Ganesh Chaturthi known as Vinayaka Chaturthi or Vinayaka Chavithi is a Hindu festival celebrating the birth of Ganesha. It falls in the months of September of the Gregorian calendar; the festival is marked with the installation of Ganesha clay idols in homes, or publicly on elaborate pandals. Observations include chanting of Hindu texts such as, prayers and vrata. Offerings and prasadam from the daily prayers, distributed from the pandal to the community, include sweets such as modaka as it is believed to be a favorite of Lord Ganesh; the festival ends on the tenth day after start,but we end it by one and a half day where the idol is carried in a public procession with music and group chanting immersed in a nearby body of water such as a river or sea. In Mumbai alone, around 150,000 statues are immersed annually. Thereafter the clay idol dissolves and Ganesha is believed to return to Mount Kailash to Parvati and Shiva; the festival celebrates Lord Ganesha as the God of New Beginnings and the Remover of Obstacles as well as the god of wisdom and intelligence and is observed throughout India in the states such as Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Goa, Telangana and Chhattisgarh, is celebrated at home in states such as Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh.
Ganesh Chaturthi is observed in Nepal and by the Hindu diaspora elsewhere such as in Australia, Malaysia and Tobago, Suriname, other parts of the Caribbean, Mauritius, South Africa, United States, in Europe. At public venues, along with the reading of texts and group feasting and martial arts competitions are held, it is unclear when the festival started, it became a major social and public event with sponsorship of Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj after Mughal-Maratha wars, again in the 19th century after public appeal by Indian freedom fighter Lokmanya Tilak, who championed it as a means to circumvent the colonial British government ban on Hindu gatherings through its anti-public assembly legislation in 1892. The earliest mention of Ganapati, but not referring to the current Ganesha or Vinayaka, is found in the Rigveda, it appears twice in the Rigveda, once in hymn 2.23.1, as well as in hymn 10.112.9. Both of these hymns imply a role of Ganapati as "the seer among the seers, abounding beyond measure in food presiding among the elders and being the lord of invocation", while the hymn in mandala 10 states that without Ganapati "nothing nearby or afar is performed without thee", according to Michael.
However, it is uncertain that the Vedic term Ganapati which means "guardian of the multitudes", referred to era Ganesha, nor do the Vedic texts mention Ganesha Chaturthi. Appears in post-Vedic texts such as the Grhya Sutras and thereafter ancient Sanskrit texts such as the Vajasaneyi Samhita, the Yajnavalkya Smriti and the Mahabharata mention Ganapati as Ganesvaras and Vinayakas. Ganesha appears in the medieval Puranas in the form of "god of success, obstacle remover"; the Skanda Purana, Narada Purana and the Brahma Vaivarta Purana, in particular, profusely praise him. Beyond textual interpretations and epigraphical evidence suggest Ganesha had become popular, was revered before the 8th century CE and numerous images of him are traceable to the 7th century or earlier. For example, carvings at Hindu and Jain temples such as at the Ellora Caves, dated between the 5th and 8th century show Ganesha reverentially seated with major Hindu goddess. Although it is unknown when Ganesha Chaturthi was first observed, the festival has been publicly celebrated in Pune since the era of Shivaji.
After the start of the British Raj, the Ganesha festival lost state patronage and became a private family celebration in Maharashtra until its revival by Indian freedom fighter and social reformer Lokmanya Tilak. I followed with the greatest curiosity crowds who carried in procession an infinite number of idols of the god Ganesh; each little quarter of the town, each family with its adherents, each little street corner I may say, organizes a procession of its own, the poorest may be seen carrying on a simple plank their little idol or of papier mâché... A crowd, more or less numerous, accompanies the idol, clapping hands and raises cries of joy, while a little orchestra precedes the idol. – Angelo de Gubernatis, Bombay Gazette According to others such as Kaur, the festival became a public event in 1892 when Bhausaheb Laxman Javale, installed the first sarvajanik Ganesha idol in Pune. In 1893, the Indian freedom fighter Lokmanya Tilak praised the celebration of sarvajanik Ganesha utsav in his newspaper and dedicated his efforts to launch the annual domestic festival into a large, well-organised public event.
Tilak recognized Ganesha's appeal as "the god for everybody", according to Robert Brown, he chose Ganesha as the god that bridged "the gap between Brahmins and non-Brahmins", thereby building a grassroots unity across them to oppose British colonial rule. Other scholars state that the British Empire, after 1870 out of fear of seditious assemblies, had passed a series of ordinances that banned public assembly for social and political purposes of more than 20 people in British India, but exempted religious assembly for Friday mosque prayers under pressure from the Indian Muslim community. Tilak believed that this blocked the public assembly of Hindus whose religion did not mandate daily prayers or weekly gatherings, he leveraged this religious exemption to make Ganesh Chaturthi to circumvent the
Religious violence in India
Religious violence in India includes acts of violence by followers of one religious group against followers and institutions of another religious group in the form of rioting. Religious violence in India has involved Hindus and Muslims, although incidents of violence have involved atheists and Sikhs. There is a history of Muslim-Parsi riots. Despite the secular and religiously tolerant constitution of India, broad religious representation in various aspects of society including the government, the active role played by autonomous bodies such as National Human Rights Commission of India and National Commission for Minorities, the ground-level work being done by non-governmental organisations and sometimes serious acts of religious violence tend to occur as the root causes of religious violence run deep in history, religious activities, politics of India. Along with domestic organizations, international human rights organisations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch publish reports on acts of religious violence in India.
Over 2005 to 2009 period, an average of 130 people died every year from communal violence, or about 0.01 deaths per 100,000 population. The state of Maharashtra reported the highest total number of religious violence related fatalities over that five-year period, while Madhya Pradesh experienced the highest fatality rate per year per 100,000 population between 2005 and 2009. Over 2012, a total of 97 people died across India from various riots related to religious violence. Ancient texts Ashokavadana and the Divyavadana mention a non-Buddhist in Pundravardhana drew a picture showing the Buddha bowing at the feet of Nirgrantha Jnatiputra. On complaint from a Buddhist devotee, Ashoka, an emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, issued an order to arrest him, subsequently, another order to kill all the Ajivikas in Pundravardhana. Around 18,000 followers of the Ajivika sect were executed as a result of this order. Sometime another Nirgrantha follower in Pataliputra drew a similar picture. Ashoka burnt his entire family alive in their house.
He announced an award of one dinara to anyone who brought him the head of a Nirgrantha heretic. According to Ashokavadana, as a result of this order, his own brother, was mistaken for a heretic and killed by a cowherd, their ministers advised that "this is an example of the suffering, being inflicted on those who are free from desire" and that he "should guarantee the security of all beings". After this, Ashoka stopped giving orders for executions. According to K. T. S. Sarao and Benimadhab Barua, stories of persecutions of rival sects by Ashoka appear to be a clear fabrication arising out of sectarian propaganda; the Divyavadana, an anthology of Buddhist mythical tales on morals and ethics, many using talking birds and animals, was written in about 2nd century AD. In one of the stories, the razing of stupas and viharas is mentioned with Pushyamitra; this has been mapped to the reign of King Pushyamitra of the Shunga Empire about 400 years before Divyavadana was written. Archeological remains of stupas have been found in Deorkothar that suggest deliberate destruction, conjectured to be one mentioned in Divyavadana about Pushyamitra.
The existence of religious violence between Hinduism and Buddhism, in ancient India, has been disputed. It is unclear when the Deorkothar stupas were destroyed, by whom; the fictional tales of Divyavadana is considered by scholars as being of doubtful value as a historical record. Moriz Winternitz, for example, stated, "these legends scarcely contain anything of much historical value". Historical records of religious violence are extensive for medieval India, in the form of corpus written by Muslim historians. According to Will Durant, Hindus experienced persecution during Islamic rule of the Indian subcontinent. There are numerous recorded instances of temple desecration, by Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms, desecrating Hindu and Jain temples. Historian K. S. Lal in his book Theory and Practice of Muslim State in India claims that between the years 1000 AD and 1500 AD, the population of the Indian subcontinent decreased from 200 to 170 million, he did not claim any finality. These population estimates, have been questioned by Simon Digby and Irfan Habib.
Will Durant calls the Muslim conquest of India "probably the bloodiest story in history". During this period, Buddhism declined while Hinduism faced military-led and Sultanates-sponsored religious violence; those Hindus who converted to Islam were not immune from persecution, illustrated by the Muslim Caste System in India as established by Ziauddin al-Barani in the Fatawa-i Jahandari. While Alain Danielou writes that, "From the time Muslims started arriving in 632 A. D. the history of India becomes a long monotonous series of murders, spoliations, destructions."Sociologist G. S. Ghurye writes that religious violence between Hindus and Muslims in medieval India may be presumed to have begun soon after Muslims began settling there. Recurrent clashes appear in the historical record during the Delhi Sultanate, they continued through the Mughal Empire, in the British colonial period. During the British period, religious affiliation became an issue... Religious communities tended to become political constituencies.
This was true of the Muslim League created in 1905, which catered for the interests of the Muslims... Purely Hindu organizations appeared such as the Hindu Sabha founded in 1915. In the meantime Hindu-Muslim riots became more fre
Rohini Hattangadi is an Indian actress, known for her work in Marathi-language and Hindi Films and Theatre. She has won two Filmfare Awards, one National Film Award, is the only Indian actress to win the BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role for her performance as Kasturba Gandhi in Gandhi. An alumna of the National School of Drama of New Delhi, Hattangadi had worked in theatre when she made her movie debut with Arvind Desai Ki Ajeeb Dastaan in 1978; some of her noted cinematic roles were in such art films as Arth and Saaransh. Hattangadi was offered character roles in mainstream Hindi cinema after her portrayal in Gandhi typecast in mother roles much ahead of her years. Respected for her acting prowess, she has appeared in over 80 feature films, is active in theatre and television. Hattangadi was born in Pune as Rohini Oak, she did her schooling from Renuka Swaroop Memorial Girls High School, Pune in 1966. She joined the National School of Drama of New Delhi in 1971. Although the Film and Television Institute of India was located in her hometown Pune, she did not join it because she was interested in theatre and did not have early plans to enter cinema: "I just wanted to be an actor...
My heart was in theatre. That's why I came all the way to Delhi to join NSD." At NSD, she met her future husband Jayadev Hattangadi, in the same batch as hers. They were trained together by Ebrahim Alkazi. Upon graduation in 1974, Rohini was awarded the Best Actress award and an award for Best all-round student, while Jayadev, being trained in direction, won the Best Director award. Jayadev and Rohini married the following year. Rohini received training in Indian classical dance forms and Bharatnatyam for more than eight years, under the guidance of Professor Surendra Wadgaonkar. Rohini and Jayadev have a son, Aseem Hattangadi, a theatre actor and acted in Badal Sircar's play, Evam Indrajit, directed by his father. Jaydev Hattangadi died on 5 December 2008, aged 60, after a battle with cancer. Rohini started her career with Marathi stage. Once in Bombay while still at NSD, Jayadev and Rohini started a Marathi theatre group in Bombay, called "Awishkar", which went on to produce over 150 plays. In 1975 she won the Best Actress Award at the Maharashtra State Drama Festival, for her performance in Changuna, a Marathi adaptation of Federico García Lorca's Spanish classic Yerma.
The play was produced by "Awishkar" in Mumbai. Hattangadi is the first woman to act in Kannada play Yakshagana, a folk play directed by K. Shivaram Karanth, is the first woman in Asia to act in a Japanese Kabuki play, directed by Shozo Sato, a Japanese director. One play that Hattangadi was appreciated for is Aparajita, based on a Bengali story by Nitin Sen. First staged in 1999, this 120 minute long solo-act play has over the years been performed in both Hindi and Marathi. Incidentally it was her first performance in a long time to be directed by her husband, Jayadev Hattangadi. In all she has performed in five plays directed by him, including Medea, a Greek tragedy written by Euripides, her other theatre credits include Vijay Tendulkar's Mitra Chi Gosht, directed by Vinay Apte, Hori based on Premchand's Godaan, produced by IPTA, most in the Hindi play Kohra with Sudha Chandran and Babul Bhavsar. Hattangadi, along with husband Jayadev, ran "Kalashray", a centre for research, education in arts and talent encouragement in Mumbai, working with the underprivileged and developing tools for powerful communication.
She won the 2004 Sangeet Natak Akademi Award for her contribution to Indian theatre. Hattangadi made her film debut with Saeed Akhtar Mirza's Arvind Desai Ki Ajeeb Dastaan in 1978; the film won the Filmfare Critics Award for Best Movie. This was followed by her appearance in Mirza's next picture, Albert Pinto Ko Gussa Kyon Ata Hai, which won the same award, Rabindra Dharmaraj's drama Chakra, her characters in these films were minor. Her next film was Richard Attenborough's biographical film Gandhi, based on the life of Mahatma Gandhi, she played the wife of Mahatma, played by Ben Kingsley. The film was a major critical success, among other awards won the Academy Award for Best Picture. Hattangadi's performance garnered her international recognition and she won the BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role in 1983, the only Asian to do that so far. Despite the success she received for her role in Gandhi, the film was credited with increasing "her screen age manifold", she was 27 when she played the middle-aged Kasturba, from on was offered roles of women of this age group.
Hattangadi told of an instance when James Ivory wanted to cast for his film Heat and Dust, but he was surprised by how young she was when he met her and did not approach her for a part because he did not want to use make-up. Although theatre was her main interest, she stated that it was not enough financially, stating, "I realised that theatre won't be enough to make ends meet."This was followed, however, by a string of acclaimed performances, starting with Mahesh Bhatt's Arth, which won her the Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actress. In 1984 she acted in Govind Nihalani's satirical drama Party for which she received the National Film Award for Best Supporting Actress, she followed it with two films in which she portrayed aging housewives, Mohan Joshi Hazir Ho! and Saaransh, both released in 1984. In Saaransh, she was the female lead along with Anupam Kher in his debut role; the film starred Hattangadi and Kher as B. V. and Parvati, an elderly couple struggling with t
Dhaba or Punjabi dhaba is a roadside restaurant in India and Pakistan. They are on highways serve local cuisine, serve as truck stops, they are most found next to petrol stations, most are open 24 hours a day. Since many Indian and Pakistani truck drivers are of Punjabi descent, Punjabi food and music are popular throughout India & Pakistan, the word dhaba has come to represent any restaurant that serves Punjabi food the spiced and fried Punjabi fare preferred by many truck drivers. Dhaba roadside eateries are a common feature on the Punjab's national and state highways. Earlier frequented only by truck drivers, today eating at a dhaba—urban or roadside—is a trend. Thus, Punjabi dhaba has become a part of the culture of the Punjabi people; the word has been alleged in folk etymology to stem from m. box, lunch box, tiffin. However, initial consonantal dh- neither gives rise to nor develops from consonantal d-, it is said that "The dhaba moves wherever a Punjabi goes." The first Punjabi dhaba was established soon after the linking of the cities of India by highways.
Though no records can be cited as to the first Punjabi dhaba, it can reasonably be assumed that such restaurants first flourished along the Grand Trunk Road which ran from Peshawar in the Punjab through Amritsar and Delhi to Calcutta. There is now a large network of the Punjabi emigrant community worldwide, many Punjabis have opened dhabas in far lands. One joke goes that if one were to visit the Moon, one might find a Punjabi dhaba. Dhabas were characterized by mud cots to sit upon while eating. A wooden plank would be placed across the width of the cot on. With time, the cots were replaced by tables; the food is inexpensive and has a'homemade' feel to it. Punjabi food served in dhabas is full of rustic flavour. Food is served on big brass or steel thali and drinks – water, milk, or tea, as well as shorbas – are served. Two types of food are served in the Punjabi dhabas – non-vegetarian cuisine and vegetarian fare termed vaishno dhabas. Dal makhni is a popular dish in the vegetarian dhaba; the tandoor is a barrel-shaped earthenware oven, which makes Punjabi cuisine special.
It is a versatile kitchen appliance for making a social institution. In rural Punjab, the community tandoor, dug in the ground and either coal-fired or electrically heated, is a meeting place for women, who bring the kneaded atta and sometimes marinated meats to have them cooked while socializing; until a few years ago, this phenomenon existed in urban neighbourhoods, too. Today, a few neighbourhoods in Delhi and Lahore have a community tandoor. Most Punjabi menus are made according to the season; the universal favourite is chole bhature, a year-round item and is available at every wayside dhaba. But, the pride of the Punjabi winter cuisine is sarson da saag served with blobs of white butter accompanied by makki ki roti and lassi; some dishes that make up the delicious Punjabi cuisine are: Wheat and maize, all lentils black gram and yellow gram and chana. Popular spices in Punjabi cuisine are coriander, cloves, cardamom, black pepper, red chili powder and mustard. One of the main crops of Punjab is mustard or sarson: Its leaves are used to make sarson da-saag curry while its seeds are used for tempering and for making mustard oil, used as a cooking medium.
Milk is synonymous with Punjab and dairy products such as dahi, paneer cream and ghee are used. Butter is an important cooking medium apart from being consumed raw along with the food. Non-vegetarian food chicken, is a favorite. Mutton and fish are cooked. All types of vegetables The simple vegetarian meal served could be a paratha of many kinds depending on the type of vegetable stuffing one wishes to have – the aloo parathas is the most popular. Parathas stuffed with cooked and spiced vegetables such as cauliflower are popular for breakfast with curds or tea. Vegetarian meal – for lunch or dinner – consists of chana masala, pindi chana and lentils, sarson ka saag, palak paneer, bharwan karela, subz korma, rajma or kadhi. Paneer dishes are a must in a vegetarian menu, it is cooked with every kind of vegetable, the popular dishes of such variety are palak paneer or saag paneer, mutter paneer, paneer makhani etc. Naan and paratha, rotis made of maize flour, chappatis made out of the flour of maize and rumali roti are typical punjabi breads.
The basic gravy used for vegetables and meat dishes is onion-tomato-garlic-ginger. A predominantly wheat-eating people, the Punjabis cook rice only on special occasions. Rice is cooked plain or steamed and is always made with a flavouring of cumin or fried onions. Sada chawal – plain rice – is served with other wheat-based dishes. Vegetable biryani is a favorite dish. In winter, is rice cooked with jaggery is gurwala chawal, or rao ki kheer delicacy when cooked on slow fire for hours with sugarcane juice, sometimes rice is cooked with green peas. Authentic items include kadhai murg, tandoori chicken, tali machali amritsar, rara gosht, ch
A remix is a piece of media, altered from its original state by adding, and/or changing pieces of the item. A song, piece of artwork, video, or photograph can all be remixes; the only characteristic of a remix is that it appropriates and changes other materials to create something new. Most remixes are a subset of audio mixing in music and song recordings. Songs may be remixed for a variety of reasons: to adapt or revise a song for radio or nightclub play to create a stereo or surround sound version of a song where none was available to improve the fidelity of an older song for which the original master has been lost or degraded to alter a song to suit a specific music genre or radio format to use some of the same materials, allowing the song to reach a different audience to alter a song for artistic purposes. To provide additional versions of a song for use as bonus tracks or for a B-side, for example, in times when a CD single might carry a total of 4 tracks to create a connection between a smaller artist and a more successful one, as was the case with Fatboy Slim's remix of "Brimful of Asha" by Cornershop to improve the first or demo mix of the song to ensure a professional product.
To provide an alternative version of a song to improve a song from its original stateRemixes should not be confused with edits, which involve shortening a final stereo master for marketing or broadcasting purposes. Another distinction should be made between a remix, which recombines audio pieces from a recording to create an altered version of a song, a cover: a re-recording of someone else's song like Mike D's remix of Moby's "Natural Blues". While audio mixing is one of the most popular and recognized forms of remixing, this is not the only media form, remixed in numerous examples. Literature, film and social systems can all be argued as a form of remix Since the beginnings of recorded sound in the late 19th century, technology has enabled people to rearrange the normal listening experience. With the advent of editable magnetic tape in the 1940s and 1950s and the subsequent development of multitrack recording, such alterations became more common. In those decades the experimental genre of musique concrète used tape manipulation to create sound compositions.
Less artistically lofty edits produced medleys or novelty recordings of various types. Modern remixing had its roots in the dance hall culture of late-1960s/early-1970s Jamaica; the fluid evolution of music that encompassed ska, rocksteady and dub was embraced by local music mixers who deconstructed and rebuilt tracks to suit the tastes of their audience. Producers and engineers like Ruddy Redwood, King Tubby and Lee "Scratch" Perry popularized stripped-down instrumental mixes of reggae tunes. At first they dropped the vocal tracks, but soon more sophisticated effects were created, dropping separate instrumental tracks in and out of the mix and repeating hooks, adding various effects like echo and delay; the German krautrock band Neu! used other effects on side two of their album Neu! 2 by manipulating their released single Super/Neuschnee multiple ways, utilizing playback at different turntable speeds or mangling by using of a cassette recorder. From the mid-1970s, DJs in early discothèques were performing similar tricks with disco songs to get dancers on the floor and keep them there.
One noteworthy figure was Tom Moulton. Though not a DJ, Moulton had begun his career by making a homemade mix tape for a Fire Island dance club in the late 1960s, his tapes became popular and he came to the attention of the music industry in New York City. At first Moulton was called upon to improve the aesthetics of dance-oriented recordings before release, he moved from being a "fix it" man on pop records to specializing in remixes for the dance floor. Along the way, he invented the 12-inch single vinyl format. Walter Gibbons provided the dance version of the first commercial 12-inch single. Contrary to popular belief, Gibbons did not mix the record. In fact his version was a re-edit of the original mix. Moulton and their contemporaries at Salsoul Records proved to be the most influential group of remixers for the disco era; the Salsoul catalog is seen as being the "canon" for the disco mixer's art form. Pettibone is among a small number of remixers whose work transitioned from the disco to the House era.
His contemporaries included François Kevorkian. Contemporaneously to disco in the mid-1970s, the dub and disco remix cultures met through Jamaican immigrants to the Bronx, energizing both and helping to create hip-hop music. Key figures included Grandmaster Flash. Cutting and scratching became part of the culture, creating what Slate magazine called "real-time, live-action collage." One of the first mainstream successes of this style of remix was the 1983 track Rockit by Herbie Hancock, as remixed by Grand Mixer D. ST. Malcolm McLaren and the creative team behind ZTT Records would feature the "cut up" style of hip hop on such records as "Duck Rock". Early pop remixes were simple.
Mumbai is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. As of 2011 it is the most populous city in India with an estimated city proper population of 12.4 million. The larger Mumbai Metropolitan Region is the second most populous metropolitan area in India, with a population of 21.3 million as of 2016. Mumbai has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city, it is the wealthiest city in India, has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires among all cities in India. Mumbai is home to three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Elephanta Caves, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus, the city's distinctive ensemble of Victorian and Art Deco buildings; the seven islands that constitute Mumbai were home to communities of Koli people, who originated in Gujarat in prehistoric times. For centuries, the islands were under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded to the Portuguese Empire and subsequently to the East India Company when in 1661 Charles II of England married Catherine of Braganza and as part of her dowry Charles received the ports of Tangier and Seven Islands of Bombay.
During the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. Along with construction of major roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845, transformed Bombay into a major seaport on the Arabian Sea. Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by educational development. During the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement. Upon India's independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital. Mumbai is the financial and entertainment capital of India, it is one of the world's top ten centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow, generating 6.16% of India's GDP and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime trade in India, 70% of capital transactions to India's economy. The city houses important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India, the SEBI and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations.
It is home to some of India's premier scientific and nuclear institutes like Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Power Corporation of India, Indian Rare Earths, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Atomic Energy Commission of India, the Department of Atomic Energy. The city houses India's Hindi and Marathi cinema industries. Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures; the name Mumbai is derived from Mumbā or Mahā-Ambā—the name of the patron goddess Mumbadevi of the native Koli community— and ā'ī meaning "mother" in the Marathi language, the mother tongue of the Koli people and the official language of Maharashtra. The Koli people originated in Kathiawad and Central Gujarat, according to some sources they brought their goddess Mumba with them from Kathiawad, where she is still worshipped. However, other sources disagree.
The oldest known names for the city are Galajunkja. In 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name "Bombaim" in his Lendas da Índia; this name originated as the Galician-Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay", Bombaim is still used in Portuguese. In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi. Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn, Bombain, Monbaym, Mombaym, Bombaiim, Boon Bay, Bon Bahia. After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was anglicised as Bombay. Ali Muhammad Khan, imperial dewan or revenue minister of the Gujarat province, in the Mirat-i Ahmedi referred to the city as Manbai; the French traveller Louis Rousselet who visited in 1863 and 1868 tells us in his book L’Inde des Rajahs: "Etymologists have wrongly derived this name from the Portuguese Bôa Bahia, or, not knowing that the tutelar goddess of this island has been, from remote antiquity, Bomba, or Mamba Dévi, that she still... possesses a temple".
By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in Marathi, Gujarati and Sindhi, as Bambai in Hindi. The Government of India changed the English name to Mumbai in November 1995; this came at the insistence of the Marathi nationalist Shiv Sena party, which had just won the Maharashtra state elections, mirrored similar name changes across the country and in Maharashtra. According to Slate magazine, "they argued that'Bombay' was a corrupted English version of'Mumbai' and an unwanted legacy of British colonial rule." Slate said "The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region." While the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and by Indians from other regions, mention of the ci
Rakhi Sawant is an Indian dancer, Hindi film and television actress and television talk show host, who has appeared in many Hindi and a few Kannada, Odia and Tamil films. She was a contestant on the first season of the controversial Indian reality television series Bigg Boss 1 in 2006. Throughout her career, she has established herself as a sex symbol. Sawant launched her own political party, headed by Jai Shah, called the Rashtriya Aam Party, to contest the 2014 Lok Sabha Elections. However, after the election, she joined Republican Party of India. Rakhi was born as Neeru Bheda to Jaya Bheda. Jaya married Anand, a police constable at Worli Police Station, gave the children from her first marriage her second husband's name, she is the sister of film director Rakesh Sawant and former actress Usha Sawant. Sawant converted to Christianity as an adult, she made her film debut in Agnichakr under the name Ruhi Sawant. She went on to other small roles and dance numbers in Bollywood films Joru Ka Ghulam, Jis Desh Mein Ganga Rehta Hain, Yeh Raaste Hain Pyaar Ke.
In 2003, she auditioned for an item number in the Bollywood movie Chura Liyaa Hai Tumne. She auditioned about four times before being selected for her breakthrough item number, "Mohabbat Hai Mirchi", composed by Himesh Reshammiya. Sawant acted in small roles in films including Main Hoon Na. In 2005, she appeared in the music video "Pardesiya", from the album D. J. Hot Remix - Vol 3. In June 2006, Mika Singh attempted to kiss her at his birthday party, which caused a media controversy. A few months she appeared in the first season of the reality show Bigg Boss and was among the top four finalists. In 2007, Rakhi made her singing debut in the album Super Girl launched by Venus Records & Tapes Pvt. Ltd. In 2009, Sawant launched the reality show Rakhi Ka Swayamwar in which she planned to select her future husband by the ancient ritual of Swayamvar. On 2 August 2009 she chose her life partner, a contestant from Toronto, Elesh Parujanwala. However, several months Sawant announced that the couple had separated due to irreconcilable differences.
After separation she said on interview. Appearing in reality shows as a host, judge or participant, Sawant is a regular stage performer. In 2012, she did a comedy act with Shahrukh Khan and Ranbir Kapoor at the 57th Filmfare Awards and entry dance performance in 2015 with Ranveer Singh and Arjun Kapoor in Malaysia. Sawant played the leading role in thriller film Ek Kahani Julie Ki, was seen in a cameo appearance in comedy fiction television series Bhaag Bakool Bhaag. On 26 March 2014, she announced her plans to contest 2014 Lok Sabha elections from Mumbai North-West as an Independent Candidate. On 28 March, she founded the Rashtriya Aam Party; the party has no symbol assigned by the election commission. However, Sawant said that she's expecting it to be a "green chilli", which she feels resembles her personality; the party's office bearers and fundraisers are local businessmen from Oshiwara. She lost her deposit. Sawant resigned from the Rashtriya Aam Party and joined the RPI party in June 2014 and expressed her desire to work for dalits.
Rakhi serves as party's state president of the woman wing. On 4 April 2017, she was arrested by Punjab police about her remarks on Rishi Valmiki. In November 2018, Sawant announced that she is getting married on 31 December 2018 to reality television personality and internet-celebrity Deepak Kalal through her Instagram account. In December Rakhi Sawant told the media that she has cancelled her marriage with Deepak Kalal, engaged to another girl now, she confirmed the news in an interview with The Times of India, stating"Yes, I am getting married to Deepak on December 31 and the wedding will happen in the US." The couple hosted a press conference to share further details about their wedding. In November 2018, during The Great Khali's Continental Wrestling Entertainment promotion, American female wrestler Rebel got involved in a dance battle against Sawant, during which Rebel grabbed her in inverse position, circulated her, threw her on her back, it injured Sawant's back and she fell unconscious, was carried to a nearby hospital.
2003: Carry On Shekhar 2006: Jeena Isi Ka Naam Hai 2007: Let's Talk... 2007: Aap Ki Adalat 2007: Baa Bahoo Aur Baby 2007: Koffee with Karan 2008: Bigg Boss 2 2008: 10 Ka Dum 2009: Nach Baliye 4 2009: Boogie Woogie 2009: Lux Perfect Bride 2010: Bigg Boss 4 2010: Jubilee Comedy Circus 2011: Comedy Circus 3 Ka Tadka 2011: Ratan Ka Rishta 2011: Sheela and Meenakshi 2011: Shaadi 3 Crore Ki 2012: Bigg Boss 5 2012: All Most Famous 2012: Jhalak Dikhhla Jaa 5 2012: Bigg Boss 6 2012: Movers & Shakers Masala Markey 2014: Comedy Nights with Kapil 2015: Comedy Classes 2016: Comedy Nights Bachao 2017: Bhaag Bakool Bhaag as Twinkle Maa Rakhi Sawant on IMDb