click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Autogyro

An autogyro known as a gyroplane or gyrocopter, is a type of rotorcraft that uses an unpowered rotor in free autorotation to develop lift. Forward thrust is provided independently, by an engine-driven propeller. While similar to a helicopter rotor in appearance, the autogyro's rotor must have air flowing across the rotor disc to generate rotation, the air flows upwards through the rotor disc rather than down; the autogyro was invented by Spanish engineer Juan de la Cierva in an attempt to create an aircraft that could fly safely at low speeds. He first flew one on 9 January 1923, at Cuatro Vientos Airfield in Madrid. Cierva's autogyro is considered the predecessor of the modern helicopter; the aircraft resembled the fixed-wing aircraft of the day, with a front-mounted engine and propeller. The success of the autogyro garnered the interest of industrialists and under license from Cierva in the 1920s and 1930s, the Pitcairn & Kellett companies made further innovations. Late-model autogyros patterned after Etienne Dormoy's Buhl A-1 Autogyro and Igor Bensen's designs feature a rear-mounted engine and propeller in a pusher configuration.

The term Autogiro was a trademark of the Cierva Autogiro Company, the term Gyrocopter was used by E. Burke Wilford who developed the Reiseler Kreiser feathering rotor equipped gyroplane in the first half of the twentieth century; the latter term was adopted as a trademark by Bensen Aircraft. An autogyro is characterized by a free-spinning rotor that turns because of the passage of air through the rotor from below; the downward component of the total aerodynamic reaction of the rotor gives lift to the vehicle, sustaining it in the air. A separate propeller provides forward thrust, can be placed in a puller configuration, with the engine and propeller at the front of the fuselage, or in a pusher configuration, with the engine and propeller at the rear of the fuselage. Whereas a helicopter works by forcing the rotor blades through the air, drawing air from above, the autogyro rotor blade generates lift in the same way as a glider's wing, by changing the angle of the air as the air moves upwards and backwards relative to the rotor blade.

The free-spinning blades turn by autorotation. Because the craft must be moving forward with respect to the surrounding air in order to force air through the overhead rotor, autogyros are not capable of vertical takeoff. A few types such as the Air & Space 18A have shown short landing. Pitch control is achieved by tilting the rotor fore and aft, roll control by tilting the rotor laterally; the tilt of the rotor can be effected by means of a swashplate, or servo-flaps. A rudder provides yaw control. On pusher configuration autogyros, the rudder is placed in the propeller slipstream to maximize yaw control at low airspeed. There are three primary flight controls: control stick, rudder pedals, throttle; the control stick is termed the cyclic and tilts the rotor in the desired direction to provide pitch and roll control. The rudder pedals provide yaw control, the throttle controls engine power. Secondary flight controls include the rotor transmission clutch known as a pre-rotator, which when engaged drives the rotor to start it spinning before takeoff, collective pitch to reduce blade pitch before driving the rotor.

Collective pitch controls are not fitted to autogyros, but can be found on the Air & Space 18A, McCulloch J-2 and the Westermayer Tragschrauber. Unlike a helicopter, autogyros without collective pitch or another jump start facility need a runway to take off. Like helicopters, each autogyro has a specific height–velocity diagram for safest operation, although the dangerous area is smaller than for helicopters. Modern autogyros follow one of two basic configurations; the most common design is the pusher configuration, where the engine and propeller are located behind the pilot and rotor mast, such as in the Bensen "Gyrocopter". It was developed by Igor Bensen in the decades following World War II, came into widespread use shortly afterward. Less common today is the tractor configuration. In this version, the engine and propeller are located at the front of the aircraft, ahead of the pilot and rotor mast; this was the primary configuration in early autogyros, but became less common after the advent of the helicopter.

It has enjoyed a revival since the mid-1970s. Juan de la Cierva was aeronautical enthusiast. In 1921, he participated in a design competition to develop a bomber for the Spanish military. De la Cierva designed a three-engined aircraft, but during an early test flight, the bomber stalled and crashed. De la Cierva was troubled by the stall phenomenon and vowed to develop an aircraft that could fly safely at low airspeeds; the result was the first successful rotorcraft, which he named Autogiro in 1923. De la Cierva's autogyro used an airplane fuselage with a forward-mounted propeller and engine, an un-powered rotor mounted on a mast, a horizontal and vertical stabilizer, his aircraft became the predecessor of the modern helicopter. Juan de la Cierv

Overseas Press Club

The Overseas Press Club of America was founded in 1939 in New York City by a group of foreign correspondents. The wire service reporter Carol Weld was a founding member; the club seeks to maintain an international association of journalists working in the United States and abroad, to encourage the highest standards of professional integrity and skill in the reporting of news, to help educate a new generation of journalists, to contribute to the freedom and independence of journalists and the press throughout the world, to work toward better communication and understanding among people. The organization has 500 members who are media industry leaders; every April, the OPC holds a dinner to award excellence in journalism for the previous year. The awards are juried by industry peers; the organization has a foundation that distributes scholarships to college students who want to begin a career as a foreign correspondent. Many scholarship winners secure international assignments at some of the most prestigious news outlets in the world.

In April 2008, the OPC relaunched its website to include community features for members like forums, page sharing through email/print/download and RSVP and bill pay functions. For the 22 awards presented, see footnote. Foreign Correspondents' Club Overseas Press Club of America official website Overseas Press Club Foundation official website Overseas Press Club at The WNYC Archives

Superoxide

A superoxide is a compound that contains the superoxide ion, which has the chemical formula O−2. The systematic name of the anion is dioxide; the reactive oxygen ion superoxide is important as the product of the one-electron reduction of dioxygen O2, which occurs in nature. Molecular oxygen is a diradical containing two unpaired electrons, superoxide results from the addition of an electron which fills one of the two degenerate molecular orbitals, leaving a charged ionic species with a single unpaired electron and a net negative charge of −1. Both dioxygen and the superoxide anion are free radicals that exhibit paramagnetism. Superoxide forms salts with alkaline earth metals; the salts CsO2, RbO2, KO2, NaO2 are prepared by the reaction of O2 with the respective alkali metal. The alkali salts of O − 2 are quite stable, provided they are kept dry. Upon dissolution of these salts in water, the dissolved O−2 undergoes disproportionation rapidly: 4 O−2 + 2 H2O → 3 O2 + 4 OH−This reaction is the basis of the use of potassium superoxide as an oxygen source in chemical oxygen generators, such as those used on the space shuttle and on submarines.

Superoxides are used in firefighters' oxygen tanks in order to provide a available source of oxygen. In this process O−2 acts as a Brønsted base forming the hydroperoxyl radical; the superoxide anion, O−2, its protonated form, are in equilibrium in an aqueous solution: O−2 + H2O ⇌ HO2 + OH−Given that the hydroperoxyl radical has a pKa of around 4.8, at neutral pH superoxide predominantly exists in the anionic form. Potassium superoxide is soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide and is stable as long as protons are not available. Superoxide can be generated in aprotic solvents by cyclic voltammetry. Superoxide salts decompose in the solid state, but this process requires heating: 2 NaO2 → Na2O2 + O2 Superoxide and hydroperoxyl are discussed interchangeably, although superoxide predominates at physiological pHs. Both superoxide and hydroperoxyl are classified as reactive oxygen species, it is generated by the immune system to kill invading microorganisms. In phagocytes, superoxide is produced in large quantities by the enzyme NADPH oxidase for use in oxygen-dependent killing mechanisms of invading pathogens.

Mutations in the gene coding for the NADPH oxidase cause an immunodeficiency syndrome called chronic granulomatous disease, characterized by extreme susceptibility to infection catalase-positive organisms. In turn, micro-organisms genetically engineered to lack the superoxide-scavenging enzyme superoxide dismutase lose virulence. Superoxide is deleterious when produced as a byproduct of mitochondrial respiration, as well as several other enzymes, for example xanthine oxidase, which can catalyze the transfer of electrons directly to molecular oxygen under reducing conditions; because superoxide is toxic at high concentrations, nearly all organisms living in the presence of oxygen express SOD. SOD efficiently catalyzes the disproportionation of superoxide: 2 HO2 → O2 + H2O2Other proteins that can be both oxidized and reduced by superoxide have weak SOD-like activity. Genetic inactivation of SOD produces deleterious phenotypes in organisms ranging from bacteria to mice and have provided important clues as to the mechanisms of toxicity of superoxide in vivo.

Yeast lacking both mitochondrial and cytosolic SOD grow poorly in air, but quite well under anaerobic conditions. Absence of cytosolic SOD causes a dramatic increase in genomic instability. Mice lacking mitochondrial SOD die around 21 days after birth due to neurodegeneration and lactic acidosis. Mice lacking cytosolic SOD are viable but suffer from multiple pathologies, including reduced lifespan, liver cancer, muscle atrophy, thymic involution, haemolytic anemia and a rapid age-dependent decline in female fertility. Superoxide may contribute to the pathogenesis of many diseases, also to aging via the oxidative damage that it inflicts on cells. While the action of superoxide in the pathogenesis of some conditions is strong, the role of superoxide in aging must be regarded as unproven for now. In model organisms, genetically knocking out CuZnSOD shortens lifespan and accelerates certain features of aging, but the converse, increasing the levels of CuZnSOD, does not seem, to increase lifespan.

The most accepted view is that oxidative damage is but one of several factors limiting lifespan. The binding of O2 by reduced heme proteins involves formation of Fe superoxide complex; the assay of superoxide generated in biological systems is a difficult task because of its high reactivity and short half-life. One approach, used in quantitative assays converts superoxide to hydrogen peroxide, stable. Hydrogen peroxide is assayed by a fluorimetric method; as a free radical, superoxide has a strong EPR signal, it is possible to detect superoxide directly using this method when its abundance is high enough. For practical purposes, this can be achieved only in vitro under non-phys

Pluckemin Continental Artillery Cantonment Site

The Pluckemin Continental Artillery Cantonment Site in Pluckemin, New Jersey, at the southern section of Bedminster Township, New Jersey, holds historic American Revolutionary War importance as the Continental Army's artillery winter cantonment during the winter of 1778–79. It was nestled on the western side of the Second Watchung Mountain just to the North of the village of Pluckemin; the major significance of the site lies with the different picture it yields of military organization during the Revolutionary War, although some point to it as the birthplace of the American military academy, 24 years prior to the founding of the United States Military Academy at West Point. Other terms used to reference the site include the Pluckemin Artillery Park, The Pluckemin Military Academy, The Pluckemin Artillery Encampment; the Pluckemin Artillery Cantonment site is not accessible to the public. There are no buildings, no trails, it is left as an overgrown wooded area; the only place for visitors to learn about the cantonment site is at the Vanderveer/Knox House & Museum, just to the north and west of the site on Route 202/206 Southbound in Bedminster Township, New Jersey.

The Pluckemin Cantonment was the artillery portion of the second Middlebrook encampment, the seasonal encampment of the Continental Army during the American War for Independence near Middlebrook in Somerset County, New Jersey. The site includes part of the ridge of the First Watchung Mountain, its position provided a natural fortress not only protecting the Continental Army, but overlooking the plains towards New Brunswick where the British forces were stationed in 1777. The strategic strength of the position contributed to the success of the Continental Army. A "cantonment" is "a group of building constructed for the purpose of housing troops". While some have used the term encampment, the national register recognizes the site as a cantonment; the Jacobus Vanderveer house, just to the north and west of the cantonment site served as headquarters for General Henry Knox during the winter of 1778–79, when the Continental Army artillery was located in the village of Pluckemin during the Revolutionary War's Second Middlebrook Encampment.

The house is the only known building still standing, associated with the Pluckemin Artillery Cantonment. It is noted that Knox arrived at Pluckemin on December 7, 1778, departed June 3, 1779, moving towards Pompton with the Continental Army that arrived from Middlebrook; the area was most owned on a southern portion of land owned by Jacobus Vanderveer, although Jacob Eoff, a Holland native, was one of the first to settle in the area. Eoff purchased 500 acres of land around 1743 known as Bedminstertown or the Pluckemin Crossroads; the next major land owner and resident was Jacobus Vanderveer who on May 10, 1743 purchased 439 acres just to the north of Eoff's property. Early deeds and wills recognize the cantonment area as belonging to the Vanderveers; the land was purchased at auction on April 1, 1875 by Tunis Van Arsdale to Kate Wickoff, Elizabeth Schley 1902, Hills Development Company, lastly Bedminster Township. General Knox enlisted Christopher Colles as preceptor of the academy; as noted in the Regimental Orderly Book 3 on February 23, 1779, "General Knox states "The Academy is to be opened on Monday next when Mr. Colles the preceptor will attend every day in the wee Sundy excepted for the purpose of teaching the Mathematicks & cc....

As the Officers of the Corps will be those means have an opportunity of acquiring a more particular and expansive knowledge of the profession and making themselves better qualified to discharge the duties of their respective stations - The General expect that they will apply themselves in good earnest to the study of this so essential & necessary Branch of Science - The duty they owe themselves - a regard for their own reputation and the just expectations of their Country: The General hopes will induce every Officer to pay the closest & most diligent attention." Military Store Department Laboratory - to repair and produce ammunition Magazine - Ammunition/powder storage Hospital Henry Schrabisch, the former New Jersey State Archeologist began his archeological efforts on the Pluckemin countryside when the term "The Dig" originated. Other phrases that were used to identify specific archeological projects at the Pluckemin Cantonment Site include the Pluckemin Dig, the Pluckemin Archeological Dig, the Pluckemin Archeological Project.

The Dig took place over eleven weeks in 1916. The excavations appear to have been completed in 1917, but no field notes or records have been found. Only a series of articles in the local Bernardsville News and a Somerset Quarterly article described the work. Beginning in 1979, a not for profit research group was formed, combining the efforts of Bedminster Township, the Hills Development Corporation, academics financially supported by local businesses and small foundations; the project was incorporated in 1980 by three principals: John L. Seidel a graduate student at the University of Pennsylvania; the Project was supported by contributions from the Hills Development Corporation and local foundations and donors. Seidel conducted the first systematic survey of the site in 1979 and prepared a detailed map of surface features. Excavations at the site began in earnest in 1981 and continued through 1989; the excavation techniques were unusual in uncovering wide areas, preceded by careful plottin

Coordinadora Reusenca Independent

The Coordinadora Reusenca Independent or Cori is a political party based in Reus, Spain. It was formed in 2003 and stood lists of candidates in municipal elections of 2003. 2007 and 2011. It obtained its first seat on the Ajuntament of Reus in 2007; the party is led by Ariel Santamaria, its sole city councillor. Santamaria has gained a certain notoriety for attending council meetings dressed as Elvis Presley; the official philosophy of the Cori is Juantxism, or "being a Juantxi": its 2003 campaign slogan was "put another Juantxi in City Hall". Juantxi is a term in Reus slang: according to the Cori, it refers either to "an action, grotesque or ridiculous" or to "a grotesque person who has certain delusions of importance". One of the first policy initiatives of the Cori after gaining its seat on the Reus city council was to propose the construction of a "sexodrome" in the city's technology park; the proposed structure was to include bars and discos, along with "spaces for couples and veritable orgies".

The Cori pointed out that, as well as providing jobs and leisure opportunities for Reus residents, the sexodrome would be a major tourist attraction. The proposal failed to pass the city council, in part because the Cori were unable to say how much it would cost to build and run the sexodrome. In the council meeting of 2007-11-30, the Cori proposed that the Sagrada Família, the best known of the architectural works of Antoní Gaudí, be moved stone-by-stone from Barcelona to Reus; the justification for the proposed move was the possible danger to the Sagrada Família from construction work on a new rail tunnel beneath Barcelona, "so that Reus can have its own Gaudí monument and that we can regain the slogan'Reus and London of the 21st century' that is:'Sagrada Família, Eiffel Tower and Big Ben'". The Cori ran for the first time to Reus's local elections in 2003, failing to get a seat after getting only 3'24% of the overall vote, below the threshold of 5% required to get a seat according to Spain's local electoral law.

In 2007 local elections, the party gained a seat after securing 1.831 votes, a 5'05% of the overall vote. In 2010 the party ran for the first time to the Catalan parliamentary election, with Santamaria running as head of the party in Barcelona's province instead of Tarragona, Reus's province; the number two spot in Barcelona's list for the Cori was Miguel Brau Gou, a 77-year-old transvestite known in Spain with the name Carmen de Mairena. The Cori did not get the 3% of the vote in Barcelona's province, failing to reach the threshold required in Catalonia's electoral law in order to get a seat; the party lost his seat in Reus's local council in Spain's 2011 local elections. Early recounts of the vote had given Cori a number of votes above the 5% threshold, but after a protest filed by the racist party Plataforma per Catalunya a new recount was made validating votes, considered spoilt, thus making the Cori's total number of votes a 4'99% of the overall. Ariel Santamaria announced that he would run again as head of the Cori for Reus's local elections in 2015.

Official site

Australian rules football in the Northern Territory

Australian Football in the Northern Territory has a history dating back to the 1910s and is the most popular sport in the territory with indigenous Australian communities in Darwin, Alice Springs and the Tiwi Islands. 18% of all Territorians in 2017 participated in Australian Football, the highest participation in Australia. The sport produces more professional Australian Footballers per capita in the Australian Football League than any other state or territory; the Northern Territory is home to several representative teams, most notably the Aboriginal All-Stars, but the Northern Territory Thunder, the Northern Territory Football Club and now in the NEAFL, an elite competition on the Eastern seaboard of Australia. The Flying Boomerangs represent Australia internationally and the Northern Territory has a strong local competition, the Northern Territory Football League; the first recorded match of Australian Football in Darwin was played in February 1916 on Darwin Town Oval. The Northern Territory Football League chose to play in the Northern Territory's'wet season' due to hard playing surfaces during the'dry season'.

Games were played on the Town Oval. Most other leagues in Australia operate during the winter, but since the Territory does not have a winter, it is played at different times; the Wanderers Football Club were the founding members of the league in 1916. John Pye and Andy Howley introduced Australian rules football to the Tiwi Islands in 1941, which grew to become the most popular sport on the islands; the Tiwi Islands Football League is a strong competition which feeds players into the NTFL. Skills of the TIFL players are celebrated; the TIFL Grand Final is the largest event on a major tourist drawcard. In 1991, Marrara Oval was increased in capacity, became the new home for the NTFL and AFL matches. In 1991, Darwin hosted the first Arafura Games, the first international competition to include the sport of Australian Rules, local teams have competed against nations from around the world; the city has hosted the games since. Since the late 1990s, the Aboriginal All-Stars have captured the imagination of indigenous Australians in the Northern Territory, have gained a huge amount of support.

Although the Territory would love to have a local team in the national competition, a small population and the lack of potential sponsorship means it is unlikely that a team will be admitted to the Australian Football League at this time. In 2002, a record crowd of 17,500 attended an AFL pre-season practice between the Aboriginal All-Stars and Carlton Football Club. However, in a deal struck with the Northern Territory government, Melbourne based Western Bulldogs AFL side has played several home games a year at Marrara Oval. In 2004, Alice Springs main ground Traeger Park was re-developed and has hosted several AFL exhibition matches. In 2007, a representative side began in earnest a campaign to join a major league, the SANFL, WAFL or QAFL with the new team split between Alice Springs and Darwin. A decision was reached in late 2008, with the Northern Territory Football Club, known as the Thunder, formed to field a team in the Queensland competition from the 2009 season onwards; the Thunder now play in the NEAFL, an elite competition for clubs from Queensland, New South Wales and Canberra as well as the reserve teams of four AFL clubs.

On 3 September 2016 the AFLNT named their team of the 20th century. Coach of the Century: John Taylor; the Northern Territory was represented in early Interstate matches in Australian rules football, before being incorporated into the QLD/NT and Australian Alliance representative sides. They won the Australian National Football Carnival Championship in 1988. At Under 16 and Under 18 level, the territory fields teams in the national championships; the Aboriginal All-Stars, a team composed of indigenous Australian players from the AFL and all over the country, are based in Darwin. Darwin is home of the Flying Boomerangs, the junior indigenous side, who play an annual series against South Africa; the Northern Territory Football Club formed in 2009 to play in the QAFL competition. In 2017, AFLNT reported 44,729 direct participants in Australian Rules through official competitions or programs, which makes up 18% of the NT population. There are around 15,000 more participants in AFL promotional activities.

Around half of all participants are in non-metropolitan areas of the Territory, a growing 34% of participants are women. The Tiwi Islands is said to have the highest participation rate in Australia. 17,500. Aboriginal All-Stars vs Carlton. Northern Territory Football League Grand Final Tiwi Islands Football League Grand Final Arafura Games Australian Football League Premiership Season Over the years, the Northern Territory has produced an amazing array of talent for elite leagues such as the Australian Football League and South Australian National Football League, including many indigenous Australian players. Greats include Maurice Rioli, Michael Long, Daryl White, Ronnie Burns, David Kantilla, Dean Rioli and Nathan Buckley. For a list of clubs in each league, see List of Australian rules football clubs in Northern Territory Top End Australian Football Association Northern Territory Football League Central Australian Football League Barkly Australian Football League Katherine District Football League Gove Australian Football League Tiwi Islands Football League Northern Territory Women's Aussie Rules Football Association Official Site Masters Australian Football NT Official Site AFL Nor