Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Southwest Museum of the American Indian
The Southwest Museum of the American Indian is a museum and archive located in the Mt. Washington neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, it is part of the Autry Museum of the American West. Its collections deal with Native Americans, it has an extensive collection of pre-Hispanic, Spanish colonial and Western American art and artifacts. Major collections had included 1) American Indians of the Great Plains, 2) American Indians of California, 3) American Indians of the Northwest Coast. Most of those materials were moved off-site, but The Southwest Museum has maintained an ongoing public exhibit on Pueblo pottery, free of charge; the Metro Gold Line stops down the hill from the museum at the Southwest Museum station. About a block from the Gold Line stop, there is an entrance on Museum Drive that opens to a long tunnel filled with dioramas, since removed by the Autry Museum and placed in storage. At the end of the tunnel, there is an elevator. Charles Fletcher Lummis was an anthropologist, historian and photographer who created the Southwest Society, the western branch of the Archaeological Institute of America.
He gained the support of city leaders, with the financial backing of attorney Joseph Scott and opened the Southwest Museum in 1907. The museum moved from Downtown Los Angeles to Mt. Washington in 1914; the 1914 building was designed by Silas Reese Burns. Additions to the museum include the Caroline Boeing Poole Wing of Basketry, by architect Gordon B. Kaufmann, the Braun Research Library, by architect Glen E. Cook. Frederick Russell Burnham, the decorated military scout and father of the international scouting movement, was an early president. In 2003 the financially teetering museum was absorbed by the Autry Museum which designated it as its Mt. Washington Campus. Following years of controversy with the Friends of the Southwest Museum and other local community organizations, the Autry began a partnership with the National Trust for Historic Preservation and the City of Los Angeles to develop a long-term plan for the site. On January 22nd, 2015 the Southwest Museum was designated a National Treasure by the National Trust for Historic Preservation.
One gallery is open to the public on Saturdays from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. with events and exhibitions that may take place on other parts of the campus. Admission is free. Autry has moved and been conserving most of the original collection in a new state-of-the-art home in Burbank, with plans to open that in 2019. List of Registered Historic Places in Los Angeles Bertha Parker Pallan Mark Raymond Harrington Cheech and Chong Autry Museum of the American West - official website Southwest Museum - official website Friends of the Southwest Museum Coalition - supporters' website Treasureswm.org: Treasure It Together: Southwest Museum Site − website homepage — project of the National Register of Historic Places
Visual arts by indigenous peoples of the Americas
Visual arts by indigenous peoples of the Americas encompasses the visual artistic traditions of the indigenous peoples of the Americas from ancient times to the present. These include works from South America, North America including Greenland, as well as Siberian Yup'ik peoples who have great cultural overlap with Native Alaskan Yup'iks. In North America, the Lithic stage or Paleo-Indian period is defined as 18,000–8000 BCE; the period from around 8000–800 BCE is referred to as the Archaic period. The production of bannerstones, Projectile point, Lithic reduction styles and pictographic cave paintings are some of the art that remains from this time period. Belonging in the Lithic stage, the oldest known art in the Americas is a carved megafauna bone from a mammoth, etched with a profile of walking mammoth or mastodon that dates back to 11,000 BCE; the bone was found early in the 21st century near Vero Beach, Florida, in an area where human bones had been found in association with extinct pleistocene animals early in the 20th century.
The bone is too mineralized to be dated, but the carving has been authenticated as having been made before the bone became mineralized. The anatomical correctness of the carving and the heavy mineralization of the bone indicate that the carving was made while mammoths and/or mastodons still lived in the area, more than 10,000 years ago; the oldest known painted object in North American is the Cooper Bison Skull from 10,900–10,200 BCE. Lithic age art in South America includes Monte Alegre culture rock paintings created at Caverna da Pedra Pintada dating back to 9250–8550 BCE. Guitarrero Cave in Peru has the earliest known textiles in South America, dating to 8000 BCE; the southwestern United States and certain regions of the Andes have the highest concentration of pictographs and Petroglyphs from this period. Both pictographs and petroglyphs are known as rock art; the Yup'ik of Alaska have a long tradition of carving masks for use in shamanic rituals. Indigenous peoples of the Canadian arctic have produced objects that could be classified as art since the time of the Dorset culture.
While the walrus ivory carvings of the Dorset were shamanic, the art of the Thule people who replaced them circa 1000 CE was more decorative in character. With European contact the historic period of Inuit art began. In this period, which reached its height in the late 19th century, Inuit artisans created souvenirs for the crews of whaling ships and explorers. Common examples include cribbage boards. Modern Inuit art began in the late 1940s, when with the encouragement of the Canadian government they began to produce prints and serpentine sculptures for sale in the south. Greenlandic Inuit have a unique textile tradition intregrating skin-sewing and appliqué of small pieces of brightly dyed marine mammal organs in mosaic designs, called avittat. Women create elaborate netted beadwork collars, they have strong mask-making tradition and are known for an art form called tupilaq or an "evil spirit object." Traditional art making practices thrive in the Ammassalik. Sperm whale ivory remains a valued medium for carving.
Inuit art from Alaska and Greenland Cultures of interior Alaska and Canada living south of the Arctic Circle are Subarctic peoples. While humans have lived in the region far longer, the oldest known surviving Subarctic art is a petroglyph site in northwest Ontario, dated to 5000 BCE. Caribou, to a lesser extent moose, are major resources, providing hides, antlers and other artistic materials. Porcupine quillwork embellishes hides and birchbark. After European contact with the influence of the Grey Nuns, moosehair tufting and floral glass beadwork became popular through the Subarctic; the art of the Haida, Heiltsuk and other smaller tribes living in the coastal areas of Washington State and British Columbia, is characterized by an complex stylistic vocabulary expressed in the medium of woodcarving. Famous examples include totem poles, transformation masks, canoes. In addition to woodwork, two dimensional painting and silver and copper engraved jewelry became important after contact with Europeans.
The Eastern Woodlands, or woodlands, cultures inhabited the regions of North America east of the Mississippi River at least since 2500 BCE. While there were many regionally distinct cultures, trade between them was common and they shared the practice of burying their dead in earthen mounds, which has preserved a large amount of their art; because of this trait the cultures are collectively known as the Mound builders. The Woodland period is divided into early and late periods, consisted of cultures that relied on hunting and gathering for their subsistence. Ceramics made by the Deptford culture are the earliest evidence of an artistic tradition in this region; the Adena culture are another well-known example of an early Woodland culture. They carved stone tablets with zoomorphic designs, created pottery, fashioned costumes from animal hides and antlers for ceremonial rituals. Shellfish was a mainstay of their diet, engraved shells have been found in their burial mounds; the Middle Woodland period was dominated by cultures of the Hopewell tradition.
Their artwork encompassed a wide variety of jewelry and sculpture in stone and human bone. The Late Woodland period saw a decline in trade and in the size of settlements, the creation of art declined. From the 12th century onward, the Iroquois and nearby coastal tribes fashioned wampum from shells and string. Iroquois people carve False Face masks for healing ritual
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Garvanza, Los Angeles
Garvanza is a neighborhood in northeast Los Angeles bordered by Highland Park to the west, South Pasadena to the east and Pasadena to the north. The town of Garvanza was part of the Rancho San Rafael, owned by Jose Maria Verdugo, its name comes from the fields of garbanzo beans. Andrew Glassell and Albert Beck Chapman bought the land in 1869. Glassell and Chapman sold the land to real estate developers and brothers. In 1886 the Rogers brothers subdivided the land and began to sell lots in what they called the "Town of Garvanza"; the town was annexed by the city of Los Angeles in 1899. Garvanza was the site of the Pisgah Home mission. Garvanza was served by Henry Huntington's Los Angeles Railway as early as 1902, the LARY had a direct line from Garvanza to Downtown Los Angeles by 1904. By 1907, Huntington had extended the Garvanza line in two directions: along York Blvd. and along North Figueroa Street. Two bridges connecting Los Angeles and South Pasadena originate in Garvanza. One, the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Valley Railroad railroad bridge spanning the Arroyo Seco, was first built in 1885, has been rebuilt twice since then.
The York Boulevard bridge over the Arroyo Seco Parkway, one of the most picturesque to span the Arroyo Seco, was built to replace a small wooden toll bridge that became too rickety to support the ever-increasing traffic between South Pasadena and Los Angeles. The old toll house still exists on the South Pasadena side; the Judson Studios, which created much of the stained glass that graced Craftsman and Mission structures in Southern California, have been located in Garvanza since 1911. Garvanza, along with South Pasadena and Pasadena, is considered to be the birthplace of the Arts & Crafts movement in Southern California. Garvanza had lost its identity as a neighborhood by the 1940s, it was, revived through the efforts of the Garvanza Improvement Association and the Highland Park Heritage Trust in the 1990s and the city of Los Angeles bestowed the name "Garvanza" on the area in 1997. Garvanza is incorporated into the City of Los Angeles Highland Park-Garvanza HPOZ Preservation Plan area adopted by the Los Angeles City Council December 9, 2010.
Media related to Garvanza, Los Angeles at Wikimedia Commons
City Terrace, California
City Terrace is an unincorporated community in the San Rafael Hills and East Los Angeles in the Los Angeles County, California. The County administers as unincorporated area, together with Eastmont; the community is considered part of the [[Los Angeles County, located northeast of Downtown Los Angeles. It contains City Terrace Elementary School, Robert F. Kennedy Elementary School, Estaban Torres High School, Harrison Elementary school, William R. Anton Elementary school,Hammel St Elementary school, City Terrace Library, City Terrace Park; the U. S. census numbers are included with the unincorporated community of San Rafael Hills and East Los Angeles. City Terrace is located atop the southeastern San Rafael Hills; the district's steep, winding streets are lined with well-preserved Spanish Colonial Revival style houses. Light rail service to East L. A. is provided by Metro Gold Line's Eastside Extension, which opened in 2009. Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority provides bus service from East L.
A. to throughout the L. A. area. In addition, local shuttle service is provided by the El Sol. City Terrace is bounded by the city limits of Los Angeles on the north and west, Floral Drive on the south, the city limits of Monterey Park on the east. Boyle Heights is on the west, Lincoln Heights is to the northwest, University Hills is to the north, California State University, Los Angeles is to the northeast, Monterey Park is to the east, other parts of East Los Angeles are to the south. Major thoroughfares include City Terrace Drive and Medford Avenues, Herbert Street; the community is part of ZIP code 90063 and area code 323. City Terrace is a neighborhood saturated with art; the Goez Art Studio was co-founded by David Rivas Botello, Jose-Luis Gonzalez and Juan Gonzalez In 1969. In 1975, Botello and Wayne Alaniz Healy co-found Los Dos Streetscapers adding Charles Solares, Fabian Debora, George Yepes, Paul Botello, Ricardo Duffy, Rich Raya, Rudy Calderon to their ranks and renaming themselves East Los Streetscapers.
The incredible ceramic mural at the City Terrace Branch Library, Ofrenda Maya 1, was created by Goez Studios' Jose Luis Gonzalez. Another stunning mural created in 1994 by George Yepes, a member of the East Los Streetscapers, known for creating the cover art for Los Lobos' 1988 album, is seen on one of the walls at City Terrace Elementary. City Terrace Park was developed in 1933 by Works Progress Administration crews. In 1957 600,000 cubic yards of soil, removed from the construction of the Los Angeles Civic Center was transported to the City Terrace County Park; the soil filled a ravine. It has swimming, basketball & tennis, plus a splash pad, picnic areas and a gymnasium. In addition City Terrace Park hosts many activities for youth and Teens such as cheer and computer club, as well as activities for adults and family such as ceramics classes and aquatics programs; the County of Los Angeles Public Library operates the City Terrace Library. The library has been in its current location since 1979 and was refurbished in 2009.
The library offers homework help for children and teens, internet resources such as downloadable audio books, hosts seminars for the community. The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services operates the Central Health Center in Downtown Los Angeles, serving City Terrace. City Terrace is in the: • 34th US congressional district, represented by Rep. Xavier Becerra • 51st State Assembly district, represented by Assembly Member Jimmy Gomez • 5th District Los Angeles County Unified School District, represented by Board Member Bennett Kayser The Los Angeles Unified School District serves City Terrace; the district operates City Terrace Elementary School, Robert F. Kennedy Elementary school, William R. Anton Elementary school and Harrison Elementary school. Manuel and Abrana Arechiga — from Chavez Ravine Anthony Quinn Antonio Villaraigosa Gumercindo Gutierrez Map of City Terrace @ Google Maps
Los Angeles Zoo
The Los Angeles Zoo and Botanical Gardens is a 133-acre zoo founded in 1966 and located in Los Angeles, California. The city of Los Angeles owns the entire zoo, its land and facilities, the animals. Animal care, grounds maintenance, education, public information, administrative staff are city employees; the first zoo, called the Griffith Park Zoo, opened in 1912 and was located about two miles south of the current zoo site until it was closed in August 1966. Remnants of the original zoo remain; the site of the current zoo was the location of Rodger Young Village, itself built on the land, used for the Griffith Park Aerodrome. The zoo opened in its present location in November 1966. By the early 1990s, the zoo's infrastructure was deteriorating. In January 1992, a ten-inch water pipe burst; the next day, city officials passed a $300 million master plan, drafted to deal with the infrastructure problems and inadequate exhibits. The zoo nearly lost its accreditation in 1995 because of deplorable conditions.
In 1998, the zoo opened Chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains, followed by Red Ape RainForest in 2000, the Komodo Dragon Exhibit, the Winnick Family Children Zoo in 2001, the Entry Plaza, Children's Discovery Center and Sea Lion Cliffs in 2005, Campo Gorilla Reserve in November 2007, Elephants of Asia in the winter of 2010, the LAIR in 2012. On Tuesday, June 26, 2012, a chimpanzee infant baby, born to Gracie, a member of a 15-chimpanzee tribe, was mauled to death by an adult male chimpanzee; the zoo said this event was unexpected, although it stated that acts of aggression by male chimpanzees are always a possibility—indeed, there have been several well-known cases of male chimpanzee aggression in recent years. Gracie was allowed to keep her baby overnight to grieve, counseling was being offered to staff, to the visitors who had seen the event, it is reexamining its policy of. The Los Angeles Zoo has had a number of notable escaped animals over the years. A particular spate of escapes took place during the late 1990s and early 2000s when, in half a decade, at least 35 animals escaped the zoo including zebras, chimps and antelopes.
Evelyn, the gorilla, escaped her enclosure five times. In one covered incident, she used some overgrown vines to pull herself out of her exhibit, she had full run of the zoo for an hour as TV-news copters hovered overhead and visitors were evacuated before she was tranquilized. In a prior incident, she hopped on the back of Jim, to make her escape. Part of the problem was the gorilla habitat was intended to house bears; the situation was relieved by the opening of the specially designed Campo Gorilla Reserve in 2007. In 1979, the wolf, escaped the zoo multiple times by ascending trees, climbing fences, walking along branches until she could escape. At one time she eluded capture for a month by hiding in Griffith Park, it is unclear whether Virginia was recaptured. In 2014, a bighorn sheep escaped from its enclosure, the zoo itself, it was struck by a car three hours and subsequently died. In 2002, the zoo became a certified botanical gardens and the official name of the institution was changed to the Los Angeles Zoo and Botanical Gardens.
Spread throughout zoo grounds, there are 15 different collections, highlighting over 800 different plant species, with a total of over 7,400 individual plants. Chimpanzees of Mahale Mountains, a one-acre exhibit complex, opened in 1998 and houses chimpanzees; the hillside exhibit is dotted with boulders, palm trees, an artificial termite mound, features a waterfall next to a tall rock ledge where the troop's leader can survey much of the area. Guests can view the animals through a glass viewing window. Campo Gorilla Reserve opened in November 2007 and features western lowland gorillas in a 1.5-acre complex. Guests can view the animals through three other locations. Plants in the exhibit include palms and ferns; this $42 million exhibit complex at the center of the zoo opened in 2010 and houses Asian elephants and other southeast Asian wildlife. The main elephant enclosure has a 16,000-square-foot barn used for medical exams; the complex is divided into several areas, each based on a different country in the elephants' range.
The Thai Pavilion teaches visitors about the role of elephant labor in Thailand's economy. Guests can find information about elephant conservation in India at Elephants of India Plaza, which has a waterfall where the animals can bathe; the Elephants of China section houses sarus crane and Chinese water deer in a marsh habitat and has information about the history of the Dai people and their relationship with elephants. The LAIR, which opened in 2012, is a $14 million indoor-outdoor exhibit complex that focuses on herps and terrestrial arthropods. Guests first pass through the Oak Woodland Pond, where local species can move in and live among native plants; the next feature is the 6,000-square-foot main building where the Damp Forest houses poison dart frogs, Chinese giant salamanders, a recreation of a Daintree Rainforest river with archerfish, Australian lungfish, Fl