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Automated teller machine

An automated teller machine is an electronic telecommunications device that enables customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions, such as cash withdrawals, funds transfers, or account information inquiries, at any time and without the need for direct interaction with bank staff. ATMs are known by a variety including automatic teller machine in the United States. In Canada, the term automated banking machine is used, although ATM is very used in Canada, with many Canadian organizations using ATM over ABM. In British English, the terms cashpoint, cash machine and hole in the wall are most used. Other terms include any time money, nibank, tyme machine, cash dispenser, cash corner, bankomat, or bancomat. Many ATMs have a sign above them indicating the name of the bank or organisation that owns the ATM, including the networks to which it can connect. ATMs that are not operated by a financial institution are known as "white-label" ATMs. Using an ATM, customers can access their bank deposit or credit accounts in order to make a variety of financial transactions, most notably cash withdrawals and balance checking, as well as transferring credit to and from mobile phones.

ATMs can be used to withdraw cash in a foreign country. If the currency being withdrawn from the ATM is different from that in which the bank account is denominated, the money will be converted at the financial institution's exchange rate. Customers are identified by inserting a plastic ATM card into the ATM, with authentication being by the customer entering a personal identification number, which must match the PIN stored in the chip on the card, or in the issuing financial institution's database. According to the ATM Industry Association, as of 2015, there were close to 3.5 million ATMs installed worldwide. However, the use of ATMs is declining with the increase in cashless payment systems; the idea of out-of-hours cash distribution developed from bankers' needs in Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States. A Japanese device called the "Computer Loan Machine" supplied cash as a three-month loan at 5% p.a. after inserting a credit card. The device was operational in 1966. However, little is known about the device.

Adrian Ashfield invented the basic idea of a card combining the key and user's identity in February 1962. This was granted UK Patent 959,713 for "Access Controller" in June 1964 and assigned to W. S. Atkins & Partners who employed Ashfield, he was paid ten shillings for the standard sum for all patents. It was intended to dispense petrol but the patent covered all uses. In the US patent record, Luther George Simjian has been credited with developing a "prior art device", his 132nd patent, first filed on 30 June 1960. The roll-out of this machine, called Bankograph, was delayed by a couple of years, due in part to Simjian's Reflectone Electronics Inc. being acquired by Universal Match Corporation. An experimental Bankograph was installed in New York City in 1961 by the City Bank of New York, but removed after six months due to the lack of customer acceptance; the Bankograph did not have cash dispensing features. A cash machine was put into use by Barclays Bank in its Enfield Town branch in North London, United Kingdom, on 27 June 1967.

This machine was inaugurated by English comedy actor Reg Varney. This instance of the invention is credited to the engineering team led by John Shepherd-Barron of printing firm De La Rue, awarded an OBE in the 2005 New Year Honours. Transactions were initiated by inserting paper cheques issued by a teller or cashier, marked with carbon-14 for machine readability and security, which in a model were matched with a six-digit personal identification number. Shepherd-Barron stated "It struck me there must be a way I could get my own money, anywhere in the world or the UK. I hit upon the idea of a chocolate bar dispenser, but replacing chocolate with cash."The Barclays–De La Rue machine beat the Swedish saving banks' and a company called Metior's machine by a mere nine days and Westminster Bank's–Smith Industries–Chubb system by a month. The online version of the Swedish machine is listed to have been operational on 6 May 1968, while claiming to be the first online ATM in the world, ahead of similar claims by IBM and Lloyds Bank in 1971, Oki in 1970.

The collaboration of a small start-up called Speytec and Midland Bank developed a fourth machine, marketed after 1969 in Europe and the US by the Burroughs Corporation. The patent for this device was filed in September 1969 by John David Edwards, Leonard Perkins, John Henry Donald, Peter Lee Chappell, Sean Benjamin Newcombe, Malcom David Roe. Both the DACS and MD2 accepted only a single-use token or voucher, retained by the machine, while the Speytec worked with a card with a magnetic stripe at the back, they used principles including Carbon-14 and low-coercivity magnetism in order to make fraud more difficult. The idea of a PIN stored on the card was developed by a group of engineers working at Smiths Group on the Chubb MD2 in 1965 and, credited to James Goodfellow; the essence of this system was that it enabled the verification of the customer with the debited account without human intervention. This patent is the earliest instance of a complete "currency dispenser syst

Tim Sale (artist)

Tim Sale is an American Eisner Award-winning comics artist. He is known for his collaborations with writer Jeph Loeb. Tim Sale was born on May 1, 1956 in Ithaca, New York, but spent most of his early life in Seattle, having moved there with his family at age six, he attended the University of Washington for two years before moving to New York City to attend the School of Visual Arts, as well as the comics workshop run by artist John Buscema. Before he graduated from SVA, Sale returned to Seattle. Tim Sale began doing art for the series MythAdventures in 1983, was soon working on Thieves' World; the body of Sale's comics work has been with collaborator Jeph Loeb. The duo, credited in their comics as'storytellers', produced popular work such as the "Year 1"-centered Batman: Legends of the Dark Knight Halloween Specials, Batman: The Long Halloween, Batman: Dark Victory, as well as Superman for All Seasons and Catwoman: When in Rome. At Marvel Comics, the team has produced the so-called "color" books such as Daredevil: Yellow, Spider-Man: Blue, Hulk: Gray.

A Captain America: White limited series was announced in 2008 but only a #0 issue was published. The long-delayed project saw print in September 2015. With Darwyn Cooke, Sale launched the Superman Confidential series in 2007. Tim Sale worked on artwork for the television program Heroes, on which Sale's frequent collaborator Jeph Loeb served as a writer and producer. Sale's artwork appeared in the show as the work of the precognitive artist Isaac Mendez, as well as other artists on the show. Eric Powell was hired as the colorist for Sale's work. Additionally, the font used throughout the show in the various captions and credits was created by Sale and was based on his handwriting style. Tim Sale won an Eisner Award in 1999 in the "Best Artist/Penciller/Inker or Penciller/Inker Team" category. Sale lives in the Seattle metropolitan area. Billi 99 Grendel Deathblow Superman Confidential Tim Sale: Black And White hardcover. An art and career retrospective of Tim Sale. By Richard Starkings and John "JG" Roshell with Tim Sale.

With Jeph LoebChallengers of the Unknown Must Die! Collects Challengers of the Unknown vol. 2 #1–8, DC Comics, trade paperback 224 pages, October 2004, ISBN 978-1401203740 Batman: Haunted Knight collects Batman: Legends of the Dark Knight Halloween Special #1, Batman: Madness A Legends of the Dark Knight Halloween Special #1, Batman: Ghosts Legends of the Dark Knight Halloween Special #1, DC Comics, trade paperback 192 pages, September 1996, ISBN 978-1563892738 Wolverine & Gambit: Victims collects Wolverine/Gambit: Victims #1–4, Marvel Comics, hardcover 112 pages, November 2009, ISBN 978-0785138020. Eight-page short story with writer Matt Wagner. Robert E. Howard's Myth Maker. One-shot drawn by several pencillers such as Richard Corben or Kelley Jones. Tim Sale drew several pages, with script by Roy Thomas. Vampirella: Rebirth #1. Eight-page short story with writer Jeph Loeb, variant cover. 9-11: The World's Finest Comic Book Writers & Artists Tell Stories to Remember, Volume Two. One-page short story from an idea by Chuck Kim.

Buffy the Vampire Slayer: Tales of the Slayers TPB. Cover and short story written about a female medieval vampire hunter. JSA: All Stars #2. Six-page back up story about the Golden Age Hawkgirl, with writer Jeph Loeb. Tales of The Batman: Tim Sale collection of Batman tales drawn by Tim Sale in his career with writers Darwyn Cooke, Alan Grant, James Robinson, Kelley Puckett, 240 pages, January 2009, ISBN 978-1401217358 The Foot Soldiers #3 Adventures of Superman #597, Batgirl #21, Detective Comics #763, Harley Quinn #13, JSA #29 and The Spectre #10. All the issues were part of the "Last Laugh" crossover. Flinch #5 El Diablo #1–4 Queen & Country #1–4

Mikhail Egorovich Alekseev

Mikhail Egorovich Alekseev was a Soviet and Russian linguist specializing in Nakh-Daghestanian languages. Alekseev was the vice-director of the Institute of Linguistics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the head of its section on Caucasian languages, he studied linguistics at Moscow State University with Aleksandr E. Kibrik, taking part in several field trips to Pamir and Daghestanian languages, he defended his dissertation in 1975, supervised by Georgiy A. Klimov, on "The problem of the affective/experiential sentence construction". Alekseev's contributions concerned the historical-comparative study of Daghestanian languages, he was a close collaborator of Sergei A. Starostin. Obituary at the Institute of Linguistics of the Russian Academy of Sciences