can increase or shrink in diameter, again altering the gear ratio. However, some newer synchronous belts claim to have "equivalent capacity to roller chain drives in the same width". Both can be used to move objects by attaching buckets, or frames to them, it is not unusual for the systems to be used in combination. Drive shafts are another common method used to move mechanical power around, sometimes evaluated in comparison to chain drive.
A drive shaft, driving shaft, propeller shaft, or Cardan shaft is a mechanical component for transmitting torque and rotation used to connect other components of a drive train that cannot be connected directly because of distance or the need to allow for relative movement between them. As torque carriers, drive shafts are subject to torsion and shear stress, equivalent to the difference between the input torque and the load, they must therefore be strong enough to bear the stress, while avoiding too much additional weight as that would in turn increase their inertia. To allow for variations in the alignment and distance between the driving and driven components, drive shafts incorporate one or more universal joints, jaw couplings, or rag joints, sometimes a splined joint or prismatic joint; the term drive shaft first appeared during the mid 19th century. In Stover's 1861 patent reissue for a planing and matching machine, the term is used to refer to the belt-driven shaft by which the machine is driven.
The term is not used in his original patent. Another early use of the term occurs in the 1861 patent reissue for the Watkins and Bryson horse-drawn mowing machine. Here, the term refers to the shaft transmitting power from the machine's wheels to the gear train that works the cutting mechanism. In the 1890s, the term began to be used in a manner closer to the modern sense. In 1891, for example, Battles referred to the shaft between the transmission and driving trucks of his Climax locomotive as the drive shaft, Stillman referred to the shaft linking the crankshaft to the rear axle of his shaft-driven bicycle as a drive shaft. In 1899, Bukey used the term to describe the shaft transmitting power from the wheel to the driven machinery by a universal joint in his Horse-Power. In the same year, Clark described his Marine Velocipede using the term to refer to the gear-driven shaft transmitting power through a universal joint to the propeller shaft. Crompton used the term to refer to the shaft between the transmission of his steam-powered Motor Vehicle of 1903 and the driven axle.
The pioneering automobile industry company, was the first to use a drive shaft in a gasoline-powered car. Built in 1901, today this vehicle is in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution. An automobile may use a longitudinal shaft to deliver power from an engine/transmission to the other end of the vehicle before it goes to the wheels. A pair of short drive shafts is used to send power from a central differential, transmission, or transaxle to the wheels. In front-engined, rear-drive vehicles, a longer drive shaft is required to send power the length of the vehicle. Two forms dominate: The torque tube with a single universal joint and the more common Hotchkiss drive with two or more joints; this system became known as Système Panhard after the automobile company Panhard et Levassor patented it. Most of these vehicles have a clutch and gearbox mounted directly on the engine, with a drive shaft leading to a final drive in the rear axle; when the vehicle is stationary, the drive shaft does not rotate.
Some vehicles, seeking improved weight balance between rear, use a rear-mounted transaxle. In some non-Porsche models, this places the clutch and transmission at the rear of the car and the drive shaft between them and the engine. In this case the drive shaft rotates continuously with the engine when the car is stationary and out of gear. However, the Porsche 924/944/928 models have the clutch mounted to the back of the engine in a bell housing and the drive shaft from the clutch output, located inside of a hollow protective torque tube, transfers power to the rear mounted transaxle, thus the Porsche driveshaft only rotates when the rear wheels are turning as the engine-mounted clutch can decouple engine crankshaft rotation from the driveshaft. So for Porsche, when the driver is using the clutch while briskly shifting up or down, the engine can rev with the driver's accelerator pedal input, since with the clutch disengaged, the engine and flywheel inertia is low and is not burdened with the added rotational inertia of the driveshaft.
The Porsche torque tube is solidly fastened to both the engine's bell housing and to the transaxle case, fixing the length and alignment between the bell housing and the transaxle and minimizing rear wheel drive reaction torque from twisting the transaxle in any plane. A drive shaft connecting a rear differential to a rear wheel may be called a half-shaft; the name derives from the fact. Early automobiles used chain drive or belt drive mechanisms rather than a drive shaft; some used electrical motors to transmit power to the wheels. In British English, the term "drive shaft" is restricted to a transverse shaft that transmits power to the wheels the front wheels. A drive shaft connecting the gearbox to a rear differential is called a propeller shaft, or prop-shaft. A prop-shaft assembly consists of a slip joint and one or more universal joints. Where the engine and axles are separated from each other, as on four-wheel drive and rear-wheel drive vehicles, it is the propeller shaft that serves to transmit the drive force generated by the engine to the axles.
Several different types of drive shaft are used in the automotive industry: One-piece drive shaft Two-piece drive shaft Slip-in-tube drive shaftThe slip-in-tube drive shaft is a new type that improves crash safety. It can be compressed to absorb energy in the event of a crash, so is known as a collapsible drive shaft
Hagerstown is a town in Jefferson Township, Wayne County, in the U. S. state of Indiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,787. Hagerstown was laid out and platted in 1832; the town was named after the city of Maryland. The Hagerstown post office has been in operation since 1836; the Whitewater Canal, built in the mid-19th century and extends to Lawrenceburg, has its northern terminus in Hagerstown. This section was funded by the Hagerstown Canal Company; the Hagerstown I. O. O. F. Hall and John and Caroline Stonebraker House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Hagerstown is located at 39°54′41″N 85°9′38″W; the town lies 61 miles ENE of Indianapolis, Indiana, 17 miles NW of Richmond, 63 miles WNW of Dayton, Ohio in the Midwestern region of the United States. Terrain surrounding Hagerstown consists of flat land at an elevation of 1000 feet above sea level, used for agriculture. According to the 2010 census, Hagerstown has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,787 people, 751 households, 467 families residing in the town.
The population density was 1,333.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 826 housing units at an average density of 616.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.7% White, 0.6% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 1.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.8% of the population. There were 751 households of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.1% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 37.8% were non-families. 33.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.02. The median age in the town was 37.9 years. 25.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 51.6 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,768 people, 787 households, 498 families residing in the town.
The population density was 1,276.0 people per square mile. There were 832 housing units at an average density of 600.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 99.26% White, 0.28% African American, 0.06% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 0.06% from other races, 0.23% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.34% of the population. There were 787 households out of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.5% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.6% were non-families. 34.6% of all households were made up of individuals living alone and 16.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.86. The population has 24.0% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to 64, 17.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.1 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $36,691, the median income for a family was $48,864. Males had a median income of $35,536 versus $25,913 for females; the per capita income for the town was $20,901. About 0.8% of families and 1.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under age 18 and 0.9% of those age 65 or over. Hartley Hills Country Club Abbott's Candy - Candy factory Nettle Creek Valley Museum Hagerstown Park - Playground, hiking trails, sport fields, picnic areas Hagerstown Nature Preserve Near Hagerstown and Millville, Indiana is the Wilbur Wright Birthplace and Museum. Tedco Toys, an education and science toy manufacturer; the company is the world's largest maker of the toy. The American Communications Network/Brian Bex Report operates in Hagerstown. Hagerstown Elementary and Hagerstown Jr./Sr. High School provide education for smaller communities nearby. Hagerstown Jr./Sr. High School occupies a large campus which includes sporting facilities.
The town has the Hagerstown-Jefferson Township Public Library. Charles H. Black, automobile pioneer Omer Madison Kem, American politician. Ralph Teetor, inventor of cruise control and president of the Perfect Circle Corporation. WBSH: Repeater for National Public Radio affiliated station owned by Ball State University. Hagerstown is situated on State Road 38, which passes through the town and intersects with State Road 1. Directly south of the town is Interstate 70, enabling travel and commuting to larger cities such as Indianapolis or Richmond. By air, Hagerstown is served by the Hagerstown Airport; this utilizes a grass runway. The nearest commercial airport is Dayton International Airport in Ohio; the nearest rail link is the Amtrak station located in Indiana. Hagerstown, Maryland, U. S. Town of Hagerstown, Indiana website Hagerstown on waynet.org Hagerstown City Data w/ Photos Story of Perfect Circle Airplane Museums in Indiana Current Hagerstown Weather Whitewater Canal
Exton is a census-designated place in West Whiteland Township, Chester County, United States. Its population was 4,842 at the 2010 census; the Exton Square Mall and Main Street at Exton are both located within Exton along with several other shopping centers, making Exton the major shopping district in Chester County. Exton lies at the intersection of U. S. Route 30 and Pennsylvania Route 100. Beginning in the late 18th century, the Lancaster Road became a major transportation route between Philadelphia and the west, while what is now Route 100 was a regional north-south route to Pottstown. A theory exists that Exton was named as the "X" on the map, denoting this intersection, though more the village was named after one of the several Extons in the United Kingdom. In the late 1940s, Exton became home to the Newcomen Society of the United States; the campus of the learned society was built overlooking farmland on Newcomen Road, featured offices, a printing shop and museum, guest houses, a chapel and a belltower with a carillon.
The Newcomen Society sold the property in the late 1990s, but its campus remains an Exton landmark serving as the headquarters of another business. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 3.2 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,267 people, 2,053 households, 1,096 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 1,341.6 people per square mile. There were 2,128 housing units at an average density of 669.1/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 88.07% White, 4.05% African American, 0.14% Native American, 6.05% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.54% from other races, 1.12% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.87% of the population. There were 2,053 households, out of which 20.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.4% were married couples living together, 5.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 46.6% were non-families. Of all households 37.5% were made up of individuals, 7.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.05 and the average family size was 2.75. In the CDP, the population was spread out, with 17.9% under the age of 18, 5.9% from 18 to 24, 43.3% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.8 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $68,240, the median income for a family was $81,499. Males had a median income of $65,789 versus $42,778 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $38,589. About 1.5% of families and 2.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.1% of those under age 18 and 10.1% of those age 65 or over. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Exton has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Exton has an unemployment rate of 3.80% with a job growth rate of 1.44%. The future job growth is predicted to be 39.10% over the next ten years.
The opening of the Exton Square Mall led to rapid growth in West Whiteland Township, with the population increasing from 7,900 in 1973 to over 16,000 by 2000. Since the opening, many shopping centers and office parks have been built in the township. Following the opening of the mall, the West Whiteland Township Police Department was created to patrol the township as the demand from the mall would be too much for the Pennsylvania State Police to handle; when the Exton Square Mall first opened, several stores in downtown West Chester closed. In 2011, the Exton Square Mall saw sales per square foot of $332. All residents of the Exton census-designated place in West Whiteland Township, reside in the West Chester Area School District. Half of the CDP is zoned to Exton Elementary, located in Exton, while the other half is zoned to Mary C. Howse Elementary School. Half of the CDP is zoned to Fugett Middle School and West Chester East High School, while the other half is zoned to Peirce Middle School and West Chester Henderson High School.
Downingtown Area School District serves some areas with Exton postal addresses, Downingtown High School East Campus and Lionville Middle School have Exton addresses. Other schools in the Exton area are the Catholic parish school Saints Philip and James and the Church Farm School, near but not in the CDP. Troy University has a learning site in Exton. Exton is home to the offices of 21st Century Cyber Charter School, a statewide cyber school, known for being the only cyber school to make Pennsylvania's AYP benchmark 5 years in a row. Both Widener University and the Delaware County Community College operate in Exton in the Whiteland Business Park; the Exton Library, the main library of the Chester County Library System is accessible from the mall. The building was dedicated to honor Congressman Paul Dague in 1971. In 1982, the library in Exton received a National Association of Counties Award for its Library Literacy Program, the first in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania handling 30,000 illiterates and 15,000 non-English speaking residents.
Exton is well served by a network of highways. The location is at the confluence of U. S. Route 202, U. S. Route 30, PA 100, connecting traffic from Philadelphia and Wilmington. Exton is well served by the SEPTA Regional Rail at the Whitford and Exton train stations and the Exton Transportation Center located inside the Exton Square Mall complex; the Exton Transportation Center is a SEPTA and Krapf bus transport bus terminal located on the eastern side of the Ex
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline; the Great Depression started in the United States after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product fell by an estimated 15%. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession; some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. However, in many countries the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II; the Great Depression had devastating effects in countries both poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%.
Unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities around the world were hit hard those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was halted in many countries. Farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few alternative sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Economic historians attribute the start of the Great Depression to the sudden devastating collapse of U. S. stock market prices on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. However, some dispute this conclusion and see the stock crash as a symptom, rather than a cause, of the Great Depression. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time. John D. Rockefeller said "These are days. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have gone. Prosperity has always returned and will again." The stock market turned upward in early 1930. This was still 30% below the peak of September 1929.
Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered severe losses in the stock market the previous year, cut back their expenditures by 10%. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S. By mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed. By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928. Prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930. A deflationary spiral started in 1931. Farmers faced a worse outlook. At its peak, the Great Depression saw nearly 10% of all Great Plains farms change hands despite federal assistance; the decline in the U. S. economy was the factor. Frantic attempts to shore up the economies of individual nations through protectionist policies, such as the 1930 U.
S. Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act and retaliatory tariffs in other countries, exacerbated the collapse in global trade. By 1933, the economic decline had pushed world trade to one-third of its level just four years earlier. Change in economic indicators 1929–32 The two classical competing theories of the Great Depression are the Keynesian and the monetarist explanation. There are various heterodox theories that downplay or reject the explanations of the Keynesians and monetarists; the consensus among demand-driven theories is that a large-scale loss of confidence led to a sudden reduction in consumption and investment spending. Once panic and deflation set in, many people believed they could avoid further losses by keeping clear of the markets. Holding money became profitable as prices dropped lower and a given amount of money bought more goods, exacerbating the drop in demand. Monetarists believe that the Great Depression started as an ordinary recession, but the shrinking of the money supply exacerbated the economic situation, causing a recession to descend into the Great Depression.
Economists and economic historians are evenly split as to whether the traditional monetary explanation that monetary forces were the primary cause of the Great Depression is right, or the traditional Keynesian explanation that a fall in autonomous spending investment, is the primary explanation for the onset of the Great Depression. Today the controversy is of lesser importance since there is mainstream support for the debt deflation theory and the expectations hypothesis that building on the monetary explanation of Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz add non-monetary explanations. There is consensus that the Federal Reserve System should have cut short the process of monetary deflation and banking collapse. If they had done this, the economic downturn would have been much shorter. British economist John Maynard Keynes argued in The General Theory of Employment and Money that lower aggregate expenditures in the economy contributed to a massive decline in income and to employment, well below the average.
In such a situation, the economy reached equilibrium at low levels of economic activity and high unemployment. Keynes' basic idea was simple
Johnstown is a city in Cambria County, United States, 43 miles west-southwest of Altoona and 67 miles east of Pittsburgh. The population was 20,978 at the 2010 census and estimated to be 20,402 in 2013, it is the principal city of the Johnstown, Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Cambria County. Johnstown, settled in 1770, has experienced three major floods in its history; the "Great Flood" of May 31, 1889, occurred after the South Fork Dam collapsed 14.1 miles upstream from the city during heavy rains. At least 2,209 people died as a result of the flood and subsequent fire that raged through the debris. Another major flood occurred in 1936. Despite a pledge by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt to make the city flood free, subsequent work to do so, another major flood occurred in 1977; the 1977 flood—in what was to have been a "flood free" city—may have contributed to Johnstown's subsequent population decline and inability to attract new residents and businesses. The city is home to five national historic districts: the Downtown Johnstown Historic District, Cambria City Historic District, Minersville Historic District, Moxham Historic District, Old Conemaugh Borough Historic District.
Individual listings on the National Register of Historic Places are the Grand Army of the Republic Hall, Cambria Iron Company, Cambria Public Library Building, Bridge in Johnstown City, Nathan's Department Store, Johnstown Inclined Railway. Archaeological evidence shows. Penn's Woods saw much Native American activity as well as the Quemahoming area. Three distinct tribes migrated and fished in the area. Johnstown was called Conemaugh Old Town in the native Algonquin language. Old Town was linked to the outlying areas by the Stoney Creek, Quemahoming Creek and Conemuagh Rivers joining Johnstown to older settlements on the river including New Florence and Kickenapaulin's. Johnstown was formally organized as a town in 1800 by the Swiss German immigrant Joseph Johns; the settlement was known as "Schantzstadt", but was soon anglicized to Johnstown. From 1834 to 1854, the city was a port and key transfer point along the Pennsylvania Main Line Canal. Johnstown was at the head of the canal's western branch, with canal boats having been transported over the mountains via the Allegheny Portage Railroad and refloated here, to continue the trip by water to Pittsburgh and the Ohio Valley.
The most famous passenger who traveled via the canal to visit Johnstown was Charles Dickens in 1842. By 1854, canal transport became redundant with the completion of the Pennsylvania Railroad, which now spanned the state. With the coming of the railroads, the city's growth improved. Johnstown became a stop on the main line of the Pennsylvania Railroad and was connected with the Baltimore & Ohio; the railroads provided large-scale development of the region's mineral wealth. Iron and steel became central to the town of Johnstown. By 1860, the Cambria Iron Company of Johnstown was the leading steel producer in the United States, outproducing steel giants in Pittsburgh and Cleveland. Through the second half of the 19th century, Johnstown made much of the nation's barbed wire. Johnstown prospered from skyrocketing demand in the western United States for barbed wire. Twenty years after its founding, the Cambria Works was a huge enterprise sprawling over 60 acres in Johnstown and employing 7,000, it owned 40,000 acres of valuable mineral lands in a region with a ready supply of iron and limestone.
Floods were a yearly event in the valley during the 1880s. On the afternoon of May 30, 1889, following a quiet Memorial Day ceremony and a parade, it began raining in the valley; the next day water filled the streets, rumors began that a dam holding an artificial lake in the mountains to the northeast might give way. It did, an estimated 20 million tons of water began spilling into the winding gorge that led to Johnstown some 14 miles away; the destruction in Johnstown occurred in only about 10 minutes. What had been a thriving steel town with homes, saloons, a library, a railroad station, electric street lights, a roller rink, two opera houses was buried under mud and debris. Out of a population of 30,000 at the time, at least 2,209 people are known to have perished in the disaster. An infamous site of a major fire during the flood was the old stone Pennsylvania Railroad bridge located where the Stonycreek and Little Conemaugh rivers join to form the Conemaugh River; the bridge still stands today.
The Johnstown flood of 1889 established the American Red Cross as the pre-eminent emergency relief organization in the United States. Founder Clara Barton 67, came to Johnstown with 50 doctors and nurses and set up tent hospitals as well as temporary "hotels" for the homeless, stayed on for five months to coordinate relief efforts; the mills were back in operation within a month. The Cambria Works grew, Johnstown became more prosperous than ever; the disaster strengthened it. Generations would draw on lessons learned in 1889. In the early 20th century, the population reached 75,000 people; the city's first commercial radio station, WJAC, began broadcasts in 1925. The downtown boasted at least five major department stores, including Glosser Brothers, which in the 1950s gave birth to the Gee Bee chain of department stores. However, the St Patrick's Day flood of 1936 combined with the gnawing effects of the Great Depression left Johnstown struggling again, but only temporarily. Johnstown's citizens mobilized to achieve a permanent solution to the
Brass Era car
The Brass Era is an American term for the early period of automotive manufacturing, named for the prominent brass fittings used during this time for such things as lights and radiators. It is considered to encompass 1896 through 1915, a time when these vehicles were referred to as horseless carriages. Elsewhere in the world this period would be considered by antique car enthusiasts to consist of the veteran, Edwardian eras, although these terms are not meaningful outside the former British Empire. Within the 20 years that make up this era, the various experimental designs and alternative power systems would be marginalised. Although the modern touring car had been invented earlier, it was not until Panhard et Levassor's Système Panhard was licensed and adopted that recognisable and standardised automobiles were created; this system specified front-engined, rear-wheel drive internal combustion engined cars with a sliding gear transmission. The high-wheel motor buggy was in its heyday, with over 75 makers, including Holsman, IHC, Lincoln Motor Car Works but were only abandoned, in favor of the more advanced runabouts and other more expensive closed bodies – and killed off by the Ford Model T.
In the early part of this period steam-car development had advanced, making steam cars some of the fastest road vehicles of their day. Electric cars held a market share throughout the era. Development of automotive technology was rapid, due in part to hundreds of small manufacturers competing to gain the world's attention. Key developments included the electric ignition system, independent suspension, four-wheel brakes. Leaf springs were used for suspension, though many other systems were still in use. Transmissions and throttle controls were adopted, allowing a variety of cruising speeds, though vehicles still had discrete speed settings, rather than the infinitely variable system familiar in cars of eras. Safety glass made its debut, patented by John Wood in England in 1905 but would not become standard equipment until 1926 on a Rickenbacker. Angle steel took over from armored wood as the frame material of choice, in 1912, Hupp pioneered the use of all-steel bodies, joined in 1914 by Dodge.
In January, 1904, Frank Leslie's Popular Monthly magazine catalogued the entire range of automobiles available to the mass market in the United States. This list included: Fred H. Colvin, who covered the American automotive industry for many years as a journalist and editor of trade journals, wrote in his memoir about his experiences: I have indicated how the early "craze" for horseless carriages caused automobile plants to spring up like mushroom growths all over the country, just as hundreds of locomotive plants had sprung up in the early days of railroading. In both instances, the great majority faded out of the picture once the industry had become established; as late as 1917, there were 127 different makes of American automobiles on the market, as compared with little more than a dozen in 1947. For the sake of the completeness of the present record, in order to aid future scholars and research workers, I should like to give the list of American automobiles current thirty years ago: Abbott-Detroit, American-Six, Apperson, Auburn, Bell, Brewster, Bour-Davis, Buick, Cameron, Chalmers, Chevrolet, Crow-Elkhart, Davis, Dispatch, Dixie Flyer, Dodge, Dort, Elcar, Emerson, Enger, Ford, Franklin, F.
R. P. Glide, Hackett, H. A. L. Halladay, Harvard, Hollier, Hupmobile, Inter-State, Jeffery, King, Kline, Lenox, Liberty, Lozier, Madison, Majestic, Marion-Handley, Maxwell, McFarlan, Mercer, Mitchell, Moline-Knight, Monitor, Moon, Murray, Nelson, Oldsmobile, Packard, Partin-Palmer, Pathfinder, Pierce-Arrow, Premier, Pullman, Republic, Richmond, Ross, Scripps-Booth, Simplex, Standard, Stanley Steamer, Stearns-Knight, Stewart, Stutz, Velie, White, Willys-Knight and Yale. A great many more names, including Brush, Alco and Waverly, had disappeared from the scene by 1917. Alter American Locomotive Company Arrow Cino Colburn James Cunningham, Son & Company K-R-I-T Motor Car Company Lambert Marathon Maritime Six McLaughlin Model Overland Stoddard-Dayton Tincher Union Antique car Classic car Cyclecar History of the automobile Most expensive cars sold in auction Vintage car Colvin, Fred H. Sixty Years with Men and Machines, New York and London: McGraw-Hill, LCCN 47003762. Available as a reprint from Lindsay Publications.
Foreword by Ralph Flanders. Csere, Csaba, "10 Best Engineering Breakthroughs", Car and Driver, 33. Georgano, G. N. Cars, 1886–1930, New York: Beekman House, distributed by Crown, ISBN 0-517-48073-5. Brassauto.com Cars o