NBCSN is an American pay television channel, owned by the NBC Sports Group division of NBCUniversal. It launched on July 1, 1995, as the Outdoor Life Network, dedicated to programming involving fishing, outdoor adventure programs, outdoor sports. By the turn of the 21st century, OLN became better known for its extensive coverage of the Tour de France but began covering more "mainstream" sporting events, resulting in its relaunch as Versus in September 2006. In 2011, the original owner of the network, acquired a majority stake in NBC Universal; as a result, Comcast merged the operations of its pay channels with those of NBC. In particular, it aligned the operation of its sports channels with NBC's sports division, NBC Sports. On January 2, 2012, Versus was rebranded as the NBC Sports Network to reflect these changes; as of September 15, 2014, the majority of NBC Sports' operations, including NBCSN, is based in facilities in Stamford, Connecticut. As of February 2015, NBCSN is available to 81,578,000 pay television households in the United States.
The channel launched as the Outdoor Life Network on July 1, 1995. Its programming consisted of hunting and outdoor adventure shows. In its early days, the channel reached around one million homes and found most of its carriage via the then-infant platforms of direct broadcast satellite services and digital cable. In 1999, OLN acquired the U. S. broadcast rights to the Tour de France for US$3 million. Coverage of the Tour on OLN brought greater viewership to the fledgling channel, due in part to the then-growing popularity of American rider Lance Armstrong. In 2004, where Armstrong would aim for a record-breaking sixth straight Tour de France title, OLN would devote over 344 hours in July to coverage of the Tour, along with documentaries and other original programming surrounding the event –, promoted through a $20 million advertising campaign. Overall, while its coverage of the Tour de France helped OLN expand its carriage to over 60 million homes, critics became concerned that OLN's coverage had placed too much of its focus on Armstrong as its main attraction for viewers, doubted if OLN could sustain itself without the viewership that Lance Armstrong's presence had brought to its coverage.
Some critics had jokingly referred to OLN as the "Only Lance Network" due to its overemphasis on the American rider. Following the 2005 Tour, OLN debuted a new lineup of programming – anchored by repeats of the popular reality television series Survivor. OLN's executives believed that bringing Survivor into its lineup would fit well with the new direction it had planned for OLN, could attract viewership from fans of the show who had watched it on CBS. Around the same period, OLN acquired the rights to the Dakar Rally, America's Cup, the Boston Marathon, the Iditarod. OLN planned to cover these multi-day events in a similar style to how it covered the Tour, hoping that its coverage might bring "surprise" results for the channel. Due in part to Lance's absence from the Tour in 2006, its ratings for live coverage of the first four stages of the race drew in 49% fewer viewers than previous years. In May 2005, ESPN rejected a $60 million offer to renew its broadcasting contract with the National Hockey League into the 2005-06 NHL season, the league rejected its alternate proposal for a revenue sharing agreement similar to the one it had established with NBC.
With the NFL shopping a new late-season package of Thursday and Saturday night games to potential broadcasters, speculation began to surface that Comcast would bid on the new NHL contract as its first step to transforming OLN into a mainstream sports channel that could compete with ESPN. Comcast had been involved in NHL broadcasting. In August 2005, ESPN declined to match Comcast's offer, OLN acquired pay television rights to the NHL beginning in the 2005–2006 season in a three-year deal worth close to $200 million; the new deal would include 58 regular season games on Monday and Tuesday nights, coverage of the NHL All-Star Game, conference finals, the first two games of the Stanley Cup Finals. With the help of its new NHL package, by June 2006, OLN had now reached 75 million subscribers. However, due in part to OLN's lesser carriage in comparison to ESPN, the NHL's ratings that season had suffered in comparison. In 2006, OLN broadcast selected games in the Arena Football League's 2006 season.
The channel televised a weekly regular-season game for 11 weeks as well as a wild card playoff game. However, the agreement was not renewed and was picked up by ESPN, who acquired a minority stake in the league's ownership. In April 2006, Comcast announced that it would be renaming Outdoor Life Network to Versus in the fall of 2006; as the network had shifted beyond "outdoor" programming, the name "Versus" was intended to represent the common element of competition within its lineup. OLN's re-launch as Versus occurred on September 25, 2006. Among the new programming acquired by Versus was a number of combat sports, beginning with a series of boxing programs promoted by Bob Arum's Top Rank group; the channel began televising Chuck Norris's World Combat League, a kickboxing promotion where fights are contested in a unique round ring without ropes. Versus entered into a partnership with World Extreme Cagefighting to bring mixed martial arts events to the chan
Roush Fenway Racing
Roush Fenway Racing Roush Racing, is an American professional stock car racing team that competes in the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series. Once one of NASCAR's largest premier racing teams, Roush runs teams in the Monster Energy Cup Series and in the NASCAR Xfinity Series, Camping World Truck Series and ARCA Racing Series; the team fields the No. 6 Ford Mustang full-time for Ryan Newman and the No. 17 Mustang full-time for Ricky Stenhouse Jr. Since its inception, Roush has competed in Ford brand automobiles; the team operates Roush-Yates Engines, which provides engines for most Ford teams in NASCAR and ARCA competition. Roush Racing was founded by Jack Roush, former employee of the Ford Motor Company and founder of Roush Performance Engineering. Prior to entering NASCAR competition, Roush had competed and won championships in various drag racing and sports car racing series since the mid-1960s, including the NHRA, SCCA Trans-Am Series, IMSA GT Championship, the 24 Hours of Daytona; the racing business was a small branch of co-owner Jack Roush's successful automotive engineering and road-racing equipment business based in Livonia, Michigan.
Early Roush drivers included Scott Pruett and Willy T. Ribbs; the NASCAR operation, founded in 1988 and based in Concord, North Carolina, has since become the cornerstone and centerpiece of the company. The team won back to back Championships in what is now the Monster Energy Cup Series in 2003 and 2004; the team has amassed many wins and championships in the Nationwide/Xfinity Series and Craftsman Truck Series competition. In 2007, sports investor John W. Henry, owner of the Fenway Sports Group which operates the Boston Red Sox, Liverpool F. C. and the New England Sports Network bought a 50% stake in the team, renamed Roush Fenway Racing. Jack Roush continues to head day-to-day operations of the team. Roush restarted its road racing program in 2006, called Roush Road Racing; the team fielded the No. 61 Ford Mustang in the IMSA Continental Tire Sports Car Challenge and Rolex Sports Car Series for Billy Johnson and Jack Roush's son, Jack Roush, Jr. and since 2014 fields the No. 60 Mustang in the Pirelli World Challenge sponsored by Roush Performance and driven by Roush, Jr.
Since 2015, the team has been fielded in a partnership with Capaldi Racing, moving from the Roush Fenway shops in North Carolina to Michigan near Roush Performance headquarters. Founded in 1988, the NASCAR program is built around having multiple cars and providing engine and race car build services to other NASCAR teams fielding Ford branded vehicles; the multi-team aspect of the company allows for information and resources to be shared across the enterprise, improving the performance of all of the teams. Since the 2004 season, engines for the cars have been provided by Roush-Yates Engines, a partnership between Roush Fenway Racing and now-closed rival Yates Racing, with Doug Yates as head engine builder. Roush-Yates provides engines and parts to other Cup teams, including Wood Brothers Racing, Team Penske, Richard Petty Motorsports, Front Row Motorsports. Between 1998 and 2000 and 2003–2009, Roush Racing operated five full-time Cup teams, more than any other organization including Hendrick Motorsports and Richard Childress Racing, which have both operated as many as four full-time teams.
Beginning in 2001, after years of operating in separate facilities, the teams were moved into a single shop in Concord, North Carolina to improve performance and communication. Roush Racing set a NASCAR record by putting all five of its race teams in the Chase for the Nextel Cup in 2005. Following the 2009 season, Roush Fenway was ordered by NASCAR to shrink its operation to four Sprint Cup Series teams, ceding the No. 26 team. The team would shrink to three teams after the 2011 season, would shrink again to two teams after the 2016 season; the Xfinity Series operation began in 1992 with the No. 60 driven by Mark Martin. The No. 60 team has been dominant throughout its history. The No. 6 team won 2012 with Ricky Stenhouse Jr.. Following the departures of Ryan Reed, Chase Briscoe, Austin Cindric, Roush's Xfinity program was closed following the 2018 season. From 1995 until 2009 Roush fielded teams in the NASCAR Truck Series, fielding trucks for drivers such as Kurt Busch, Kyle Busch, Ricky Craven, David Ragan, various others.
Many of these drivers went on to drive for the team at the Cup level. Roush's trucks won the 2000 Truck Series championship with Biffle driving; the No. 09 truck began running in 2005 as a development entry for Ford. Bobby East failed to qualify. Mark Martin made the team's first qualification at the Ford 200, where he started 14th and finished 8th with sponsorship from Stonebridge Life Insurance. After Martin's strong start to the 2006 season, his original limited schedule was expanded. Roush decided to run another part-time team for rookie David Ragan to fill out his original schedule. Ragan took the No. 50 to a 22nd-place finish at Atlanta, but struggled in his next few starts in both the No. 50 and the No. 6. After crashing the No. 6 in practice for the Mansfield race, he was replaced for the weekend. Carl Edwards ran the No. 50 at the Dover race, Ragan returned at the Texas race. Ragan's best finish in
Menard Inc. is a chain of home improvement centers, located in the Midwestern United States. The held company, headquartered in Eau Claire, has 305 stores in 14 states: Ohio, Indiana, Wisconsin, Iowa, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota and Kentucky, it is the third largest home improvement chain in the United States, behind The Home Depot and Lowe's. In 1959, John Menard, Jr. began building post-frame buildings to finance his college education. By the end of 1959, he found it necessary to hire extra crews, to purchase more equipment to keep up with demand. After graduating from the University of Wisconsin–Eau Claire in 1962, Menard purchased land in Eau Claire and built an office and shop; the company was founded in 1960 and incorporated in 1962. In 2007, Menards opened their third and fourth distribution centers in Holiday City and Shelby, which are 669,000 square feet and 735,000 square feet, respectively. In 2007, the 240,000 sq ft and larger Menards stores began selling groceries. Shoppers are able to get items such as frozen pizza, eggs, common snacks, a variety of canned items.
In addition, they carry items such as office supplies, pet supplies, mattresses. This new offer has allowed customers to have a more rounded "stop-and-shop" experience while diverting some of the market share from major grocers around the country. Menards broadcasts TV and radio ads. Radio and TV ads are sometimes accompanied with banjo music played by Gary Shaw of Wisconsin. Ray Szmanda was the "Menards Guy" who used the slogan "Save big money at Menards" on television advertisements from 1976 to 1998, from 1999 until his passing in 2018. During the Christmas and holiday season and television ads feature an alternate jingle "Warm season's greetings to you all from Menards!" Sung by a chorus. Menards has supported several racing drivers, including John Menard's son. Menards has begun sponsoring Team Penske as of 2016. Menards has become the title sponsor of races in the Xfinity Series and ARCA Racing Series. In 2016, Inc. was ranked 37th on Forbes’ list of "America's Largest Private Companies", with an estimated revenue of USD$8.7 billion.
In that same year, Menard was ranked 45th on the National Retail Federation's list of "100 Top Retailers". In 2018, Menards was ranked by J. D. Power as "highest in customer satisfaction among home improvement retail stores"
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Daytona Beach News-Journal
The Daytona Beach News-Journal is a Florida daily newspaper serving Volusia and Flagler counties. It grew from the Halifax Journal, started in 1883; the Davidson family purchased the newspaper in 1928 and retained control until bankruptcy in 2009. In 1986, The Morning Journal and Evening News merged into one morning newspaper; the newspaper began its online services in 1994. Daytona's early settlers decided that a newspaper would be important for the development of the town. A group of citizens raised money to persuade Florian A. Mann to move his printing press from Ohio to Daytona and start a new publication. Prior to publication of the first issue, 86 subscribers were signed up, all paid in advance. Advertisers paid in advance for the first three months; the first issue was scheduled for release on February 1, 1883. This delayed publication of the first issue until Mann decided to buy a bolt of cotton cloth from Laurence Thompson's dry goods store to use as a substitute; the first issue of the Halifax Journal was printed and published on the cotton cloth, dated February 15, 1883.
The premier issue contained local news, as well as Mann's editorial of praise and hope for the Halifax area. The Halifax Journal continued as a weekly publication until Mann sold the newspaper in 1889 to J. M. Jolley. In 1908, Jolley died and the newspaper was bought by Galen Seaman. After Seaman's death, the paper was bought by W. C. Carter of the Halifax Printing Company, which operated a printing shop connected with the Halifax Journal. After selling the Halifax Journal, Mann started the Ormond Gazette, he sold this paper to L. Moreton Murray and returned to Daytona, to start the Daytona News. Thomas E. Fitzgerald bought the Daytona News in 1900 and the Ormond Gazette in 1903. Fitzgerald consolidated the two papers and on December 1, 1903, published the first issue of The Daytona Daily News. Hugh Sparkman started a stock company which bought the Halifax Journal and turned it into a daily publication. In 1926, the stock company bought The Daytona Daily News from Fitzgerald; the stock company ceased publication of The Morning Journal, but continued The Evening News and The Sunday News-Journal.
In 1928, Julius Davidson and his son, Herbert M. Davidson, purchased a majority interest in the company, beginning an 80-year period of single family control of the publication. Soon after, the minority owner sold his interest to R. H. Gore, a competitor; the minority shares were sold to Perry Publications, the owner of The Palm Beach Post. In 1969, The Palm Beach Post was purchased by Cox Enterprises, a media company that owns The Atlanta Journal-Constitution and other publications. Cox acquired Perry's 47.5% interest in the News-Journal, assigned a value of $5 million, as part of the transaction. The Davidson family continued to hold a 52.5% majority of the stock. Cox had no say in corporate decisions. In January 2003, the News-Journal offered to pay $13 million for naming rights to a new performing arts center in Daytona Beach being built as a new home for the Seaside Music Theater, founded by News-Journal CEO Tippen Davidson. Cox Enterprises filed suit against the News-Journal Corp. in U. S. Federal Court, alleging they "acted irresponsibly in spending corporate funds".
Cox alleged. Court documents reveal that in the five-year period prior to the filing of Cox's complaint, at least 58 employees of Davidson's arts and entertainment ventures were on the News-Journal Corp. payroll, unbeknownst to NJC's sole minority shareholder. Despite the fact that these employees did no work for NJC, the corporation provided them with full salaries and benefits, at a cost to the company of at least $5.7 million. The trial court found that tens of millions of dollars were diverted to Davidson family projects to "indulge personal interests in the arts". After failing to have the suit dismissed, the News-Journal Corp. decided to exercise its option to buy out the minority shares. In 2006, the federal court set a valuation of $129.2 million on Cox's interest in the paper. Newspaper management announced in April 2008 that the newspaper would be sold in order to satisfy the judgment. On April 17, 2009, the News-Journal announced its intention to declare bankruptcy, but the judge overseeing the case rejected that option.
The board of directors was subsequently removed and the company was placed under court control, with James Hopson serving as the court-appointed manager. Halifax Media Holdings purchased the News-Journal on March 1, 2010, for $20 million and assumed control on April 1, 2010. Michael Redding, Halifax Media's CEO and a former News-Journal department manager, welcomed Bill Offill as publisher of the paper on July 29, 2013. Halifax Media became the 12th largest media company in the U. S. publishing 33 newspapers and affiliated websites in five states in the Southeast. The company was owned by a group of investors, including Stephens Capital Partners, of Little Rock, Arkansas. On August 28, 2013, Halifax Media signed a letter of intent with HarborPoint Media for the acquisition of three additional Florida papers. In 2015, Halifax was acquired by New Media Investment Group. News-Journal prices are: daily, $1. Sales tax is included at newsracks. Official website Today's The Daytona Beach News-Journal front page at the Newseum website
ARCA Midwest Tour
The ARCA Midwest Tour presented by SCAG Power Equipment is a pavement Super Late Model auto racing series based in the Midwestern United States with its headquarters in Oregon, Wisconsin. The Automobile Racing Club of America sanctions the regional series as a developmental series along with its CRA Super Series; the series can trace its roots back to the ARTGO series, formed in 1975. NASCAR sanctioned the tour from 1998 until 2006. During that time, it was known as the RE/MAX Challenge Series, International Truck & Engine Midwest Series and the NASCAR AutoZone Elite Division, Midwest Series. NASCAR discontinued the series in 2006 as car counts dwindled. Tim Olson and Stephen Einhaus formed Cars and Stars Promotions in 2006 to begin a separate series that replaced the defunct ARTGO / NASCAR series, it was known as the ASA Midwest Tour. ARCA took over sanctioning the series in 2013. Tim Olson, President of the ARCA Midwest Tour, announced that he has sold the ownership of the ARCA Midwest Tour to former Big 8 Series Director and Rockford Speedway General Manager Gregg McKarns.
In 2013, the tour made stops at tracks in Wisconsin and Minnesota. The series has its "Touring Stars" program, which recognizes the top drivers committed to racing the whole schedule; the "Touring Stars" are featured throughout the year on posters and event fliers promoting the series, as well as are eligible for pay bonuses at each race. There have been many NASCAR stars that have made appearances in the ASA Midwest Tour, such as Aric Almirola, David Ragan, David Stremme, Rusty Wallace, Tony Stewart, Kelly Bires, Kevin Harvick, Landon Cassill, Matt Kenseth, Jeff Green, Ron Hornaday, Kyle Busch, Travis Kvapil, Todd Kluever, Johnny Sauter, Erik Darnell, Scott Wimmer, Ken Schrader, Tim Sauter, Jay Sauter, Dick Trickle, Natalie Decker and Rich Bickle; the series has raced at dozens of race tracks in the Upper Midwest, such as: Berlin Raceway, Michigan Dells Raceway Park, Wisconsin Dells, Wisconsin Elko Speedway, Minnesota Grundy County Speedway, Illinois Hawkeye Downs Speedway, Cedar Rapids, Iowa I-94 Speedway, Sauk Centre, Minnesota Illiana Motor Speedway, Indiana Iowa Speedway, Iowa Jefferson Speedway, Wisconsin La Crosse Fairgrounds Speedway, West Salem, Wisconsin Madison International Speedway, Wisconsin Marshfield Superspeedway, Wisconsin Milwaukee Mile, West Allis, Wisconsin Norway Speedway, Michigan Raceway Park, Minnesota Rockford Speedway, Illinois State Park Speedway, Wisconsin Rockford Speedway, Loves Park, Illinois Wisconsin International Raceway, Wisconsin ARCA Midwest Tour
Toledo is a city in and the county seat of Lucas County, United States. Toledo is at the western end of Lake Erie bordering the state of Michigan; the city was founded in 1833 on the west bank of the Maumee River, incorporated as part of Monroe County, Michigan Territory. It was re-founded after conclusion of the Toledo War, when it was incorporated in Ohio. After the 1845 completion of the Miami and Erie Canal, Toledo grew quickly; the first of many glass manufacturers arrived in the 1880s earning Toledo its nickname: "The Glass City." It has since become a city with an art community, auto assembly businesses, education and local sports teams. The population of Toledo as of the 2010 Census was 287,208, making it the 71st-largest city in the United States, it is the fourth-most-populous city in the U. S. state of Ohio, after Columbus and Cincinnati. The Toledo metropolitan area had a 2010 population of 651,429, was the sixth-largest metropolitan area in the state of Ohio, behind Cleveland, Cincinnati and Akron.
Various cultures of indigenous peoples lived along the rivers and lakefront of what is now northwestern Ohio for thousands of years. When the city of Toledo was preparing to pave its streets, it surveyed "two prehistoric semicircular earthworks for stockades." One was at the intersection of Oliver streets on the south bank of Swan Creek. Such earthworks were typical of mound-building peoples; this region was part of a larger area controlled by the historic tribes of the Wyandot and the people of the Council of Three Fires. The first European to visit the area was Étienne Brûlé, a French-Canadian guide and explorer, in 1615; the French established trading posts in the area by 1680 to take advantage of the lucrative fur trade. The Odawa moved from Manitoulin Island and the Bruce Peninsula at the invitation of the French, who established a trading post at Fort Detroit, about 60 miles to the north, they settled an area extending into northwest Ohio. By the early 18th century, the Odawa occupied areas along most of the Maumee River to its mouth.
They served as middlemen between the French and tribes further to the north. The Wyandot occupied central Ohio, the Shawnee and Lenape occupied the southern areas; the area was not settled by European-Americans until 1795 and later. After the conclusion of the American Revolutionary War, the regional tribes allied in the Western Confederacy, fighting a series of battles in what became known as the Northwest Indian War in an effort to repulse American settlers from the country west of the Appalachians and north of the Ohio River, they were defeated in 1794 at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. This loose affiliation of tribes included the Council of Three Fires. By a treaty in 1795, they ceded large areas of territory in Ohio to the United States, opening lands for European-American settlement. According to Charles E. Slocum, the American military built Fort Industry at the mouth of Swan Creek about 1805, but as a temporary stockade. No official reports support the 19th-century tradition of its earlier history there.
The United States continued to work to extinguish land claims of Native Americans. In the Treaty of Detroit, the above four tribes ceded a large land area to the United States of what became southeastern Michigan and northwestern Ohio, to the mouth of the Maumee River. Reserves for the Odawa were set aside in northwestern Ohio for a limited period of time; the Native Americans signed the treaty at Detroit, Michigan, on November 17, 1807, with William Hull, governor of the Michigan Territory and superintendent of Indian affairs, as the sole representative of the U. S. More European-American settlers entered the area over the next few years, but many fled during the War of 1812, when British forces raided the area with their Indian allies. Resettlement began around 1818 after a Cincinnati syndicate purchased a 974-acre tract at the mouth of Swan Creek and named it Port Lawrence, developing it as the modern downtown area of Toledo. To the north of that, another syndicate founded the town of Vistula, the historic north end.
These two towns bordered each other across Cherry Street. This is why present-day streets on the street's northeast side run at a different angle from those southwest of it. In 1824, the Ohio state legislature authorized the construction of the Miami and Erie Canal and in 1833, its Wabash and Erie Canal extension; the canal's purpose was to connect the city of Cincinnati to Lake Erie for water transportation to eastern markets, including to New York City via the Erie Canal and Hudson River. At that time no highways had been built in the state, it was difficult for goods produced locally to reach the larger markets east of the Appalachian Mountains. During the canal's planning phase, many small towns along the northern shores of Maumee River competed to be the ending terminus of the canal, knowing it would give them a profitable status; the towns of Port Lawrence and Vistula merged in 1833 to better compete against the upriver towns of Waterville and Maumee. The inhabitants of this joined settlement chose the name Toledo, "but the reason for this choice is buried in a welter of legends.
One recounts that Washington Irving, traveling in Spain at the time, suggested the name to his brother, a local resident. Others award the honor to Two Stickney, son of the major