Ralt was a manufacturer of single-seater racing cars, founded by ex-Jack Brabham associate Ron Tauranac after he sold out his interest in Brabham to Bernie Ecclestone. Ron and his brother had built some specials in Australia in the 1950s under the Ralt name. Tauranac won the 1954 NSW Hillclimb Championship in the Ralt 500; as a constructor, Tauranac acquired a reputation for building safe, strong cars that were manufactured to high standards—he tended to invest his firm's profits in high-quality machine tools and Ralts acquired an enviable reputation as the best-built "customer" cars of their era. Built with the assistance of Tauranac's younger brother, Austin, in Australia; the Mk was powered by a 1,932cc pushrod Norton ES2. Tauranac made his own flywheel, connecting rods, cylinders; the Mk2 was a sports car built by and for Austin, with a Ford 10 engine, Standard 10 gearbox, Morris 8 rear axle. The Mk3 was purchased from the Hooper brothers. Tauranac designed a new chassis for it, the car was driven by Austin.
The Mk4 began as a special, using a de Dion rear suspension. The car took two years to develop in Tauranac’s spare time. After just two events, somebody insisted on buying it, so plans were made for a production run of five; the Mk5 was planned by Austin as a Peugeot-engined car, but abandoned so he could assist Tauranac with the production Mk 4s. Tauranac founded Ralt in 1974 and the first product was the RT1, a simple and versatile car used in Formula Two, Formula Three and Formula Atlantic racing between 1975 and 1978. In 1979, the RT2 was developed with three cars being built for the Toleman team. Three more cars were built for private owners, including one for the revival of the Can-Am series. For 1980 Toleman built its own car, the TG280, based somewhat on the RT2 design. Two of the original Toleman RT2s were raced in Can-Am, while the third ended up in South Africa, where copies called Lants were made. Related cars have appeared in hillclimb and sprint events in the UK as SPAs; the RT2 provided the basis for three cars in other categories: the RT3 in Formula Three, the RT4 in Formula Atlantic, the RT5 in Formula Super Vee.
The RT4 was the car of choice in Australian Formula 1 and Formula Mondial during the early to mid-1980s. Roberto Moreno drove an RT4 to win the Australian Grand Prix in 1981, 1983, the final AGP in 1984 before it became a round of the Formula One World Championship in 1985, while Alain Prost drove one to victory in the 1982 Australian Grand Prix. Other F1 drivers to drive a Ralt RT4 in Australia during this period included Jacques Laffite and Andrea de Cesaris, as well as World Champions Alan Jones, Nelson Piquet, Keke Rosberg and Niki Lauda; the RT4 powered by a 1.6 litre, 4 cyl Ford BDA engine which produced around 220 bhp saw John Bowe win the Australian Drivers' Championship in 1984 and 1985, while Australian Ralt importer Graham Watson used one to win the 1986 championship. In 1980, Honda asked John Judd's Engine Developments to develop an engine for Formula Two, which would be used by the works Ralt team. Tauranac had been associated with Honda through Brabham's introduction of the Japanese marque to F2 in the 1960s, while Jack Brabham had co-founded Engine Developments with Judd.
Between 1980 and 1984, Ralt's works F2 cars carried the RH6 designation: the RH6/80 and RH6/81 were developments of the RT2 theme, while the RH6/82, RH6/83 and RH6/84 were further developed around a new honeycomb tub. The cars proved successful, winning 20 championship races and the 1981, 1983 and 1984 championships with Geoff Lees, Jonathan Palmer and Mike Thackwell respectively. In 1985, Formula Two was replaced by the new Formula 3000 category. Ralt's first F3000 car was the RB20 a further development of the RH6/84 but fitted with a Cosworth DFV engine; the car won four races of the inaugural International F3000 Championship with Thackwell and John Nielsen. For 1986, the RT20 was developed - a cheaper, more economical car with a traditional aluminium tub, easier to maintain. Honda returned as the engine supplier for the works team; the works team won one race with Thackwell, while Pierluigi Martini and Luis Pérez-Sala won four races between them in customer cars entered by the Italian Pavesi Racing team.
The RT21 was a further development for 1987, again incorporating honeycomb elements in the monocoque. 1988 was to be Ralt's last year as an independent chassis supplier and team in F3000. The RT22 was its first carbon-fibre F3000 car, but with Lola and newcomers Reynard beginning to dominate the category, it achieved little success. In the autumn of 1988, Tauranac sold Ralt to the March Group; the Ralt name reappeared in F3000 in 1991, when the RT23 was manufactured under the March Group's auspices. Jean-Marc Gounon won at Pau in an RT23 entered by Mike Earle's 3001 International team, but otherwise the car was unsuccessful. An updated version, the RT24, was built by Nick Wirth's Simtek company for 1992, but soon after, Ralt withdrew from F3000 for good. Second-hand Ralt F3000 cars were used extensively in Australia's Formula Holden category from its introduction in 1989, fitted with the formula's 3.8-litre Holden V6 engine. Rohan Onslow won the 1989 Australian Drivers' Championship in
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker that has its main headquarter in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903; the company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer Troller, an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom and a 32% stake in Jiangling Motors, it has joint-ventures in China, Thailand and Russia. The company is controlled by the Ford family. Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly lines. Ford's former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010. In 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada and the Middle East since 1938.
Ford is the second-largest U. S.-based automaker and the fifth-largest in the world based on 2015 vehicle production. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe; the company went public in 1956 but the Ford family, through special Class B shares, still retain 40 percent voting rights. During the financial crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, it was close to bankruptcy, but it has since returned to profitability. Ford was the eleventh-ranked overall American-based company in the 2018 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2017 of $156.7 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants and facilities worldwide. Henry Ford's first attempt at a car company under his own name was the Henry Ford Company on November 3, 1901, which became the Cadillac Motor Company on August 22, 1902, after Ford left with the rights to his name; the Ford Motor Company was launched in a converted factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John and Horace Dodge.
The first president was not Ford, but local banker John S. Gray, chosen to assuage investors' fears that Ford would leave the new company the way he had left its predecessor. During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue and its factory on Piquette Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. Groups of two or three men worked on each car, assembling it from parts made by supplier companies contracting for Ford. Within a decade, the company would lead the world in the expansion and refinement of the assembly line concept, Ford soon brought much of the part production in-house in a vertical integration that seemed a better path for the era. Henry Ford was 39 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company, which would go on to become one of the world's largest and most profitable companies, it has been in continuous family control for over 100 years and is one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world. The first gasoline powered automobile had been created in 1885 by the German inventor Carl Benz.
More efficient production methods were needed to make automobiles affordable for the middle class, to which Ford contributed by, for instance, introducing the first moving assembly line in 1913 at the Ford factory in Highland Park. Between 1903 and 1908, Ford produced the Models A, B, C, F, K, N, R, S. Hundreds or a few thousand of most of these were sold per year. In 1908, Ford introduced the mass-produced Model T, which totalled millions sold over nearly 20 years. In 1927, Ford replaced the T with the first car with safety glass in the windshield. Ford launched the first low-priced car with a V8 engine in 1932. In an attempt to compete with General Motors' mid-priced Pontiac and Buick, Ford created the Mercury in 1939 as a higher-priced companion car to Ford. Henry Ford purchased the Lincoln Motor Company in 1922, in order to compete with such brands as Cadillac and Packard for the luxury segment of the automobile market. In 1929, Ford was contracted by the government of the Soviet Union to set up the Gorky Automobile Plant in Russia producing Ford Model A and AAs thereby playing an important role in the industrialisation of that country.
The creation of a scientific laboratory in Dearborn, Michigan in 1951, doing unfettered basic research, led to Ford's unlikely involvement in superconductivity research. In 1964, Ford Research Labs made a key breakthrough with the invention of a superconducting quantum interference device or SQUID. Ford offered the Lifeguard safety package from 1956, which included such innovations as a standard deep-dish steering wheel, optional front, for the first time in a car, rear seatbelts, an optional padded dash. Ford introduced child-proof door locks into its products in 1957, and, in the same year, offered the first retractable hardtop on a mass-produced six-seater car. In late 1955, Ford established the Continental division as a separate luxury car division; this division was responsible for the manufacture and sale of the famous Continental Mark II. At the same time, the Edsel division was created to design and market that car starting with the 1958 model year. Due to limited sales of the Continental and the Edsel disaster, Ford merged Lincoln and Edsel into "M
Martini (automobile company)
Martini was a pioneer Swiss automobile manufacturer, in operation 1897 to 1934. In 1897, Swiss businessman Adolf von Martini, son of Friedrich von Martini, the inventor of the action used in the Martini–Henry rifle, built an experimental rear-engined car, he followed this with V4 cars of 10 hp and 16 hp in 1902. Since Swiss cantons were unusually hostile to cars, the company had to rely more than most on exports, demand from abroad proved sufficient to justify building a factory in Saint-Blaise in 1904. Promptly, his British sales agent, Captain H. H. P. Deasy, set off in a 16 hp on a 2,000-mile trek through the Alps, which followed his earlier stunt of driving a cog-wheeled Martini up a mountain railway. By 1906, Deasy was sole salesman; that summer, with a 20 hp and a four-cylinder 40 hp available, Deasy made an ill-advised challenge to Rolls-Royce. For 1907, there was a chain driven 28 hp, an entry in the Kaiserpreis rally, where the marque placed thirteenth and fifteenth. In 1908, showing the rapid pace of change, shaft drive was standard, in 12 hp, 16 hp and 20 hp models.
That year's Coupe de Voiturettes saw 1086cc inlet-over-exhaust SOHC-engined Martinis seventh and tenth, enough for the team victory. The racer was marketed as a 1909 road car, the 10/12, new monobloc construction was standard across the line, yet the engineers could not make up their minds. World War One and the subsequent recession crippled Swiss, Martini, exports. In 1924, Martini was taken over by the Steiger brothers of Burgrieden, the next year conceding the "Battle of the Cylinders" with a new six, licensed from Wanderer; this did not sell, its replacement, the 4.4-liter NF, having four-wheel brakes, was not enough to save the company. The NF soldiered on until 1934 before just fading away, Martini with it; the Martini company manufactured bookbinding machinery. They were purchased by Hans Müller and the company was renamed Müller Martini; the original factory is still in use today, has a 1917 Martini car on display in the lobby of their Bookbinding Academy. Adem G. N. Georgano Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886-1930.
London: Grange-Universal, 1985. Wise, David Burgess. "Martini: A New Star", in Tom, ed. The World of Automobiles. London: Orbis Publishing, 1974. Volume 11, pp. 1259–60
Formula racing is any of several forms of open-wheeled single-seater motorsport road racing. The origin of the term lies in the nomenclature, adopted by the FIA for all of its post-World War II single-seater regulations, or formulae; the best known of these formulae are Formula Two, Formula Three and Formula Four. Common usage of "formula racing" encompasses other single-seater series, including the GP2 Series, which replaced Formula 3000. Categories such as Formula Three and FIA Formula 2 Championship are described as feeder formulae, which refers to their position below Formula One on the career ladder of single-seater motor racing. There are two primary forms of racing formula: the open formula that allows a choice of chassis or engines and the control or "spec" formula that relies on a single supplier for chassis and engines. Formula Three is an example of an open formula. There are some exceptions on these two forms like Formula Ford where there is an open chassis formula but a restricted single brand engine formula.
In the process of reviving Grand Prix racing after the end of World War II, the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile's Commission Sportive Internationale was responsible for defining the standardised regulations of Formula One in 1946. The first race to be run to the early Formula One regulations was a non-championship Grand Prix in Turin in September 1946; the first recognised Formula One season was held in 1947 and the World Championship for Drivers was inaugurated in 1950. This was the first example of formula racing. Formula E is the highest class of competition for single-seat, electrically powered racing cars, which held its inaugural season in 2014–15. Conceived in 2012, the championship was intended by the FIA to serve as an R&D platform for the electric vehicle and promote interest in EVs and sustainability; the series races predominately on temporary circuits in cities such as New York, Hong Kong, Zürich, Berlin and Paris in events known as "ePrix". In order to cap costs but maintain technological development, the series uses a spec chassis and battery that must be used by all entrants, with competing teams permitted to design and build their own motors and rear suspension.
The series has gained significant traction in recent years. The FIA Formula 2 Championship was introduced in 2017 by Bernie Ecclestone and Flavio Briatore following the rebranding of the long-term F1 feeder series – GP2 Series. Designed to make racing affordable and to make it the perfect training ground for life in F1, F2 has made it mandatory for all of the teams to use the same chassis and tyre supplier. In 2003, the most senior Formula Renault was the Formula Renault V6 Eurocup, which supported the ETCC and FIA GT's "Super Racing Weekends". After just two seasons Renault merged the series with the World Series by Nissan to form the World Series by Renault, which supported the Formula One Grand Prix; this series includes Formula Renault 3.5, Formula Renault 2.0, Formula Renault 1.6. The GP3 Series was launched by Bruno Michel in 2010 as a feeder series for GP2. So far, nine drivers have competed in Formula One after GP3 – 2010 champion Esteban Gutiérrez, 2011 champion Valtteri Bottas, 2013 champion Daniil Kvyat, Jean-Éric Vergne, Roberto Merhi, Esteban Ocon, Alexander Rossi, Carlos Sainz Jr. and Rio Haryanto.
The GP3 Series will be rebranded as FIA Formula 3 Championship in 2019. Formula Three has a long history, with at least ten active championships around the world, it was created by the FIA in 1950 as the low cost entry point to single-seater formula racing. In 1959, it was replaced by a technically similar formula called Formula Junior, before Formula Three was reintroduced in 1964. Like the other FIA-derived formulae, F3 is an open class that permits a choice of chassis and engines. Notable championships include the FIA European Formula Three Championship, the British Formula Three Championship, the All-Japan Formula Three Championship. FIA Formula 4 called FIA F4, is an open-wheel racing car category intended for junior drivers. There is no global championship, but rather individual nations or regions can host their own championships in compliance with a universal set of rules and specifications; the category was created by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile —the International sanctioning and administrative body for motorsport—as an entry-level category for young drivers, bridging the gap between karting and Formula 3.
The series is a part of the FIA Global Pathway. The NTT IndyCar Series is the premier level of American open wheel racing; the series, founded by Indianapolis Motor Speedway owner Tony George, began in 1996 as the "Indy Racing League". In 2008, the series merged with the rival Champ Car World Series known as CART, to form the IndyCar Series; the IndyCar Series is not an open formula. The league specifies the chassis and tyre manufacturers, which are changed every three years. All teams run on Dallara chassis and Firestone tires and they can choose between a Honda and a Chevrolet engine. A typical IndyCar season contains a mixture of natural-terrain road courses, temporary street circuits, short & high-speed ovals; the current Indy Lights presented by Cooper Tires is the feeder series for the IndyCar Series, similar to F1's relationship with Formula 2. The original Indy Lights acted as a developmental circuit for CART from 1986 to 2001. In 2001, the Toyota Atlantic series was effective in providing new drivers, so CART cancelled the Indy Lights.
The current series was founded in 2002 by the Indy Racing League. It str
1978 British Grand Prix
The 1978 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Brands Hatch on 16 July 1978. It was the tenth race of the 1978 World Championship of F1 Drivers and the 1978 International Cup for F1 Constructors; the 76-lap race was won by Argentinian driver Carlos Reutemann. After starting from eighth position, Reutemann worked his way up the field and took the lead on lap 60 winning by 1.2 seconds from Austrian driver Niki Lauda in the Brabham-Alfa Romeo. Lauda's Northern Irish teammate, John Watson, finished third. With a total of 31 cars on the entry list, it was decided to forbid the Martini of René Arnoux from taking part, thus leaving 30 cars for qualifying; as expected, the Lotuses filled the front row of the grid, although on this occasion Ronnie Peterson was ahead of Mario Andretti. Jody Scheckter in the Wolf and Niki Lauda in the Brabham made up the second row, while on the third were Riccardo Patrese in the Arrows and Alan Jones in the Williams; the top ten was completed by Jacques Laffite in the Ligier, Carlos Reutemann in the Ferrari, John Watson in the second Brabham and Patrick Depailler in the Tyrrell.
At the start of the race, Andretti took the lead from Peterson, with Scheckter holding third and Jones moving up to fourth. The Lotuses pulled out a large gap, looked set to dominate, until Peterson retired on lap 7 with a fuel leak. Andretti continued to lead until a puncture forced him to pit on lap 24, before his engine failed five laps later. Scheckter inherited the lead followed by Jones and Patrese. On lap 27, Jones's driveshaft failed. On lap 34, Lauda overtook the South African; this left Patrese in second, with Reutemann up to third, Watson fourth, Didier Pironi fifth in the second Tyrrell and Keke Rosberg sixth in the ATS. On lap 41, Patrese suffered a rear puncture. Pironi retired on this lap with gearbox trouble, promoting Rosberg to fourth; the Finn soon came under pressure from Depailler, who got by on lap 49. Reutemann closed up to Lauda and passed him for the lead on lap 60, as the two were lapping the McLaren of Bruno Giacomelli; the Argentine held off the Austrian for the remaining laps taking his third win of the season by 1.2 seconds.
Watson finished 36 seconds behind Lauda and 36 ahead of Depailler, while a suspension failure for Rosberg on lap 60 meant that the final points went to Hans-Joachim Stuck in the Shadow and Patrick Tambay in the McLaren. Mario Andretti 23 laps. Note: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings
Groupe Renault is a French multinational automobile manufacturer established in 1899. The company produces a range of cars and vans, in the past has manufactured trucks, tanks, buses/coaches and autorail vehicles. According to the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles, in 2016 Renault was the ninth biggest automaker in the world by production volume. By 2017, the Renault–Nissan–Mitsubishi Alliance had become the world's biggest seller of light vehicles, bumping Volkswagen AG off the top spot. Headquartered in Boulogne-Billancourt, near Paris, the Renault group is made up of the namesake Renault marque and subsidiaries, Automobile Dacia from Romania, Renault Samsung Motors from South Korea, AvtoVAZ from Russia. Renault has a 43.4% controlling stake in Nissan of Japan, a 1.55% stake in Daimler AG of Germany. Renault owns subsidiaries RCI Banque, Renault Retail Group and Motrio. Renault has various joint ventures, including Renault Pars; the French government owns a 15% share of Renault.
Renault Trucks known as Renault Véhicules Industriels, has been part of AB Volvo since 2001. Renault Agriculture became 100% owned by German agricultural equipment manufacturer CLAAS in 2008. Together Renault and Nissan invested €4 billion in eight electric vehicles over three to four years beginning in 2011. Renault is known for its role in motor sport rallying, Formula 1 and Formula E, its early work on mathematical curve modeling for car bodies is important in the history of computer graphics. The Renault corporation was founded in 1899 as Société Renault Frères by Louis Renault and his brothers Marcel and Fernand. Louis was a bright, aspiring young engineer who had designed and built several prototypes before teaming up with his brothers, who had honed their business skills working for their father's textile firm. While Louis handled design and production and Fernand managed the business; the first Renault car, the Renault Voiturette 1CV, was sold to a friend of Louis' father after giving him a test ride on 24 December 1898.
In 1903, Renault began to manufacture its own engines. The first major volume sale came in 1905 when Société des Automobiles de Place bought Renault AG1 cars to establish a fleet of taxis; these vehicles were used by the French military to transport troops during World War I which earned them the nickname "Taxi de la Marne." By 1907, a significant percentage of London and Paris taxis had been built by Renault. Renault was the best-selling foreign brand in New York in 1907 and 1908. In 1908 the company produced 3,575 units; the brothers recognised the value of publicity that participation in motor racing could generate for their vehicles. Renault made itself known through succeeding in the first city-to-city races held in Switzerland, producing rapid sales growth. Both Louis and Marcel raced company vehicles, but Marcel was killed in an accident during the 1903 Paris-Madrid race. Although Louis never raced again, his company remained involved, including Ferenc Szisz winning the first Grand Prix motor racing event in a Renault AK 90CV in 1906.
Louis took full control of the company as the only remaining brother in 1906 when Fernand retired for health reasons. Fernand died in 1909 and Louis became the sole owner, renaming the company Société des Automobiles Renault. Renault fostered its reputation for innovation from early on. At the time, cars were luxury items; the price of the smallest Renaults at the time were 3000 francs. In 1905, the company introduced mass production techniques and Taylorism in 1913. Renault manufactured commercial cargo vehicles in the pre-war years; the first real commercial truck from the company was introduced in 1906. During World War I, it branched out into ammunition, military aircraft engines and vehicles such as the revolutionary Renault FT tank; the company's military designs were so successful that Louis was awarded the Legion of Honour for his company's contributions. The company exported engines to American automobile manufacturers for use in such automobiles as the GJG, which used a Renault 26 horsepower or 40 hp four-cylinder engine.
Louis Renault enlarged Renault's scope after 1918, producing industrial machinery. The war led to many new products; the first Renault tractor, the Type GP was produced between 1919 and 1930. It was based on the FT tank. Renault struggled to compete with the popular small, affordable "people's cars," while problems with the stock market and the workforce slowed the company's growth. Renault had to find a way to distribute its vehicles more efficiently. In 1920, Louis signed one of its first distribution contracts with Gustave Gueudet, an entrepreneur from northern France; the pre-First World War cars had a distinctive front shape caused by positioning the radiator behind the engine to give a so-called "coalscuttle" bonnet. This continued through the 1920s. Only in 1930 did all models place the radiator at the front; the bonnet badge changed from circular to the familiar and continuing diamond shape in 1925. Renault introduced new models at the Paris Motor Show, held in September or October of the year.
This led to confusion about model years. For example, a "1927" model was produced in 1928. Renault cars ranged from small to large. For example
2019 Formula One World Championship
The 2019 FIA Formula One World Championship is an ongoing motor racing championship for Formula One cars which marks the 70th running of the Formula One World Championship. It is recognised by the governing body of international motorsport, the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, as the highest class of competition for open-wheel racing cars. Starting in March and ending in December, the championship is being contested over 21 Grands Prix. Drivers are competing for the title of World Drivers' Champion, teams for the World Constructors' Champion; the 2019 championship is scheduled to see the running of the 1000th World Championship race, in China. Lewis Hamilton is the defending World Drivers' Champion, after winning his fifth championship title in the previous season, Mercedes are the defending World Constructors' Champions, after winning their fifth consecutive championship. Ten teams, with two drivers each, are competing in the championship in 2019. Red Bull Racing switched to Honda engines.
In doing so, Red Bull Racing joined sister team Scuderia Toro Rosso in using Honda power after Scuderia Toro Rosso joined the Japanese manufacturer in 2018. Neither team will be recognised as Honda's official factory team under the terms of the agreement. Racing Point F1 Team completed their transition from the Racing Point Force India identity that they used after their purchase of the assets of Sahara Force India in August 2018. Sauber was renamed Alfa Romeo Racing in an extension of the sponsorship deal that began in 2018; the Sauber name will disappear from the Formula One grid, but will still be used in the Formula 2 and Formula 3 support categories. The lead up to the 2019 championship saw several driver changes. Daniel Ricciardo moved to Renault after five years with Red Bull Racing, replacing Carlos Sainz Jr.. Ricciardo's drive at Red Bull Racing has been taken by Pierre Gasly, promoted from Scuderia Toro Rosso, the team with whom he made his first Formula One start in 2017. Daniil Kvyat rejoined Toro Rosso after last racing for the team in 2017.
He was partnered with Formula 2 driver Alexander Albon. Albon subsequently became only the second Thai driver to race in Formula One after Prince Bira. Sainz, on loan to Renault in 2018, did not have his deal with Red Bull renewed and subsequently moved to McLaren to replace two-time World Drivers' Champion Fernando Alonso, who had earlier announced that he would not compete in Formula One in 2019. Sainz was partnered with 2017 European Formula 3 champion Lando Norris. Stoffel Vandoorne left McLaren after the 2018 season to race in Formula E with the Mercedes-affiliated HWA Team. Charles Leclerc left Sauber after one year with the team, joining Ferrari where he took the place of Kimi Räikkönen. Räikkönen returned to Sauber, now renamed Alfa Romeo, with whom he had started his career in 2001, he was partnered with Antonio Giovinazzi, who made two starts for the team when he replaced the injured Pascal Wehrlein in 2017. Marcus Ericsson will race in the IndyCar Series in 2019 with Schmidt Peterson Motorsports but will remain at Alfa Romeo as third driver and brand ambassador.
Reigning Formula 2 champion George Russell joined Williams. Robert Kubica made his return to Formula 1. Kubica's return comes after an eight-year absence brought on by a near-fatal rally car crash in 2011 that left him with serious arm injuries. Esteban Ocon joined Mercedes as reserve driver. Ocon will share the role of simulator driver with Stoffel Vandoorne. Ocon has been replaced at Racing Point by Lance Stroll; the following twenty-one Grands Prix are due to be run as part of the 2019 World Championship. Each race is run over a minimum number of laps; the Mexican and United States Grands Prix swapped places on the calendar so that the United States round follows the Mexican Grand Prix. Race Director and Technical Delegate Charlie Whiting died unexpectedly just days before the opening race of the season in Australia. Deputy Race Director Michael Masi was named as his temporary successor. In a bid to improve overtaking, teams agreed to a series of aerodynamic changes that affect the profile of the front and rear wings.
The front wing endplates were reshaped to alter the airflow across the car and reduce the effects of aerodynamic turbulence, winglets above the main plane of the front wing have been banned. The slot in the rear wing was widened; the agreed-upon changes were drawn from the findings of a working group set up to investigate potential changes to the technical regulations in preparation for the 2021 championship. Parts of the technical regulations governing bodywork were rewritten in a bid to promote sponsorship opportunities for teams; the agreed changes are to mandate smaller bargeboards and limit aerodynamic development of the rear wing endplates to create more space for sponsor logos. The changes were introduced as a response to falling revenues amid teams and the struggles of smaller teams to secure new sponsors; the mandated maximum fuel levels were raised from 105 kg to 110 kg so as to minimise the need for drivers to conserve fuel during a race. Driver weights are no longer considered; this change was agreed to following concerns that drivers were being forced to lose dangerous amounts of weight in order to offset the additional weight of the post-2014 generation of turbo-hybrid engines.
Drivers who weigh less than 80 kg will have to make up this weight with ballast, loc