An autonomous building is a building designed to be operated independently from infrastructural support services such as the electric power grid, gas grid, municipal water systems, sewage treatment systems, storm drains, communication services, in some cases, public roads. Advocates of autonomous building describe advantages that include reduced environmental impacts, increased security, lower costs of ownership; some cited advantages satisfy tenets of green building, not independence per se. Off-grid buildings rely little on civil services and are therefore safer and more comfortable during civil disaster or military attacks. For example, Off-grid buildings would not lose water if public supplies were compromised; as of 2018, most research and published articles concerning autonomous building focus on residential homes. In 2002, British architects Brenda and Robert Vale said that It is quite possible in all parts of Australia to construct a'house with no bills', which would be comfortable without heating and cooling, which would make its own electricity, collect its own water and deal with its own waste...
These houses can be built now. It is possible to build a "house with no bills" for the same price as a conventional house, but it would be smaller. In the 1970s, groups of activists and engineers were inspired by the warnings of imminent resource depletion and starvation. In the US a group calling themselves the New Alchemists were famous for the depth of research effort placed in their projects. Using conventional construction techniques, they designed a series of "bioshelter" projects, the most famous of, the Ark Bioshelter community for Prince Edward Island, they published the plans with detailed design calculations and blueprints. The Ark used wind based water pumping and electricity, was self-contained in food production, it had living quarters for people, fish tanks raising tilapia for protein, a greenhouse watered with fish water and a closed loop sewage reclamation system that recycled human waste into sanitized fertilizer for the fish tanks. As of January 2010, the successor organization to the New Alchemists has a web page up as the "New Alchemy Institute".
The PEI Ark has been abandoned and renovated several times. The 1990s saw the development of Earthships, similar in intent to the Ark project, but organized as a for-profit venture, with construction details published in a series of 3 books by Mike Reynolds; the building material is tires filled with earth. This makes a wall. Berms are placed on exposed surfaces to further increase the house's temperature stability; the water system starts with rain water, processed for drinking washing plant watering toilet flushing, black water is recycled again for more plant watering. The cisterns are used as thermal masses. Power, including electricity and water heating, is from solar power. 1990s architects such as William McDonough and Ken Yeang applied environmentally responsible building design to large commercial buildings, such as office buildings, making them self-sufficient in energy production. One major bank building in the Netherlands was constructed to be artistic as well; as an architect or engineer becomes more concerned with the disadvantages of transportation networks, dependence on distant resources, their designs tend to include more autonomous elements.
The historic path to autonomy was a concern for secure sources of heat, power and food. A nearly parallel path toward autonomy has been to start with a concern for environmental impacts, which cause disadvantages. Autonomous buildings can increase security and reduce environmental impacts by using on-site resources that would otherwise be wasted. Autonomy dramatically reduces the costs and impacts of networks that serve the building, because autonomy short-circuits the multiplying inefficiencies of collecting and transporting resources. Other impacted resources, such as oil reserves and the retention of the local watershed, can be cheaply conserved by thoughtful designs. Autonomous buildings are energy-efficient in operation, therefore cost-efficient, for the obvious reason that smaller energy needs are easier to satisfy off-grid, but they may substitute energy production or other techniques to avoid diminishing returns in extreme conservation. An autonomous structure is not always environmentally friendly.
The goal of independence from support systems is associated with, but not identical to, other goals of environmentally responsible green building. However, autonomous buildings usually include some degree of sustainability through the use of renewable energy and other renewable resources, producing no more greenhouse gases than they consume, other measures. First and fundamentally, independence is a matter of degree, with many choices. For example, eliminating dependence on the electrical grid is easy. In contrast, running an efficient, reliable food source can be a chore. Living within an autonomous shelter may require sacrifices in lifestyle or social opportunities; the most comfortable and technologically advanced autonomous homes could require alterations of residents' behavior. Some may not welcome the extra chores; the Vails described some clients' experiences as inconvenient, isolating, or as an unwanted full-time job. A well-designed building can reduce this issue, but at the expense of reduced autonomy.
An autonomous house must be custom-built to suit the location. Passive solar techniques, alternative toilet and sewage s
In the Forest of the Dreaming Dead is the debut studio album by the Swedish melodic death metal band Unanimated. The original No Fashion Records release has an incorrect track listing. Peter Stjärnvind - drums Jonas Mellberg - guitar Micke Jansson - vocals Daniel Lofthagen - bass Jojje Bohlin - guitar Jocke Westman - keyboards Johan Edlund - vocals on and lyrics for "Cold Northern Breeze" Daniel L - artwork Richard Cabeza - lyrics Stefan Roos - photography Micke Lindh - engineering, mixing Anders Olsson - engineering, mixing
Little Stanney is a suburban village and civil parish in Cheshire, England located on the Wirral Peninsula. It has a population of 181, increasing to 198 at the 2011 Census. and is located between Chester and Ellesmere Port. The village was part of the Stoak Parish in the Wirral Hundred; the population was 203 in 1801, 177 in 1851, 145 in 1901, 268 in 1951. In 1894, Little Stanney became part of Chester Rural District. Part of the parish was transferred to the Municipal Borough of Ellesmere Port in 1967, the remainder becoming part of the City of Chester in 1974; the village is the location of Cheshire Oaks Designer Outlet, off junction 10 of the M53 motorway. The Blue Planet Aquarium, The Coliseum Retail Park, Vue Cinema, bowling alley, two nightclubs, Cheshire Oaks Business Park, a David Lloyd Leisure club and Porsche and Lexus dealerships have all grown up around the outlet and are situated to the north and east of the village; the parish contains one building, recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated listed building.
This is Rake Hall, listed at Grade II, which originated as a country house in the 17th century, was converted into a public house and restaurant. The nearby Stanney High School was renamed Cheshire Oaks High School, but has now closed and been amalgamated into the University of Chester Church of England Academy. Media related to Little Stanney at Wikimedia Commons
Kaja Norum is a Norwegian model and figurativist painter. A former student and protégé of painter Odd Nerdrum, Norum is devoted to Nerdrum's philosophy of Kitsch painting, is a part of The Kitsch Movement spawned by Nerdrum. After the latter relocated to France in 2011, Norum is the primary caretaker of his gallery and his estate. Born in Lørenskog, Akershus. Norum attended the Rudolf Steiner School in Lørenskog graduating in 2005, after which she enrolled at the Oslo City Steiner School. After graduating from high school in 2008, Norum relocated to Stavern in order to study under kitsch painter Odd Nerdrum at his seaside gallery. After studying under Nerdrum in Stavern for three years, Norum debuted with her own exhibition in June 2011; the exhibition, which consisted of figurative artworks turned out to be a success with the majority of the artworks being sold on the opening day. It attracted large attention with the most famous painting depicting comedian Sturla Berg-Johansen with an erect penis.
The painting, "Homo ludens" valued at US$14.500, was sold to an anonymous buyer. It was speculated that the buyer was either hotel tycoon Petter Stordalen or business magnate Stein Erik Hagen, however it was revealed that it was a gourmet restaurant in Oslo that had made the purchase. In August 2012 Norum opened her second exhibition, at the Gallery Soon in Son in Vestby. Norum has done modeling for the magazines Det Alfa. In January 2013 she appeared in the magazine Kamille doing nude photos. Official website
Félix du Temple de la Croix was a French naval officer and an inventor, born into an ancient Norman family. He developed some of the first flying machines and is credited with the first successful flight of a powered aircraft of any sort, a powered model plane, in 1857. and is sometimes credited with the first manned powered flight in history aboard his Monoplane in 1874. He was a contemporary of Jean-Marie Le Bris. Félix du Temple entered the French Navy Academy in 1838, he participated in most of the conflicts during the Second French Empire the Crimean War, the French intervention in Italy against Austria, the French intervention in Mexico. At the age of 41, he returned to France, became a captain, joined the Loire Army. A partisan of the Comte de Chambord and a legitimist, he was forced to quit the Navy in 1876. Félix du Temple accomplished the first successful flight of a powered aircraft of any sort, a model plane, able to take-off under its own power, in 1857. There are however competing claims for the first "assisted" powered flight, with John Stringfellow's experiments in 1848.
Félix du Temple patented the designs for his aerial machine in 1857, which incorporated a retractable wheel landing gear, a propeller, a 6 hp engine and a dihedral wing design, under the title "Locomotion aérienne par imitation du vol des oiseaux". He built several large models together with his brother Luis. One of them, weighing 700 grams, was able to fly, first using a clockwork mechanism as an engine, using a miniature steam engine; the two brothers managed to make the models take off under their own power, fly a short distance and land safely. As they tried to build a machine capable of carrying a man, they realized that steam engines lacked power and were too heavy. In 1867 they designed an original "hot air" engine, they experimented with the new internal combustion gas engine design developed by Lenoir, but this lacked the necessary power. Du Temple continued his research and succeeded in creating a compact high-speed circulation steam engine, for which he applied for a patent on 28 April 1876.
The engine used small pipes packed together "to obtain the highest possible contact surface for the smallest possible volume" "When he began with the aid of his brother, M. Louis du Temple, to experiment on a large scale, the inadequacy of all motors known became apparent, they first tried steam at high pressures a hot-air engine, built and patented, in 1876 a light steam boiler weighing from 39 to 44 lb. to the horse power, which appears to have been the prototype of some of the light boilers which have since been constructed. It consisted in a series of thin tubes less than 1/8 inches in internal diameter, through which water circulated rapidly, was flashed into steam by the surrounding flame." Octave Chanute, Aeroplanes: Part III, August 1892 In 1874, the two brothers built the Monoplane, a large plane made of aluminium in Brest, with a wingspan of 13 meters and a weight of only 80 kilograms. Several trials were made with the plane, it is recognized that it achieved lift off under its own power after a ski-jump run, glided for a short time and returned safely to the ground making it the first successful powered flight in history, depending on the definition — since the flight was only a short distance and a short time.
The plane was displayed at the 1878 World Fair in Paris. The plane's engine used a compact, high-speed circulation steam boiler, the Du Temple boiler, for which Félix du Temple applied for a patent on 28 April 1876; the engine used small pipes packed together "to obtain the highest possible contact surface for the smallest possible volume". The original steam engine, developed by Félix du Temple was commercialized by him from a company he established in Cherbourg, "Générateur Du Temple S. A." and became successful. The design was adopted by the French Navy for the propulsion of the first French torpedo boats: "Officers and engineers have now made up their opinion regarding Du Temple's steam engine. Everybody proclaims the superiority of its qualities… orders are pouring in from our commercial harbours and from the French government." Revue Maritime 1888 Following his death in 1890, his successors took over the management of the company. "Générateur Du Temple S. A.", acquired the Lesénéchal company in 1905, by 1918 had several hundred employees when it was absorbed by the shipbuilding company Société Normande de Construction Navale.
"In general, birds the largest ones, only rise and fly because of an acquired speed: this speed, necessary to rise is obtained either by running on the ground or on water, or by jumping from a high point. Once arrived at a certain height that allows him to fly horizontally and move forward with just the flap of the wings, he gains speed, spreads his wings and tail so as to form as flat a surface as possible, thus moves forward without any visible movement of the wings and without falling significantly" Flying machines Pioneers and innovators List of early flying machines Timeline of aviation - 19th century History of aviation
Ramaz Nikolaishvili is a Georgian politician who served as the Minister for Regional Development and Infrastructure of Georgia from 2010 to 2012. Nikolaishvili was born on June 1965 in Tbilisi, Georgia. From 1983 to 1990, he studied at Georgian Technical University graduating with a degree in Civil Engineering, he studied at and graduated from Tbilisi State University with master's degrees in Finance and Credit and Law in 1997 and 2003, respectively. In 1994-2000, he worked in managerial positions at Operative Division of the Tax Inspection of Georgia. In 2000-2003, he was the Deputy Head of Special Task Division of Special Legion. From 2003 through 2004, Nikolaishvili was the Deputy Chief of Information and Analysis Department of Financial Police of the Ministry of Finance of Georgia and in 2004-2005, head of its Statistics and Information Services. In 2005-2007, he worked as the head of Main Division of Investigation Department of Financial Police, in 2007-2008, as head of Main Division of Investigation Department of Revenue Service.
In 2008, Nikolaishvili served as the governor of Lanchkhuti, Chokhatauri districts and as Deputy Minister of Defense. From 2008 through mid-2010, he was the Chairman of Roads Department. On June 30, 2010, he was appointed Minister of Regional Infrastructure of Georgia, he resigned on August 2012, in order to run for the October 1 parliamentary election. Nikolaishvili holds several titles and awards, among them Engineer of the Year for achievements in successful road construction projects in 2009. List of Georgians Cabinet of Georgia