Italian Grand Prix
The Italian Grand Prix is one of the longest running events on the Formula One calendar. The Italian and British Grands Prix are the only Formula One World Championship Grands Prix staged continuously since the championship was introduced in 1950, as the Monaco and Belgian Grands Prix have missed a few seasons since hosting races in the 1950 inaugural season; every Formula One Italian Grand Prix in the World Championship era has been held at Monza except in 1980, when it was held at Imola. The Italian Grand Prix counted toward the European Championship from 1935 to 1938, it was designated the European Grand Prix seven times between 1923 and 1967, when this title was an honorary designation given each year to one Grand Prix race in Europe. Motor racing has always been popular in Italy, the first Italian Grand Prix motor racing championship took place on 4 September 1921 at a 10.7-mile circuit near Brescia, the site of the Gordon Bennett races in the early 1900s. However, the race is more associated with the course at Monza, a racing facility just outside the northern city of Milan, built in 1922 in time for that year's race, has been the location for most of the races over the years.
The Autodromo Nazionale Monza was completed in 1922 and was just the third permanent autodrome in the world at that time. European motor racing pioneers Vincenzo Lancia and Felice Nazzaro laid the last two bricks at Monza; the circuit was 10 km long, with a road circuit combined into one. It was fast, always provided excitement; the 1923 race included one of Harry A. Miller's rare European appearances with his single seat "American Miller 122" driven by Count Louis Zborowski of Chitty Chitty Bang Bang fame; the 1928 race was the first of many tragedies. Italians Emilio Materassi in a Talbot and Giulio Foresti in a Bugatti were battling around the fast circuit; as they came off the banking onto the left side of the pit straight, one of the front wheels of Materassi's overtaking Talbot touched one of the rear wheels of the Bugatti. Materassi lost control of the car, swerved left, cleared a 10-foot wide ditch and ploughed into the unprotected grandstand opposite the pits, killing himself and 27 spectators, injuring another 26.
It was the worst accident in motor racing history and remained so until the 1955 24 Hours of Le Mans. The Italian Grand Prix went on a three-year hiatus until the 1931 race, held in late May instead of the traditional early September, was won by Giuseppe Campari and Tazio Nuvolari, sharing an Alfa Romeo; the race was something of an endurance race in those days. The great Nuvolari won again in this time held in early June. In 1933, with the race being held this time at the traditional timeframe of early September, disaster struck again. Three top drivers were killed during three heat races. There was a reported patch of oil on the south banking that had come from a Duesenberg, driven by Count Carlo Felice Trossi, Giuseppe Campari in a Ferrari-entered Alfa Romeo and his protege Baconin Borzacchini in a Maserati were battling ferociously. Borzacchini went through the oily patch, lost control, spun wildly and the Maserati overturned and violently flipped multiple times, by the time the wrecked car came to a stop, Borzacchini was pinned underneath his car, not having been thrown out.
While Borzacchini's Maserati was crashing all over the track, Campari swerved to avoid him, by doing this, his car went up and flew off the banking and crashed into trees situated right next to the track. Campari broke his neck and was killed and Borzacchini died that day in a Monza hospital. Prior to the third heat, there was a drivers meeting to discuss the oil patch and it was cleaned up. On the eighth lap, Polish aristocrat Count Stanislas Czaykowski was on the south banking when his Bugatti's engine blew up, a fuel line broke, the fuel caught fire after touching the hot front section of the Bugatti where the engine and gearbox were and the burning fuel sprayed onto Czaykowski. Blinded by the smoke and flames on him, he went up and flew off the banking- at the same spot where Campari and Borzacchini had crashed; the Polish driver, unable to put out the flames on his body, fuelled by the fuel from his wrecked Bugatti burned to death. Italian Luigi Fagioli was declared the winner of the event.
Enzo Ferrari, close to Campari and Borzacchini. Today, racing historians conclude that the events of this race marked a watershed, notably for Enzo Ferrari, it was the end to the beginning of a harsher new age. Safety in those days was non-existent; the circuit's condition was identical of that to an ordinary town and country road, except instead of the surface being made of dirt and/or tarmac, it was made of tarmac, concrete and/or bricks. Spectators stood close to or next to the track and they had no protection of any kind other than common sense. What was tragic about Campari's death was that he had announced his retirement at the French Grand Prix two months earlier, to focus on his opera singing exploits. After the disastrous 1933 race, something had to be done to Monza. There were chicanes added at certain points on the circuit and only most of the road circuit and part of the high speed oval was used
1986 Formula One World Championship
The 1986 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 40th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1986 Formula One World Championship for Drivers and the 1986 Formula One World Championship for Manufacturers, both of which commenced on 23 March and ended on 26 October after sixteen races; the Drivers' Championship was won by Alain Prost, the Manufacturers' Championship was won by Williams. Prost was the first driver to win back-to-back Drivers' Championships since Jack Brabham in 1959 and 1960; the 1986 championship culminated in a battle between Williams drivers Nigel Mansell and Nelson Piquet and McLaren driver Alain Prost at the final race, the Australian Grand Prix. Mansell's tyre exploded and Piquet was brought in for a precautionary pit stop for tyres as a result, leaving Prost to win the race and his second consecutive Drivers' Championship. Mansell and Prost, along with Lotus' Ayrton Senna, dominated throughout the season and formed what was dubbed as the "Gang of Four".
For the first time, turbocharged engines were compulsory due to a ban on aspirated engines. This ban would be rescinded in 1987, in preparation for turbos themselves being banned from 1989; the Formula One cars of 1986 are the most powerful Grand Prix cars to have raced. There were still no limits on engine power, some engines, including the powerful but rather unreliable BMW M12/13 1.5 litre single turbocharged straight-4 engine used by the Benetton and Arrows teams, could throw out 1,350+ hp at 5.5 bar boost during qualifying. The power of the turbocharged engines was so great that it could not be measured until years when the technology was advanced enough. Purpose-built drivetrains had to be fitted to the chassis of each car for specific sessions – there were qualifying engines that had unrestricted boost pressure, qualifying gearboxes, designed to withstand the engine's extra power; these drivetrain units were taken out and replaced with the boost-restricted engines and prepared gearboxes for races.
When these turbocharged engines were fitted to the cars, the whole package weighed about 540 kg. For qualifying, the power to weight ratios were about 2,500 hp/ton+ for the Benetton-BMW and 1,850 hp/ton for the Benetton's race trim. A consistent problem for these new turbo engines, somewhat smoothed over over the years was the turbo lag. In the engines, which were mechanically turbocharged, the power would only come on all at once 2–3 seconds after the driver put his foot down; the nature of these engines made them difficult to drive. This was similar to; the boost of the engines would be restricted to the point where they would only be producing around 900–1,000 hp during the race. The major automotive manufacturers participating in F1 at the time, with their superior money and resources ran at the front of the turbocharged engine development race; the Honda twin-turbocharged V6 supplied to the Williams team were second to BMW in overall power and had less power than the German engines. The new Ford-Cosworth turbocharged V6 was made in a rush and was therefore underpowered and underdeveloped.
The underfunded and unreliable Alfa Romeo, Motori Moderni and Hart engines were less powerful than any of the others and kept their users down the order frequently. The power in engines from 1980 to 1986 doubled. In 1980, the most powerful engine was the Renault twin-turbo V6 engine, which produced between 550–600 horsepower. At many races at high speed circuits such as Imola, Spa-Francorchamps, the Österreichring and Monza, fuel consumption was always a concern, as the FIA lessened the amount of allowable fuel from 220 litres in 1984 and 1985 to 195 litres for 1986; as a result, fuel consumption became a problem for most teams since the engines were more powerful than before. There were many races where a number of drivers ran out of fuel, including Alain Prost at Hockenheim, who nearly finished third but ran out of fuel less than 500 meters from the finishing line, he tried to push his stricken car across the finish line never making it and finishing sixth. The Honda engines had the edge on fuel consumption and reliability, but the TAG/Porsche, Renault
An open-wheel car is a car with the wheels outside the car's main body, having only one seat. Open-wheel cars contrast with street cars, sports cars, stock cars, touring cars, which have their wheels below the body or inside fenders. Open-wheel cars are built for road racing with a higher degree of technological sophistication than in other forms of motor sport. Open-wheel street cars, such as the Ariel Atom, are scarce as they are impractical for everyday use. American racecar driver and constructor Ray Harroun was an early pioneer of the concept of a lightweight single-seater, open-wheel "monoposto" racecar. After working as a mechanic in the automotive industry, Harroun began competitive professional racing in 1906, winning the AAA National Championship in 1910, he was hired by the Marmon Motor Car Company as chief engineer, charged with building a racecar intended to race at the first Indianapolis 500, which he went on to win. He developed a revolutionary concept which would become the originator and forefather of the single-seater racecar design.
Harroun has been credited by some as pioneering the rear-view mirror which appeared on his 1911 Indianapolis 500 winning car, though he himself claimed he got the idea from seeing a mirror used for a similar purpose on a horse-drawn vehicle in 1904. A typical open-wheeler has a minimal cockpit sufficient only to enclose the driver's body, with the head exposed to the air. In the Whelen Modified Tour and other short track modified series, the driver's head is contained in the car. In modern cars the engine is located directly behind the driver, drives the rear wheels. Depending on the rules of the class, many types of open-wheelers have wings at the front and rear of the vehicle, as well as a low and flat undertray that helps achieve additional aerodynamic downforce pushing the car onto the road; some major races, such as the Singapore Grand Prix, Monaco Grand Prix and the Long Beach Grand Prix, are held on temporary street circuits. However, most open-wheel races are on dedicated road courses, such as Watkins Glen International in the US, Nürburgring in Germany, Spa-Francorchamps in Belgium and Silverstone in Great Britain.
In the United States some top-level open-wheel events are held on ovals, of both short track and superspeedway variety, with an emphasis being placed more on speed and endurance than the maneuverability inherently required by road and street course events. The Whelen Modified Tour is the only opened wheeled race car series endorsed by NASCAR; this series races on most of NASCAR's most famous tracks in the United States. Other asphalt modified series race on short tracks in the United States and Canada, such as Wyoming County International Speedway in New York; the most well-attended oval race in the world is the annual Indianapolis 500 in Speedway, sanctioned by IndyCar. Open-wheeled racing is among the fastest in the world. Formula 1 cars can reach speeds in excess of 360 kilometres per hour. At Autodromo Nazionale Monza, Antônio Pizzonia of BMW Williams F1 team recorded a top speed of 369.9 kilometres per hour in the 2004 Italian Grand Prix. Since the end of the V10 era in 2006 speeds like this have not been reached, with contemporary machinery reaching around 360 kilometres per hour.
It is difficult to give precise figures for the absolute top speeds of Formula 1 cars, as the cars do not have speedometers as such and the data are not released by teams. The'speed traps' on fast circuits such as Monza give a good indication, but are not located at the point on the track where the car is travelling at its fastest. BAR Honda team recorded an average top speed of 400 kilometres per hour in 2006 at Bonneville Salt Flats with unofficial top speed reaching 413 kilometres per hour using modified BAR 007 Formula 1 car. Speeds on ovals can range in constant excess of 210–220 miles per hour, at Indianapolis in excess of 230 miles per hour; some sources claim that in 1996, Paul Tracy recorded a trap speed of 256.948 miles per hour at Michigan International Speedway. In 2000, Gil de Ferran set the one-lap qualifying record of 241.428 miles per hour at California Speedway. On tight non-oval street circuits such as the Grand Prix of Toronto, open-wheel Indy Cars attain speeds of 190 miles per hour.
Driving an open-wheel car is different from driving a car with fenders. All Formula One and Indycar drivers spent some time in various open-wheel categories before joining either top series. Open-wheel vehicles, due to their light weight, aerodynamic capabilities, powerful engines, are considered the fastest racing vehicles available and among the most challenging to master. Wheel-to-wheel contact is dangerous when the forward edge of one tire contacts the rear of another tire: since the treads are moving in opposite directions at the point of contact, both wheels decelerate, torquing the chassis of both cars and causing one or both vehicles to be and powerfully flung upwards An example of this is the 2005 Chicagoland crash of Ryan Briscoe with Alex Barron; the lower w
Philippe Streiff is a former racing driver from France. He participated in 55 Formula One Grands Prix, debuting on October 21, 1984, he achieved one podium, scored a total of 11 championship points. A pre-season testing crash in 1989 left him a quadriplegic and thus using a wheelchair, with the quality of the care he received in the aftermath having been called into question if the accident itself was so serious the roll-bar broke on impact, he organised the Masters Karting Paris Bercy. In early 1994, Streiff made a bid to purchase Ligier in partnership with Hughes de Chaunac; the bid had the support of the Renault-powered Williams F1 team, who intended to turn Ligier into a'junior' team. The bid was unsuccessful. Belgian Luc Costermans, who had broken the World blind road speed record in late 2008, dedicated his record to Streiff. Official website
Formula Two, abbreviated to F2, is a type of open wheel formula racing first codified in 1948. It was replaced in 1985 by Formula 3000, but revived by the FIA from 2009–2012 in the form of the FIA Formula Two Championship; the name returned in 2017. While Formula One has been regarded as the pinnacle of open-wheeled auto racing, the high-performance nature of the cars and the expense involved in the series has always meant a need for a path to reach this peak. For much of the history of Formula One, Formula Two has represented the penultimate step on the motorsport ladder. Prior to the Second World War, there existed a division of racing for cars smaller and less powerful than Grand Prix racers; this category was called voiturette racing and provided a means for amateur or less experienced drivers and smaller marques to prove themselves. By the outbreak of war, the rules for voiturette racing permitted 1.5 L supercharged engines. In 1946, the 3.0 L supercharged rules were abandoned and Formulae A and B introduced.
Formula A permitted the old 4.5 L aspirated cars, but as the 3.0 L supercharged cars were more than a match for these, the old 1.5 L voiturette formula replaced 3.0 L supercharged cars in an attempt to equalise performance. This left no category below Formula A/Formula One, so Formula Two was first formally codified in 1948 by FIA as a smaller and cheaper complement to the Grand Prix cars of the era. Among the races held in this first year of Formula Two was the 1948 Stockholm Grand Prix; the rules limited engines to two-litre aspirated or 750 cc supercharged. As a result, the cars were smaller and cheaper than those used in Formula One; this encouraged new marques such as Cooper to move up to Formula Two, before competing against the big manufacturers of Alfa Romeo and Maserati. In fact, Formula One in its early years attracted so few entrants that in 1952 and 1953 all World Championship Grand Prix races, except the unique Indianapolis 500, were run in Formula Two. F2 went into decline with the arrival of the 2.5 L F1 in 1954, but a new Formula Two was introduced for 1957, for 1.5 L cars.
This became dominated by rear-engined Coopers drawing on their Formula 3 and'Bobtail' sports car, with Porsches based on their RSK sports cars enjoying some success. Ferrari developed their'Sharknose' Dino 156 as a Formula Two car, while still racing front-engined Grand Prix cars; the dominant engine of this formula was the Coventry Climax FPF four-cylinder, with the rare Borgward sixteen-valve unit enjoying some success. A enlarged version of the F2 Cooper won the first two Formula One Grands Prix in 1958, marking the beginning of the rear-engined era in Formula One; the 1.5 L formula was short-lived, with Formula Junior replacing first Formula Three and Formula Two until 1963—but the 1961 1.5 L Formula One was a continuation of this Formula Two. Formula Junior was introduced in 1959, an attempt to be all things to all people, it was soon realised that there was a need to split it into two new formulae. Formula Two was the domain of Formula One stars on their days off. Engines were by Cosworth and Honda, though some other units appeared, including various Fiat based units and dedicated racing engines from BMC and BRM.
For 1967, the FIA increased the maximum engine capacity to 1600cc. With the "return to power" of Formula One the gap between Formula One and Formula Two was felt to be too wide, the introduction of new 1600cc production-based engine regulations for Formula Two restored the category to its intended role as a feeder series for Formula One; the FIA introduced the European Formula Two Championship in 1967. Ickx, driving a Matra MS5, won the inaugural championship by 11 points from the Australian, Frank Gardner; the most popular 1600cc engine was the Cosworth FVA, the sixteen-valve head on a four-cylinder Cortina block, the "proof of concept" for the legendary DFV. The 1967 FVA gave 220 bhp at 9000 rpm. Other units appeared, including a four-cylinder BMW and a V6 Dino Ferrari. Many Formula One drivers continued to drive the smaller and lighter cars on non-championship weekends, some Grand Prix grids would be a mix of Formula One and Formula Two cars. Jacky Ickx made his Grand Prix debut there in a Formula Two car, qualifying with the fifth fastest time overall.
Forced to start behind the slower Formula One cars, Ickx forced his way back into a points position, only to be forced to retire with broken suspension. Jim Clark, regarded as one of the greatest race drivers of all time, was killed in a Formula Two race early in 1968, at the Hockenheimring; the "invasion" of Formula One drivers in Formula Two ranks was permitted because of the unique grad
A mechanic is an artisan, technician or skilled tradesperson who uses tools to build or repair machinery. Most mechanics specialize in a particular field, such as air conditioning and refrigeration mechanics, auto mechanics, bicycle mechanics, boiler mechanics, general mechanics, industrial maintenance mechanics, motorcycle mechanics, aircraft mechanics, bus mechanics, truck mechanics, diesel mechanics as well as tank mechanics in the armed services. A mechanic is certified by a trade association or regional government power. Mechanics may be separated into two classes based on the type of machines they work on, heavyweight and lightweight. Heavyweight work is on larger machines or heavy equipment, such as tractors and trailers, while lightweight work is on smaller items, such as automotive engines. Auto mechanics have many trades within; some may specialize in the electrical aspects, while others may specialize in the mechanical aspects. Other areas include: brakes and steering, automatic or manual transmission, engine repairs or diagnosing customer complaints.
An automotive technician, on the other hand, has a wide variety of topics to learn
International Formula 3000
The Formula 3000 International Championship was a motor racing series created by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile in 1985 to become the final preparatory step for drivers hoping to enter Formula One. Formula Two had become too expensive, was dominated by works-run cars with factory engines; the series began as an open specification tyres were standardized from 1986 onwards, followed by engines and chassis in 1996. The series ran annually until 2004, was replaced in 2005 by the GP2 Series; the series was staged as the Formula 3000 European Championship in 1985, as the Formula 3000 Intercontinental Championship in 1986 and 1987 and as the Formula 3000 International Championship from 1988 to 2004. Formula 3000 replaced Formula Two, was so named because the engines used were limited to 3000cc maximum capacity; the Cosworth DFV was a popular choice, having been made obsolete in Formula One by the adoption of 1.5 litre turbocharged engines.. The rules permitted any 90-degree V8 engine, fitted with a rev-limiter to keep power output under control.
As well as the Cosworth, a Honda engine based on an Indy V8 by John Judd appeared. In years, a Mugen-Honda V8 became the thing to have, eclipsing the DFV. Costs, not unlike the senior series, were getting out of control; the first chassis from March, AGS and Ralt were developments of their existing 1984 Formula Two designs, although Lola's entry was based on and looked much like an IndyCar. A few smaller teams tried obsolete three-litre Formula One cars, with little success—the Grand Prix and Indycar-derived entries were too unwieldy—their fuel tanks were about twice the size of those needed for F3000 races, the weight distribution was not ideal; the first few years of the championship saw March establishing a superiority over Ralt and Lola—there was little to choose between the chassis, but more Marches were sold and ended up in better hands. The form book was rewritten in 1988 with the entry of the ambitious Reynard marque with a brand new chassis; this would continue in F3000. The next couple of years saw Lola improve slightly—their car was arguably marginally superior to the Reynard in 1990—and March slip, but both were crushed by the Reynard teams and by the mid-90s, F3000 was a virtual Reynard monopoly, although Lola did return with a promising car and the Japanese Footwork and Dome chassis were seen in Europe.
Dallara tried the series before moving up to Formula One, AGS moved up from Formula Two but never recaptured their occasional success. At least one unraced F3000 chassis existed—the Wagner fitted with a straight-six short-stroke BMW; this was converted into a sports car, however. The series was not without controversy. Definitive rules for the 1985 season did not appear. In 1987 questions were asked about the ability of some of the drivers, given the high number of accidents in the formula. In 1989 the eligibility of the new Reynard chassis was challenged - it was raced with a different nose to the one, crash tested; this season saw problems with driver changes - the cost of F3000 was escalating to the point that teams were finding it difficult to run drivers for a whole season. A badly implemented "two driver changes per car per season" rule meant that some cars had to sit idle while drivers with budgets could not race them. In 1991 the performance of some Italian teams attracted attention - they had started using Agip's "jungle juice" Formula One fuel, worth an estimated 15 bhp—giving their drivers a significant advantage.
In the early years of the formula there was much concern about safety, with a high number of accidents resulting in injuries to drivers and one fatality in the International Championship - Marco Campos in the last round of the 1995 series. Formula 3000 races during the "open chassis" era tended to be of about 100–120 miles in distance, held at major circuits, either headlining meetings or paired with other international events; the "jewel in the crown" of the F3000 season was traditionally the Pau Grand Prix street race, rivalled for a few years by the Birmingham round. Most major circuits in France, Spain and the United Kingdom saw the series visit at least once. In 1996, new rules introduced a single engine and chassis, to go along with tyre standardization introduced in 1986; the following year the calendar was combined with that of Formula One, so the series became support races for the Grand Prix. Several Grand Prix teams established formal links with F3000 teams to develop young drivers.
The series grew through the late nineties, reaching an entry of nearly 40 cars - although this in itself was problematic as it meant many drivers failed to qualify. In 2000, the series was restricted to 15 teams of two cars each. However, by 2002 expenses were once more high and the number of entries, sponsors d