Chalakudy is a municipal town situated on the banks of Chalakudy River in Thrissur District of the Kerala State in India. It is the headquarters of Chalakudy taluk, it is the base camp for travellers to Vazhachal Falls. Chalakudy lies on National Highway 544 and located about 47 km north of the city of Kochi, 30 km south of Thrissur; the name "Chalakudy" is derived from two words "Yagashala" and "kody". Once Chalakudy was famous all over India as a place for conducting sacrifices. Many "rishis" used to come over here. In order to identify these settlements, they hoisted flags next to it, thus those entire area got its name "yagashalakody". This however evolved into "Shalakody" and into today's Chalakudy. Chalakudy was the headquarters of Kodassry nadu. Maharaja, Kingdom of Cochin formed Kodassery taluk in the 1762 by adding Kuzhur nadu, Ayyanezhi nadu, Koratty nadu, Malayattur proverty & Vellarappilly proverty to Kodassery nadu. Majority area of this taluk were amalgamated into Mukundapuram taluk in AD 1860 and Vellarapilly proverty was given to Kanayannur taluk.
According to Brahminical traditions Chalakudy was part of Adur grama and Potta in Chalakudy Municipality was part of Irinjalakuda grama. It was an old seminary at Sanpaulur at the bank of chalakudy river. Chalakudy is a place of historical importance as its nearby places like Thazhekkad proverty of Mukundapuram nadu was the base of operations for Mysore invader Tipu Sultan during his attack on the Travancore lines, he kept the nearby places of Chalakudy as a Southern Army Base for attacking Travancore and southern provinces of Cochin. In 2013 new Chalakudy taluk was formed by UDF Government led by Shri Oommen Chandy; as of the 2011 census, Chalakudy had a population of 114,901 with a density of 4,554 per km2. The male population of, 55,276 while female population is 59,625; the children population of Chalakudy UA is around 8.86% of total Chalakudy UA population, lower than National Urban average of 10.93%. Total children in Chalakudy Urban region were 10,176; the literacy rate of Chalakudy Agglomeration is 96.42%, higher than National Urban average of 85%.
Literacy rate for male and female for Chalakudy stood at 97.53% and 95.41% respectively. Total literates in Chalakudy UA were 100,977 of which males were 48,815 and remaining 52,162 were females; the sex ratio of female to male in Chalakudy UA was found higher with figure of 1079 females against national urban average of 926 females per 1000 males. For children, girls were 948 per 1000 boys in Chalakudy Urban region against national average of 902 girls per 1000 boys. Chalakudy Municipality came into existence in the year 1970; the municipality covering an area of 25.23 km2 is divided into 36 electoral wards. Chalakkudy is a Grade-II municipality. Chalakudy assembly constituency was a segment of Mukundapuram, it became a segment of Chalakudi. In the last local body elections, the Left Democratic Front won the Chalakudy Municipality. Jayanthi Praveenkumar is the Municipal Chairperson of Chalakudy. In the year 2013, Chalakudy was declared as a Taluk by K. M Mani. Located along the National Highway 544, between Kochi and Coimbatore.
Another major road is State Highway 21 which connects Chalakudy to Vazhachal and ends at the border of Tamil Nadu. Chalakudy has a KSRTC and private bus station in the town only; the KSRTC station provides inter-district and inter-state buses in and around Kerala and outside the state. The private station runs local bus services into the suburbs of Chalakudy. Newly built North Bus Stand, Chalakudy is now opened for public. Now there is a railway under way, under construction connecting Chalakudy And Mala which goes past Southern College of Engineering & Technology; the main rail transport system in Chalakudy is operated by the Southern Railway Zone of Indian Railways, comes under Trivandrum Railway Division. There are two railway stations in Chalakudy, Divine Nagar railway station and Chalakudy railway station. Chalakudy and Divine Nagar Railway Station lie in the busy route of Shoranur-Cochin Harbour section. Six pairs of passenger trains and 36 express trains stop at Chalakudy railway station.
This station is getting a revenue of 11 crore per year. It is an'A' class station under Trivandrum division and this station is the second largest station in Thrissur District after Thrissur railway station, it is the first station declared as Adarsh station in Thrissur district. The nearest airport is Cochin International Airport in Nedumbassery, 21 km from Chalakudy. All the major domestic and international flights are available here. Direct flights are available to New Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata, Pune, Mangalore, Thiruvananthapuram, Sharjah, Abu Dhabi, Bahrain, Muscat, Malé, Kuala Lumpur, Salala and Riyadh. Madura Coats, Apollo Tyres, Paulson Distillery, Choice Foods, Amoeba Associates, Carborundum Limited, Eddie Current and the Sree Shakti Paper Mills are the major industrial establishments; the Government Press has a division functioning in Chalakudy. The Peringalkuthu Hydro-electric project is about 42 km east of Chalakudy. In the business map, Chalakudy has a notorious place being one of the largest selling outlets of Beverages Corporation.
Chalakudy has one of the oldest movie theatres in Kerala. Surabhi Theatre situated in South Chalakudy is still a majo
Kerala, locally known as Keralam, is a state on the southwestern, Malabar Coast of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, following passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2, Kerala is the twenty-second largest Indian state by area, it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, the Lakshadweep Sea and Arabian Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala is the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population, it is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most spoken language and is the official language of the state; the Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala. The Ay kingdom in the deep south and the Ezhimala kingdom in the north formed the other kingdoms in the early years of the Common Era; the region had been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE. The region's prominence in trade was noted in the works of Pliny as well as the Periplus around 100 CE.
In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, paved the way for European colonisation of India. At the time of Indian independence movement in the early 20th century, there were two major princely states in Kerala-Travancore State and the Kingdom of Cochin, they united to form the state of Thiru-Kochi in 1949. The Malabar region, in the northern part of Kerala had been a part of the Madras province of British India, which became a part of the Madras State post-independence. After the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the modern-day state of Kerala was formed by merging the Malabar district of Madras State, the state of Thiru-Kochi, the taluk of Kasaragod in South Canara, a part of Madras State; the economy of Kerala is the 12th-largest state economy in India with ₹7.73 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹163,000. Kerala has the lowest positive population growth rate in India, 3.44%. The state has witnessed significant emigration to Arab states of the Persian Gulf during the Gulf Boom of the 1970s and early 1980s, its economy depends on remittances from a large Malayali expatriate community.
Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Christianity. The culture is a synthesis of Aryan, Dravidian and European cultures, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India and abroad; the production of pepper and natural rubber contributes to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, tea, coffee and spices are important; the state's coastline extends for 595 kilometres, around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the state's income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages English and Malayalam. Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, hill stations, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions; the name Kerala has an uncertain etymology. One popular theory derives Kerala from alam; the word Kerala is first recorded as Keralaputra in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka, one of his edicts pertaining to welfare.
The inscription refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra. This contradicts the theory that Kera is from "coconut tree". At that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil: Chera and Kera are variants of the same word; the word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for "lake". The earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. Kerala is mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics; the Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal, referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple. Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamil chera alam; the Greco-Roman trade map. According to Tamil classic Purananuru, Chera king Senkuttuvan conquered the lands between Kanyakumari and the Himalayas. Lacking worthy enemies, he besieged the sea by throwing his spear into it. According to the 17th century Malayalam work Keralolpathi, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the axe-wielding warrior sage Parasurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu.
Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, the water receded as far as it reached. According to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari; the land which rose from sea was filled with unsuitable for habitation. Out of respect and all snakes were appo
S. Ravi Varman, ISC is an Indian cinematographer, filmmaker and writer, he has predominantly worked in films of Indian languages such as Tamil and Hindi. Known for his realistic and poetic framing sense, Ravi Varman began his career in Malayalam films, he has directed a romantic film in Tamil titled Moscowin Kavery and filmed the music video for the song "Bird Flu" by British Tamil songwriter M. I. A.. Ravi Varman was born in a village called Poyyoundarkudikkadu near Tamil Nadu, India. Varman lost his mother at a young age. Just before she died there was a wedding in his neighborhood and his mother’s image was accidentally captured by the wedding photographer in one of the photos. Varman went to the studio and asked for a picture to be enlarged and learnt what "out of focus" meant. Thus, he developed an interest in photography and grew up with a passion for watching movies – though at the time, he never considered working in film as a possible career, he started his career by assisting cinematographer Ravi K Chandran.
After working in Malayalam films since 1999 for three years, he worked in Bollywood for the film Yeh Dil in 2003. He worked in the Telugu film Jai and received more offers in Hindi, such as Armaan, Bee Busthar, Ramji Londonwale, Phir Milenge, as well as the Indian English film Five Five Four. Though a Tamilian, it was not until 2002 when he started to work in Tamil films, with his first one being Susi Ganeshan's Five Star, he continued to work with popular directors as cinematographer in Tamil films, including S. Shankar's Anniyan, Gautham Menon's Vettaiyaadu Vilaiyaadu, K. S. Ravikumar's Dasavathaaram and Villu, directed by Prabhu Deva. Besides feature films, he has credit of working on more than 500 Television Commercials, Music Albums, Short Films and Documentary. Nonetheless, his flair for literature has led him to embark on writing for an on-line literary magazine'Yavarum kelir' for Tamiz studio. 23rd EME France Film Festival Best Cinematographer Award for Santham Malayalam Filmfare Best Cinematographer Award for Anniyan Tamil Nadu State Film Award for Best Cinematographer for Vettaiyaadu Vilaiyaadu Vikitan Best Cinematography Award for Vettaiyaadu Vilaiyaadu ITFA Best Cinematographer Award for Dasavathaaram Star Guild Awards for best cinematography for Barfi!
Screen Awards for best cinematography for Barfi! TOIFA Awards for best cinematography for Barfi! IIFA Awards for best cinematography for Barfi! Zee Cine Awards for best cinematographer award for Goliyon Ki Raasleela Ram-Leela Best Cinematography: Ravi Verman for Kaatru Veliyidai Vijay Award for Best Cinematographer- Kaatru Veliyidai Siima Award for Best Cinematographer- Kaatru Veliyidai Moscowin Kavery Treasure Music Video Also as Cinematographer and Lyricist Azhagu Vellaiya Irukiravan Poi Solla Maatan "Bird Flu" by M. I. A. "Aarachar" by Thaikkudam Bridge Child Environment
Arvind Swamy is an Indian film actor, model and television presenter known for his work in Tamil cinema. He was introduced as an actor by Mani Ratnam with the film Thalapathi and subsequently starred in successful films such as Roja, Minsaara Kanavu Thani Oruvan and Chekka Chivantha Vaanam. Swamy starred in other regional film industries, including Telugu and Malayalam films where he has done films such as Mounam and Devaraagam, he has appeared in Bollywood, making his appearance in Saat Rang Ke Sapne. Swamy spent a decade in businesses ranging from software engineering, international trade to global outsourcing, before returning to act with works such as Kadal, Thani Oruvan, Dear Dad, Dhruva and Chekka Chivantha Vaanam, he worked as a television presenter as the host of the third season of Neengalum Vellalam Oru Kodi on Star Vijay. Arvind Swamy was born in Tamil Nadu to popular television actor Delhi Kumar, he was adopted by his industrialist uncle V. D. Swami and Bharatanatyam dancer C. V. S.
Vasantha. Swamy studied at the Sishya School and in Don Bosco Matriculation Higher Secondary School and completed his schooling in 1987, he graduated from Loyola College, Chennai in 1990 with a Bachelor of Commerce degree. He went to the United States to do his Masters in International Business from Wake Forest University in North Carolina. Arvind Swamy wished to be a doctor. In college, he used to be a model for pocket money. In his Loyola Theatre Society, he was asked to get off stage. On Mani Ratnam saw him in an advertisement and called for a meeting, he and Santhosh Sivan introduced him into the basics of film-making. Swamy made his debut in Mani Ratnam's action drama film, where he played a young district collector pitted against a don and his own biological brother. Subsequently, Mani Ratnam signed him on to play the lead role in the 1992 political drama film Roja. Roja and Bombay won awards at the National Film Award functions, his performance in Bombay was called "soulful" by Time Magazine.
Swamy has won several awards and critical, for his films. He has been described as one of the first few actors in India, able to achieve pan-Indian appeal. In 1995, Swamy provided the Tamil dubbing voice for the adult Simba of Disney's The Lion King, he starred in Rajiv Menon's Minsaara Kanavu, which won four National Film Awards besides high box office reviews. Swamy semi-retired from acting in 2000 after playing a guest role in Mani Ratnam's Alaipayuthey and concentrated on his business interests. Swamy engaged in international trade and construction, he was the president of InterPro Global and the chairman and managing director of Prolease India, engaged in transaction processing. He founded Talent Maximus a company engaged in payroll processing and temporary staffing in India, he was the only actor in India. He acted in Sasanam, the film was a failure, he wanted to come back to films after 4–5 years, but was physically injured. The treatment took another 4–5 years. After his successful treatment, Mani Ratnam called him once more to play a role in one of his films, Kadal for which Swamy dropped 15 kilograms.
In 2013, he provided the voice-over for Santhosh Sivan's film Ceylon. In 2015, he acted in a now iconic negative role of Sidharth Abhimanyu in Thani Oruvan, for which he was praised and received positive reviews for his acting. In 2016, he reprised the same role in Telugu in the film Dhruva with Ram Charan, a remake of Thani Oruvan for which he got a lot of appreciation from the Telugu audience. In a Hindi movie, Dear Dad; the popular game show Neengalum Vellalam Oru Kodi recruited Swamy for its third season, which started airing on 30 May 2016. In 2017, he did the title role of Bogan, co starring Jayam Ravi, for which he again got an outstanding response from the critics and the audience. In 2018, he acted in Bhaskar Oru Rascal. Arvind Swami does a neat job without imitating; the film is followed by Chekka Chivantha Vaanam. A film, still considered the reference point of all the gangster films made in Tamil, undercuts the genre with its own. Throughout, the film pretends to be a hunt for that one bad guy among the heroes.
The film is released to positive reviews. Swamy married Gayathri Ramamurthy in 1994 and has one daughter Adhira Swamy, born in 1996 and a son Rudra Swamy, born in 2000; the couple lived separately for seven years until 2010. He is married to Aparna Mukerjee, a lawyer, since 2012. Arvind Swamy was granted custody of his children. Dubbing artisteUyire for Shah Rukh Khan Tamil Cinema News - Arvindswami Films on Maalaimalar.com Retrieved 11 September 2018. Arvind Swamy on IMDb
Gopika is an Indian film actress, who has predominantly starred in Malayalam films. Starting her career as a model, she ventured into acting with the film Pranayamanithooval, she went on to appear in over 35 films, working in the Tamil and Kannada film industries as well. She is well known for her role in Autograph, directed by Cheran. Gopika was born'Girly Anto' into a Syrian Christian family, to Anto Francis and Tessy Anto of Ollur in Thrissur, Kerala, she has Glini. After completing her education to the 12th Standard at St. Raphael's Convent Girls High School, she studied for a degree in Sociology at Calicut University, she learnt classical dance from an acclaimed teacher and she was crowned'Miss College' during her farewell ceremony at the college. The beauty contest'Miss Thrissur' was a turning point in her life. Though she did not win the title, she stood as the runner-up in the contest, which gained her a few modeling assignments, she claims that she never wanted to be an actress, her ambition was to be an air-hostess.
Her first film was Pranayamanithooval, in which she starred with Jayasurya and Vineeth under the direction of Thulasi Das, did not do well, but it got her recognition in the industry. Her second film, 4 the People, was dubbed in many Indian languages, it was directed by Jayaraj, she acted opposite Tamil actor Bharath. The song "Lejjavathiye Ninde Kalla Kadaikkannil" from the film was a big hit in Kerala. Renowned Tamil movie director Cheran signed her up for his film Autograph, another big hit in 2004, she acted in Kana Kandaen. Among her other work, she has acted in the Telugu remake of Azhagi, her Telugu film Leta Manasulu, directed by Raju Upati, crashed at the box office. She starred in the Malayalam movie Kirtichakra opposite Jiiva. Directed by Major Ravi, the movie tells the story of a soldier against the backdrop of the Kargil war. Apart from Kirtichakra, she did another movie with Dileep: Pachakuthira, her previous film with Dileep, was a big hit. Veruthe Oru Bharya was a phenomenal hit, it gained her the Asianet Best Actress award of 2008.
Dubbing artists such as Devi and Sreeja Ravi dubbed for her in malayalam. On 17 July 2008, Gopika married a doctor working in Northern Ireland, she returned to the cinema industry after marriage, acting in Swantham Lekhakan and says that she will act in more films if she gets good opportunities and likes the script. She says that her husband doesn't mind her acting and that she is getting a lot of support from him and her family, they have a son Aiden. Gopika made a comeback to the Malayalam cinema in Bharya Athra Pora with Jayaram, directed by Akku Akbar, she now lives in Australia. 2004 – Asianet Best Supporting Actress Award – Vesham 2006 – Asianet Best Star Pair Award – Keerthi Chakra 2009 – Asianet Best Actress Award – Veruthe Oru Bharya 2008 – Vanitha Film Award for Best Actress – Veruthe Oru Bharya Marias Pickes & Spices Impex Vikas Nighties SKC Ghee Jeyachandran Textiles Gopika on IMDb
Ramani Bharadwaj known professionally as Bharadwaj is an Indian music director, singer-songwriter, music producer, predominantly known for his work in the Indian Film Industry including Kollywood, Tollywood & Mollywood. Bharadwaj is one of the top music composers of the Indian music Industry having scored music for more than 75 feature films, produced by big production houses including AVM Productions, Gemini Studios, Kavithalayaa Productions, AGS Entertainment, Sivaji Productions featuring top artistes like Kamal Haasan, Karthik, Ajith Kumar, Vikram, R. Madhavan and technicians like Saran, Thangar Bachan, Hari, he is trained in Hindustani and Carnatic music and is a recipient of the prestigious Kalaimamani Award for the year 2008 from the Tamil Nadu State Government. Bharadwaj has worked on several international projects including Hollywood films. Bharadwaj is known for contributing to the drama of the movie with his soulful Back Ground Scores, he is widely appreciated for his melodious music, with proper show casing of lyrics and musical wizardry.
He is credited as Bharathwaj, Bharadwaj or Ramani Bharadwaj in films. Bharadwaj was born in Ravanasamudram, Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, but spent his entire childhood in Delhi, he did his schooling in DTEA, Mandir Marg. He had passion for music from the time he was a kid & pursued Carnatic music at the Faculty of Fine Arts, Delhi University, Hindustani Music at Shriram Bharatiya Kalakendra, New Delhi and Western Music at Delhi School of Music with the intent of specializing in Music; when he was 17 years old, he got an opportunity to compose music for All India Radio and Doordarshan. The overwhelming response & support he received for his Music Compositions, made him decide to take Music Composition as his career, he decided to pause his Chartered Accountant career & relocated to Chennai in 1986 to become a full-time Music Director in feature films. He is married to Jayashree Sankaran, a Doctorate Ph. D in Hindi Literature & has a daughter Janani Bharadwaj, a Software Professional & a play back singer in Feature Films.
After shifting base to Chennai from Delhi, Bharadwaj went through the process of composing music for albums, short films, documentaries, TV serials, Radio and TV advertisements numbering more than 100 in each category. After an 8-year struggle, in 1994, he got a break in the Telugu feature film Sogasu Chuda Taramaa? & composed all 6 songs in the film including its background score. The film was a hit. Bharadwaj composed music & background score for 6 more Telugu films before getting a break on Tamil films, with Saran's Kadhal Mannan in 1998; the songs of this film became a chartbuster, with the song Unnai Paartha Pinbu Naan turning out to be a Classical hit, celebrated by the audience for many years to come. Kadhal Mannan, announced the arrival of Bharadwaj to strong; this film was the first of the Ajith - Saran - Bharadwaj trio, which went on to become a legendary combination in delivering hit films along with musical chartbusters until 2009. Post Kadhal Mannan, Bharadwaj was on a roll for the next several years charting out several chartbusters like “Satham Illatha Thanimai Kaeten”, “Avaravar Vazhkayil”, “O Podu”, “Apple Penney”, “Unai Naan Unai Naan”, “Gnabagam Varuthey”, “Kaadu Thirandey, “Siruchi Siruchi Vanthan”, “Oru Vaarthai Ketka”, “Thaiyatha Thaiyatha”, “Meendum Palliku Pogalam”, “Margazhiyil Kuluchiparu”, “Hey Dushyantha”, “Totadoing”, "Azhagazhagey".
Incidentally, his 1st Tamil film Kaadhal Mannan, 25th Tamil film Attahasam and 50th Tamil film Aasal are all with the Ajith - Saran combination. Bharadwaj has composed music for the international animation movie The Legend of Buddha; the United States dub of the movie was released by Walt Disney Pictures and stars the voices of Dwayne Tan and Bridgit Mendler. The film was presented for nomination to the 77th Annual Academy Awards, for the year 2004. In 2009, he composed music for the American Short Film Lucky Ducks. Bharadwaj is the first music director to conduct a unique concert called The Movie Musical where he composed the back ground score for the silent movie Shiraz, the same was performed live by the Singapore Symphony Orchestra, in Singapore; this social project, Thirukkurall Isai, Oru Kurall – Oru Kural is Thirukkurall – The Tamil Veda, in musical form. Bharadwaj has composed all the 1330 Kuralls in light music form, that includes 38 chapters of Arathupal, 70 chapters of Porutpal and 25 chapters of Inbathupal.
Each song begins with an introduction by an eminent scholar followed by rendition of the Kuralls by the singers and the meaning by a Tamil academician. This project has many firsts to its credit. All the top professional musicians of Tamil Nadu and talented Tamil singers across the world were a part of this global project; each kural has been rendered by a singer chosen from across the globe. Musicians from various districts of Tamil Nadu, various states of India and countries like U. S. A, Canada, U. K, South Africa, Australia, France, Sri Lanka and more, have rendered a Kurall each; this project features the highest number of participants in a single album. About 500 singers representing various categories of music like classical music, film/ playback, dance music and instrumental music have participated in this project; this album proudly claims to be one of the longest running album running for 13 hours - Arathu Paal 3 Hours, Purat Paal 7 Hours and Inbathu Paal 3 Hours). Thirukkural in musical for
The Malayali people are a multi ethnic linguistic group originating from the present-day state of Kerala in India. They are identified as native speakers of the Malayalam language, classified as part of the Dravidian family of languages. According to the Indian census of 2011, there are 33 million Malayalis in Kerala, making up 96.7% of the total population of the state. Malayali minorities are found in the neighboring state of Tamil Nadu in Kanyakumari district and in other metropolitan areas of India. Over the course of the half of the 20th century, significant Malayali communities have emerged in Persian Gulf countries, including the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Oman and Kuwait, to a lesser extent, other developed nations with a immigrant background such as the United States, United Kingdom and Canada; as of 2013, there were an estimated 1.6 million ethnic Malayali expatriates worldwide. According to A. R. Raja Raja Varma, Malayalam was the name of the place, before it became the name of the language spoken by the people.
Malayalam, the native language of Malayalis, has its origin from the words mala meaning mountain and alam meaning land or locality. Hence the term Malayali refers to the people from the mountains who lived beyond the Western Ghats, Malayalam the language, spoken there; the Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal, referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple. Hence the term Keralar seem to precede the usage of the word Malayala/Malayalam. According to the Indian census of 2001, there were 30,803,747 speakers of Malayalam in Kerala, making up 93.2% of the total number of Malayalam speakers in India, 96.7% of the total population of the state. There were 557,705 in Tamil Nadu and 406,358 in Maharashtra; the number of Malayalam speakers in Lakshadweep is 51,100, only 0.15% of the total number, but is as much as about 84% of the population of Lakshadweep. In all, Malayalis made up 3.22% of the total Indian population in 2001.
Of the total 33,066,392 Malayalam speakers in India in 2001, 33,015,420 spoke the standard dialects, 19,643 spoke the Yerava dialect and 31,329 spoke non-standard regional variations like Eranadan. As per the 1991 census data, 28.85% of all Malayalam speakers in India spoke a second language and 19.64% of the total knew three or more languages. Just before independence, Malaya attracted a large number of Malaylis. Large numbers of Malayalis have settled in Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad. A large number of Malayalis have emigrated to the Middle East, the United States, Europe. There were 644,097 people with Malayalam heritage in the United States, according to the 2012 census, with the highest concentrations in Bergen County, New Jersey and Rockland County, New York, including a large number of professionals. There were 7,093 Malayalam speakers in Australia in 2006; the 2001 Canadian census reported 7,070 people who listed Malayalam as their mother tongue in the Greater Toronto Area and Southern Ontario.
In 2010, the Census of Population of Singapore reported that there were 26,348 Malayalees in Singapore. The 2006 New Zealand census reported 2,139 speakers. 134 Malayalam speaking households were reported in 1956 in Fiji. There is a considerable Malayali population in the Persian Gulf regions in Bahrain, Doha, Abu Dhabi and European region in London; the Malayali live in an historic area known as the Malabar coast, which for thousands of years has been a major centre of the international spice trade, operating at least from the Roman era with Ptolemy documenting it on his map of the world in 150AD. For that reason, a distinct culture was created among the Malayali due to centuries of contact with foreign cultures through the spice trade; the arrival of the Cochin Jews, the rise of Saint Thomas Christians in particular were significant in shaping modern day Malayali culture. Portuguese Latin Christians, Dutch Malabar, French Mahe, British English, Arabian Muslim communities which arrived after 1498 left their mark as well making Kerala more colourful and diverse.
Malayalis can now be seen in all the countries of the world with the excellence of adaptation to any culture, food habits, language. In 2017, a detailed study of the evolution of the Singapore Malayalee community over a period of more than 100 years was published as a book: From Kerala to Singapore: Voices of the Singapore Malayalee Community, it is believed to be the first in-depth study of the presence of a NRI Malayalee community outside of Kerala. Malayalam is the language spoken by the Malayalis. Malayalam is derived from old Tamil in the 6th century. For cultural purposes Malayalam and Sanskrit formed a language known as Manipravalam, where both languages were used in an alternating style. Malayalam is the only language among the major Dravidian languages without diglossia; this means, that the Malayalam, spoken does not differ from the written variant. Malayalam is written using the Malayalam script. Malayalam literature is ancient in origin; the oldest literature works in Malayalam, distinct from the Tamil tradition, is dated between the 9th century and 11th century.
Malayalam literature includes the 14th century Niranam poets, whose works mark the dawn of both modern Malayalam language and indigenous Keralite poetry. The Triumvirate of poets are recognized for m