In ecology, primary production is the synthesis of organic compounds from atmospheric or aqueous carbon dioxide. Almost all life on Earth relies directly or indirectly on primary production, the organisms responsible for primary production are known as primary producers or autotrophs, and form the base of the food chain. In terrestrial ecoregions, these are mainly plants, while in aquatic ecoregions algae predominate in this role, ecologists distinguish primary production as either net or gross, the former accounting for losses to processes such as cellular respiration, the latter not. Primary production is the production of energy in organic compounds by living organisms. The main source of energy is sunlight but a minute fraction of primary production is driven by lithotrophic organisms using the chemical energy of inorganic molecules. Regardless of its source, this energy is used to complex organic molecules from simpler inorganic compounds such as carbon dioxide. Consumption of primary producers by heterotrophic organisms, such as animals, transfers these organic molecules up the food web, gross primary production is the amount of chemical energy as biomass that primary producers create in a given length of time.
Some fraction of this energy is used by primary producers for cellular respiration. The remaining fixed energy is referred to as net primary production, some net primary production goes toward growth and reproduction of primary producers, while some is consumed by herbivores. Both gross and net primary production are in units of mass per area per unit time interval. In terrestrial ecosystems, mass of carbon per area per year is most often used as the unit of measurement. On the land, almost all production is now performed by vascular plants, with a small fraction coming from algae and non-vascular plants such as mosses. Before the evolution of plants, non-vascular plants likely played a more significant role. Primary production on land is a function of many factors, but principally local hydrology, while plants cover much of the Earths surface, they are strongly curtailed wherever temperatures are too extreme or where necessary plant resources are limiting, such as deserts or polar regions. Water is consumed in plants by the processes of photosynthesis and transpiration, the latter process is driven by the evaporation of water from the leaves of plants.
Transpiration allows plants to transport water and mineral nutrients from the soil to growth regions, diffusion of water vapour out of a leaf, the force that drives transpiration, is regulated by structures known as stomata. These structure regulate the diffusion of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere into the leaf, certain plants use alternative forms of photosynthesis, called Crassulacean acid metabolism and C4. In a reversal of the pattern on land, in the oceans, almost all photosynthesis is performed by algae, with a small fraction contributed by vascular plants, algae encompass a diverse range of organisms, ranging from single floating cells to attached seaweeds
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms and ending at apex predator species, detritivores, or decomposer species. A food chain shows how the organisms are related with each other by the food they eat, each level of a food chain represents a different trophic level. A food chain differs from a web, because the complex network of different animals feeding relations are aggregated. Natural interconnections between food chains make it a food web, a common metric used to quantify food web trophic structure is food chain length. Food chains are used in ecological modeling. They are simplified abstractions of real food webs, but complex in their dynamics, food chain studies have an important role in ecotoxicology studies tracing the pathways and biomagnification of environmental contaminants. Producers, such as plants, are organisms that utilize solar or chemical energy to synthesize starch, all food chains must start with a producer. In the deep sea, food chains centered on hydrothermal vents, chemosynthetic bacteria and archaea use hydrogen sulfide and methane from hydrothermal vents and cold seeps as an energy source to produce carbohydrates, they form the base of the food chain.
Consumers are organisms that eat other organisms, all organisms in a food chain, except the first organism, are consumers. Autotroph Heterotroph Lithotroph Trophic pyramid Predator-prey interaction
Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia. The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the group to the choanoflagellates. Animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives and their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs, they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance, most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion, about 542 million years ago. Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates, vertebrates have a backbone or spine, and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species. They include fish, reptiles and mammals, the remaining animals are the invertebrates, which lack a backbone. These include molluscs, annelids, flatworms, ctenophores, the study of animals is called zoology.
The word animal comes from the Latin animalis, meaning having breath, the biological definition of the word refers to all members of the kingdom Animalia, encompassing creatures as diverse as sponges, jellyfish and humans. Aristotle divided the world between animals and plants, and this was followed by Carl Linnaeus, in the first hierarchical classification. In Linnaeuss original scheme, the animals were one of three kingdoms, divided into the classes of Vermes, Pisces, Amphibia and Mammalia. Since the last four have all been subsumed into a single phylum, in 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into two subkingdoms and Protozoa. The protozoa were moved to the kingdom Protista, leaving only the metazoa, thus Metazoa is now considered a synonym of Animalia. Animals have several characteristics that set apart from other living things. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, which separates them from bacteria and they are heterotrophic, generally digesting food in an internal chamber, which separates them from plants and algae.
They are distinguished from plants and fungi by lacking cell walls. All animals are motile, if only at life stages. In most animals, embryos pass through a stage, which is a characteristic exclusive to animals. With a few exceptions, most notably the sponges and Placozoa and these include muscles, which are able to contract and control locomotion, and nerve tissues, which send and process signals
Animals that depend solely on animal flesh for their nutrient requirements are called obligate carnivores while those that consume non-animal food are called facultative carnivores. A carnivore that sits at the top of the chain is termed an apex predator. Plants that capture and digest insects are called carnivorous plants, fungi that capture microscopic animals are often called carnivorous fungi. The word carnivore sometimes refers to the mammalian order Carnivora, while many Carnivora meet the definition of being meat eaters, not all do, and even fewer are true obligate carnivores. In addition, there are plenty of species that are not members of Carnivora. Outside the animal kingdom, there are several genera containing carnivorous plants, the former are predominantly insectivores, while the latter prey mostly on microscopic invertebrates, such as nematodes and springtails. Carnivores are sometimes characterized by the type of prey that they consume, for example, animals that eat insects and similar invertebrates primarily or exclusively are called insectivores, while those that eat fish primarily or exclusively are called piscivores.
The first tetrapods, or land-dwelling vertebrates, were piscivorous amphibians known as labyrinthodonts and they gave rise to insectivorous vertebrates and, later, to predators of other tetrapods. Carnivores may alternatively be classified according to the percentage of meat in their diet, obligate carnivores or true carnivores depend on the nutrients found only in animal flesh for their survival. For instance, felids including the cat are obligate carnivores requiring a diet of primarily animal flesh. Characteristics commonly associated with carnivores include organs for capturing and disarticulating prey, in truth, these assumptions may be misleading, as some carnivores do not hunt and are scavengers. Thus they do not have the associated with hunting carnivores. Carnivores have comparatively short digestive systems, as they are not required to break down tough cellulose found in plants, many animals that hunt other animals have evolved eyes that face forward, thus making depth perception possible.
This is almost universal among mammalian predators, other predators, like crocodiles, as well as most reptiles and amphibians, have sideways facing eyes and hunt by ambush rather than pursuit. The first vertebrate carnivores were fish, and amphibians that moved on to land, early tetrapods were large amphibious piscivores. Some scientists assert that Dimetrodon was the first terrestrial vertebrate to develop the curved, serrated teeth that enable a predator to eat prey much larger than itself. While amphibians continued to feed on fish and insects, reptiles began exploring two new types and later, plants. Carnivory was a transition from insectivory for medium and large tetrapods
Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant
Reactor No.4 was the site of the Chernobyl disaster in 1986 and the power plant is now within a large restricted area known as the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Both the zone and the power plant are administered by the State Agency in Administration of Exclusion Zone. The nuclear power plant site clean-up is scheduled for completion in 2065, on January 3,2010, a Ukrainian law stipulating a programme toward this objective came into effect. The Chernobyl station is 18 km northwest of the city of Chernobyl,16 km from the border of Ukraine and Belarus and about 100 km north of Kiev. Construction of the plant and the city of Pripyat, Ukraine to house workers and their families began in 1970. It was the nuclear power station in the Soviet Union of the RBMK-type. The completion of the first reactor in 1977 was followed by reactor No, two more blocks, numbered 5 and 6, of more or less the same reactor design, were planned at a site roughly a kilometers distance from the contiguous buildings of the four older blocks.
Reactor No.5 was around 70 % complete at the time of block 4s accident and was scheduled to come online approximately six months later, on 7 November 1986. In the aftermath of the accident, the construction on No.5 and No.6 was suspended, Reactor Nos.3 and 4 were second generation units, whereas Nos.1 and 2 were first-generation units. Second-generation RBMK designs were fitted with a more secure containment structure visible in photos of the facility, the power plant is connected to the 330 kV and 750 kV electrical grid. The block has two electrical generators connected to the 750 kV grid by a single generator transformer, the generators are connected to their common transformer by two switches in series. The 330 kV line is not used, and serves as an external power supply. In case of external power loss, the essential systems can be powered by diesel generators. The 7A, 7B, and 8B boards are connected to the three essential power lines, each having its own diesel generator. The generators are started automatically within 15 seconds at loss of off-site power, the electrical energy is generated by a pair of 500 MW hydrogen-cooled turbo generators.
These are located in the 600 m -long machine hall, adjacent to the reactor building, the turbines—the venerable five-cylinder K-500-65/3000—are supplied by the Kharkiv turbine plant, the electrical generators are the TBB-500. The turbine and the rotors are mounted on the same shaft. The turbo generator is 39 m long and its weight is 1,200 t
Iron oxide or ferrous oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula FeO. Its mineral form is known as wüstite, one of several iron oxides, it is a black-colored powder that is sometimes confused with rust, which consists of hydrated iron oxide. Iron oxide refers to a family of related non-stoichiometric compounds, FeO can be prepared by the thermal decomposition of iron oxalate. FeC2O4 → FeO + CO2 + CO The procedure is conducted under an atmosphere to avoid the formation of ferric oxide. A similar procedure can be used for the synthesis of manganous oxide, stoichiometric FeO can be prepared by heating Fe0. 95O with metallic iron at 770 °C and 36 kbar. Below 200 K there is a change to the structure which changes the symmetry to rhombohedral. Iron oxide makes up approximately 9% of the Earths mantle, within the mantle, it may be electrically conductive, which is a possible explanation for perturbations in Earths rotation not accounted for by accepted models of the mantles properties. Iron oxide is used as a pigment and it is FDA-approved for use in cosmetics and it is used in some tattoo inks.
It can be used as a phosphate remover from home aquaria
Water splitting is the general term for a chemical reaction in which water is separated into oxygen and hydrogen. Efficient and economical water splitting would be a key component of a hydrogen economy. Various techniques for water splitting have been issued in water splitting patents in the United States, in photosynthesis, water splitting donates electrons to the electron transport chain in photosystem II. Electrolysis of water is the decomposition of water into oxygen and hydrogen gas due to an electric current being passed through the water, in chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. One use of electrolysis of water or artificial photosynthesis is to produce hydrogen, researchers have shown that water splitting can be broken into two discrete steps using polyoxometalate based redox mediators. Production of hydrogen from water requires large amounts of energy and is uncompetitive with its production from coal or natural gas, potential electrical energy supplies include hydropower, wind turbines, or photovoltaic cells.
Usually, the electricity consumed is more valuable than the hydrogen produced so this method has not been widely used, other potential energy supplies include heat from nuclear reactors and light from the sun. Hydrogen can be used to store renewable generated electricity when it is not needed, the storable quality of hydrogen helps make hydrogen an enabler of the wider use of renewables, and internal combustion engines. When water is pressurized and electrolysis is conducted at high pressures. The energy required to compress water is much less than that required to compress hydrogen gas. When the energy supplied is in the form of heat, the best path to the production of hydrogen is through high-temperature electrolysis, in contrast with low-temperature electrolysis, HTE of water converts more of the initial heat energy into chemical energy, potentially doubling efficiency to about 50%. Because some of the energy in HTE is supplied in the form of heat, less of the energy must be converted twice, research into HTE and high-temperature nuclear reactors may eventually lead to a hydrogen supply that is cost-competitive with natural gas steam reforming. HTE has been demonstrated in a laboratory, but not at a commercial scale, using electricity produced by photovoltaic systems potentially offers the cleanest way to produce hydrogen.
Again, water is broken down into hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis, the system is named artificial photosynthesis. The conversion of energy to hydrogen by means of water splitting process is one of the most interesting ways to achieve clean. Spent nuclear fuel/nuclear waste is being looked at as a source of hydrogen. Biological hydrogen can be produced in an algae bioreactor, in the late 1990s it was discovered that if the algae are deprived of sulfur it will switch from the production of oxygen, i. e. normal photosynthesis, to the production of hydrogen. It seems that the production is now economically feasible by surpassing the 7–10 percent energy efficiency barrier, with a hydrogen production rate of 10-12 ml per liter culture per hour
A fungus is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants, a characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants and some protists, is chitin in their cell walls. Similar to animals, fungi are heterotrophs, they acquire their food by absorbing dissolved molecules, growth is their means of mobility, except for spores, which may travel through the air or water. Fungi are the principal decomposers in ecological systems and this fungal group is distinct from the structurally similar myxomycetes and oomycetes. The discipline of biology devoted to the study of fungi is known as mycology, in the past, mycology was regarded as a branch of botany, although it is now known fungi are genetically more closely related to animals than to plants. Abundant worldwide, most fungi are inconspicuous because of the size of their structures.
Fungi include symbionts of plants, animals, or other fungi and they may become noticeable when fruiting, either as mushrooms or as molds. Fungi perform a role in the decomposition of organic matter and have fundamental roles in nutrient cycling. Since the 1940s, fungi have been used for the production of antibiotics, Fungi are used as biological pesticides to control weeds, plant diseases and insect pests. Many species produce bioactive compounds called mycotoxins, such as alkaloids and polyketides, the fruiting structures of a few species contain psychotropic compounds and are consumed recreationally or in traditional spiritual ceremonies. Fungi can break down manufactured materials and buildings, and become significant pathogens of humans, losses of crops due to fungal diseases or food spoilage can have a large impact on human food supplies and local economies. The fungus kingdom encompasses a diversity of taxa with varied ecologies, life cycle strategies. However, little is known of the biodiversity of Kingdom Fungi.
Advances in molecular genetics have opened the way for DNA analysis to be incorporated into taxonomy, phylogenetic studies published in the last decade have helped reshape the classification within Kingdom Fungi, which is divided into one subkingdom, seven phyla, and ten subphyla. The English word fungus is directly adopted from the Latin fungus, used in the writings of Horace, a group of all the fungi present in a particular area or geographic region is known as mycobiota, e. g. the mycobiota of Ireland. Like plants, fungi grow in soil and, in the case of mushrooms, form conspicuous fruit bodies. The fungi are now considered a kingdom, distinct from both plants and animals, from which they appear to have diverged around one billion years ago. Fungi have membrane-bound cytoplasmic organelles such as mitochondria, sterol-containing membranes and they have a characteristic range of soluble carbohydrates and storage compounds, including sugar alcohols and polysaccharides
Algae is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms which are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic. Included organisms range from unicellular genera, such as Chlorella and the diatoms, to forms, such as the giant kelp. Most are aquatic and autotrophic and lack many of the cell and tissue types, such as stomata and phloem. No definition of algae is generally accepted, one definition is that algae have chlorophyll as their primary photosynthetic pigment and lack a sterile covering of cells around their reproductive cells. Some authors exclude all prokaryotes thus do not consider cyanobacteria as algae, Algae constitute a polyphyletic group since they do not include a common ancestor, and although their plastids seem to have a single origin, from cyanobacteria, they were acquired in different ways. Green algae are examples of algae that have primary chloroplasts derived from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria and brown algae are examples of algae with secondary chloroplasts derived from an endosymbiotic red alga.
Algae exhibit a range of reproductive strategies, from simple asexual cell division to complex forms of sexual reproduction. Algae lack the various structures that characterize land plants, such as the phyllids of bryophytes, rhizoids in nonvascular plants, and the roots and other organs found in tracheophytes. Most are phototrophic, although some are mixotrophic, deriving energy both from photosynthesis and uptake of organic carbon either by osmotrophy, myzotrophy, or phagotrophy. Some other heterotrophic organisms, such as the apicomplexans, are derived from cells whose ancestors possessed plastids. Fossilized filamentous algae from the Vindhya basin have been dated back to 1.6 to 1.7 billion years ago, the singular alga is the Latin word for seaweed and retains that meaning in English. Although some speculate that it is related to Latin algēre, be cold, a more likely source is alliga, entwining. The Ancient Greek word for seaweed was φῦκος, which could mean either the seaweed or a red dye derived from it, the Latinization, fūcus, meant primarily the cosmetic rouge.
It could be any color, red, accordingly, the modern study of marine and freshwater algae is called either phycology or algology, depending on whether the Greek or Latin root is used. The name Fucus appears in a number of taxa, most algae contain chloroplasts that are similar in structure to cyanobacteria. Chloroplasts contain circular DNA like that in cyanobacteria and presumably represent reduced endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, the exact origin of the chloroplasts is different among separate lineages of algae, reflecting their acquisition during different endosymbiotic events. The table below describes the composition of the three groups of algae. Their lineage relationships are shown in the figure in the upper right, many of these groups contain some members that are no longer photosynthetic
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. The term is generally limited to the green plants, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae. This includes the plants and other gymnosperms, clubmosses, liverworts and the green algae. Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts and their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although reproduction is common. There are about 300–315 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, green plants provide most of the worlds molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earths ecologies, especially on land. Plants that produce grains and vegetables form humankinds basic foodstuffs, Plants play many roles in culture.
They are used as ornaments and, until recently and in variety, they have served as the source of most medicines. The scientific study of plants is known as botany, a branch of biology, Plants are one of the two groups into which all living things were traditionally divided, the other is animals. The division goes back at least as far as Aristotle, who distinguished between plants, which generally do not move, and animals, which often are mobile to catch their food. Much later, when Linnaeus created the basis of the system of scientific classification. Since then, it has become clear that the plant kingdom as originally defined included several unrelated groups, these organisms are still often considered plants, particularly in popular contexts. When the name Plantae or plant is applied to a group of organisms or taxon. The evolutionary history of plants is not yet settled. Those which have been called plants are in bold, the way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies considerably between authors.
Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce energy through photosynthesis, most conspicuous among the algae are the seaweeds, multicellular algae that may roughly resemble land plants, but are classified among the brown and green algae. Each of these groups includes various microscopic and single-celled organisms
A carbohydrate is a biological molecule consisting of carbon and oxygen atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2,1, in other words, with the empirical formula Cmn. This formula holds true for monosaccharides, some exceptions exist, for example, deoxyribose, a sugar component of DNA, has the empirical formula C5H10O4. Carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon, structurally it is accurate to view them as polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones. The term is most common in biochemistry, where it is a synonym of saccharide, a group that includes sugars, the saccharides are divided into four chemical groups, disaccharides and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides and disaccharides, the smallest carbohydrates, are referred to as sugars. The word saccharide comes from the Greek word σάκχαρον, meaning sugar, while the scientific nomenclature of carbohydrates is complex, the names of the monosaccharides and disaccharides very often end in the suffix -ose. For example, grape sugar is the glucose, cane sugar is the disaccharide sucrose.
Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms, polysaccharides serve for the storage of energy and as structural components. The 5-carbon monosaccharide ribose is an important component of coenzymes and the backbone of the genetic molecule known as RNA, the related deoxyribose is a component of DNA. Saccharides and their derivatives include many other important biomolecules that play key roles in the system, preventing pathogenesis, blood clotting. In food science and in informal contexts, the term carbohydrate often means any food that is particularly rich in the complex carbohydrate starch or simple carbohydrates. Often in lists of information, such as the USDA National Nutrient Database, the term carbohydrate is used for everything other than water, fat, ash. This will include chemical compounds such as acetic or lactic acid, carbohydrates are found in wide variety of foods. The important sources are cereals, sugarcane, table sugar, milk and sugar are the important carbohydrates in our diet.
Starch is abundant in potatoes, maize and other cereals, sugar appears in our diet mainly as sucrose which is added to drinks and many prepared foods such as jam and cakes. Glucose and fructose are found naturally in fruits and some vegetables. Glycogen is carbohydrate found in the liver and muscles, cellulose in the cell wall of all plant tissue is a carbohydrate. It is important in our diet as fibre which helps to maintain a healthy digestive system, formerly the name carbohydrate was used in chemistry for any compound with the formula Cm n
In 21st-century systems of biological classification, the Protozoa are defined as a diverse group of unicellular eukaryotic organisms. Historically, protozoa were defined as single-celled animals or organisms with animal-like behaviors, such as motility, the group was regarded as the zoological counterpart to the protophyta, which were considered to be plant-like, as they are capable of photosynthesis. The terms protozoa and protozoans are now mostly used informally to designate single-celled, non-photosynthetic protists, such as the ciliates and flagellates. The term Protozoa was introduced in 1818 for a taxonomic class, in several classification systems proposed by Thomas Cavalier-Smith and his collaborators since 1981, Protozoa is ranked as a kingdom. The seven-kingdom scheme proposed by Ruggiero et al. in 2015, places eight phyla under Protozoa, Amoebozoa, Choanozoa, Percolozoa and Sulcozoa. This kingdom does not form a clade, but an evolutionary grade or paraphyletic group, from which the fungi, for this reason, the terms protists, Protista or Protoctista are sometimes preferred for the high-level classification of eukaryotic microbes.
In 2005, members of the Society of Protozoologists voted to change the name of organization to the International Society of Protistologists. The word protozoa was coined in 1818 by zoologist Georg August Goldfuss, as the Greek equivalent of the German Urthiere, meaning primitive, Goldfuss erected Protozoa as a class containing what he believed to be the simplest animals. Originally, the group included not only microbes, but some lower animals, such as rotifers, sponges, bryozoa. In 1848, in light of advancements in cell theory pioneered by Theodore Schwann and Matthias Schleiden, von Siebold redefined Protozoa to include only such unicellular forms, to the exclusion of all metazoa. At the same time, he raised the group to the level of a phylum containing two broad classes of microbes and Rhizopoda. As a phylum under Animalia, the Protozoa were firmly rooted in the old two-kingdom classification of life, criticism of this system began in the latter half of the 19th century, with the realization that many organisms met the criteria for inclusion among both plants and animals.
For example, the algae Euglena and Dinobryon have chloroplasts for photosynthesis, as an alternative, he proposed a new kingdom called Primigenum, consisting of both the protozoa and unicellular algae, which he combined together under the name Protoctista. In Hoggss conception, the animal and plant kingdoms were likened to two great pyramids blending at their bases in the Kingdom Primigenum, six years later, Ernst Haeckel proposed a third kingdom of life, which he named Protista. Despite these proposals, Protozoa emerged as the taxonomic placement for heterotrophic microbes such as amoebae and ciliates. A variety of systems were proposed, and Kingdoms Protista and Protoctista became well established in biology texts. While many taxonomists have abandoned Protozoa as a group, Thomas Cavalier-Smith has retained it as a kingdom in the various classifications he has proposed. As of 2015, Cavalier-Smiths Protozoa excludes several major groups of organisms traditionally placed among the protozoa, including the ciliates, Protozoa, as traditionally defined, are mainly microscopic organisms, ranging in size from 10 to 52 micrometers