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Avalon, sometimes written Avallon or Avilion, is a legendary island featured in the Arthurian legend. It first appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's 1136 pseudo-historical account Historia Regum Britanniae as the place where King Arthur's sword Excalibur was forged and where Arthur was taken to recover from his wounds after the Battle of Camlann. Avalon was associated from an early date with mystical practices and figures such as Morgan le Fay, it is traditionally identified as the former island of Glastonbury Tor. Geoffrey of Monmouth referred to it in Latin as Insula Avallonis in Historia Regum Britanniae. In the Vita Merlini he called it Insula Pomorum the "isle of fruit trees"; the name is considered to be of Welsh origin, derived from Old Welsh, Old Cornish, or Old Breton aball or avallen, "apple tree, fruit tree". It is possible that the tradition of an "apple" island among the British was related to Irish legends concerning the otherworld island home of Manannán mac Lir and Lugh, Emain Ablach, where Ablach means "Having Apple Trees"—derived from Old Irish aball —and is similar to the Middle Welsh name Afallach, used to replace the name Avalon in medieval Welsh translations of French and Latin Arthurian tales.

All are etymologically related to the Gaulish root *aballo "fruit tree"— and are derived from a Common Celtic *abal- "apple", related at the Proto-Indo-European level to English apple, Russian яблоко, Latvian ābele, et al. Writing in early 12th century, William of Malmesbury claimed the name of Avalon came from a man called Avalloc, who once lived on this island with his daughters. According to Geoffrey in the Historia, much subsequent literature which he inspired, Avalon is the place where King Arthur is taken after fighting Mordred at the Battle of Camlann to recover from his wounds. Welsh and Breton tradition claimed that Arthur had never died, but would return to lead his people against their enemies. Historia states that Avalon is where his sword Excalibur was forged. Geoffrey dealt with Avalon in more detail in the Vita Merlini, in which he describes for the first time in Arthurian legend the enchantress Morgan as the chief of nine sisters who rule Avalon. Geoffrey's description of the island indicates a sea voyage was needed to get there.

His description of Avalon here, indebted to the early medieval Spanish scholar Isidore of Seville, shows the magical nature of the island: Many versions of the Arthurian legend have Morgan and some other magical queens or enchantresses arrive after the battle to take the mortally wounded Arthur from the battlefield of Camlann to Avalon in a black boat. In the Vulgate Cycle, Morgan tells Arthur of her intention to relocate to the isle of Avalon, the place where "the ladies live who know all the magic in the world", shortly before Camlann. In Lope Garcia de Salazar's Spanish summary of the Post-Vulgate Roman du Graal, Morgan uses her magic to hide Avalon in mist. Arthur's fate is left untold. Conversely, Stephen of Rouen's chronicle Draco Normannicus contains a fictional letter from King Arthur to Henry II of England, in which Arthur claims that he has been healed of his wounds and made immortal by his "deathless/eternal nymph" sister Morgan on Avalon, using the island's restorative herbs. Morgan features as an immortal ruler of a fantastic Avalon, sometimes alongside the still alive Arthur, in some subsequent and otherwise non-Arthurian chivalric romances such as Tirant lo Blanch, as well as the tales of Huon of Bordeaux, where Oberon is a son of either Morgan by name or "the Lady of the Secret Isle", the legend of Ogier the Dane, where Avalon can be described as a castle.

In his La Faula, Guillem de Torroella claims to have visited the Enchanted Island and met Arthur, brought back to life by Morgan and they both of them are now forever young, sustained by the Grail. In the chanson de geste La Bataille Loquifer and her sister Marsion bring the hero Renoart to Avalon, where Arthur now prepares his return alongside Morgan, Ywain and Guinevere; such stories take place centuries after the times of King Arthur. In Erec and Enide by Chrétien de Troyes, the consort of Morgan is the Lord of the Isle of Avalon, Arthur's nephew named Guinguemar. In Layamon's Brut, Arthur is taken to Avalon to be healed there through means of magic water by a distinctively Anglo-Saxon redefinition of Geoffrey's Morgen: an elf queen of Avalon named Argante; the Venician Les Prophéties de Merlin features the character of an enchantress known only as the Lady of Avalon (Dame d'

Type I Rifle

The Type I rifle Arisaka was produced during the early years of World War II for the Japanese Empire by the Kingdom of Italy. After the invasion of China in July 1937, all Arisaka production was required for use of the Imperial Army, so under the terms of the Anti-Comintern Pact, the Imperial Navy contracted with Italy for this weapon in 1937; the Type I is based on the Type 38 rifle and utilizes a Carcano action, but retains the Arisaka/Mauser type 5-round box magazine. The Type I was utilized by Japanese Imperial Naval Forces, it is chambered for the 6.5 x 50 mm cartridge. 80,000 Type I rifles were produced in 1938 and 1939, 40,000 manufactured by Beretta and an equal number by Italian government arsenals. On the collector market in the United States, the Type I rifle is uncommon but not popular among collectors. Since the heritage of the Type I rifle is both Japanese and Italian, it tends to be shunned by collectors of Japanese focus; the Type I never had the Japanese Imperial Chrysanthemum markings, or other markings that interest collectors of Japanese militaria.

Many Type I rifles brought back to the United States as War Trophies were captured at Kwajalein Atoll, the Philippines, or from Japan at the conclusion of hostilities. Type 30 rifle Chiang Kai-shek rifle Mosin–Nagant Karabinek wz. 1929 Karabiner 98k MAS-36 rifle Mannlicher M1895 Pictures of a Type I rifle Japanese Type I Carcano

The National Art Center, Tokyo

The National Art Center is a museum in Roppongi, Tokyo, Japan. A joint project of the Agency for Cultural Affairs and the National Museums Independent Administrative Institution, it stands on a site occupied by a research facility of the University of Tokyo; the building has been designed by Kisho Kurokawa. It is one of the largest exhibition spaces in the country. Access is from Nogizaka Station on the Tokyo Metro Chiyoda Line. Unlike Japan's other national art museums, NACT is an'empty museum', without a collection, permanent display, curators. Like Kunsthalle in German-speaking regions, it accommodates temporary exhibitions sponsored and curated by other organizations; the policy has been successful. In its first fiscal year in 2007, it had 69 exhibitions organized by arts groups and 10 organized by NACT, its Monet exhibition, held between 7 April and 2 July 2007, was the second most visited exhibition of the year, not only in Japan but in the world. <国立新美術館>東京・六本木に21日オープン 「国立新美術館」21日開館 The National Art Center, Tokyo website in English


A spinthariscope is a device for observing individual nuclear disintegrations caused by the interaction of ionizing radiation with a phosphor or scintillator. The spinthariscope was invented by William Crookes in 1903. While observing the uniform fluorescence on a zinc sulfide screen created by the radioactive emissions of a sample of radium bromide, he spilled some of the sample, owing to its extreme rarity and cost, he was eager to find and recover it. Upon inspecting the zinc sulfide screen under a microscope, he noticed separate flashes of light created by individual alpha particle collisions with the screen. Crookes took his discovery a step further and invented a device intended to view these scintillations, it consisted of a small screen coated with zinc sulfide affixed to the end of a tube, with a tiny amount of radium salt suspended a short distance from the screen and a lens on the other end of the tube for viewing the screen. Crookes named his device from Greek σπινθήρ "spark". Spinthariscopes were replaced with more accurate and quantitative devices for measuring radiation in scientific experiments, but enjoyed a modest revival in the mid 20th century as children's educational toys.

In 1947, Kix cereal offered a Lone Ranger atomic bomb ring in exchange for a box top and 0.15 USD that contained a small one. Spinthariscopes can still be bought today as instructional novelties, but they now use americium or thorium. A spinthariscope plays a pivotal role in the Rick Brant book The Blue Ghost Mystery; the spinthariscope is mentioned on page 1703 in Burnham's Celestial Handbook by Robert Burnham Jr.. Modern spinthariscope Elements of electricity: a practical discussion of the fundamental laws and... by Robert Andrews Millikan, Edwin Sherwood Bishop, American Technical Society

Carrefour Planet

Carrefour Planet is a hypermarket chain concept owned by the Carrefour Group. Carrefour Planet was created as a new-generation hypermarket, the hypermarkets were divided into 8 centers. In 2010, the first stores were tested in France in Écully, Vénissieux and Lattes, in Spain in El Pinar and in Belgium in Mont-Saint-Jean. In 2011, in France, 6 regular Carrefour hypermarkets became Carrefour Planet in Essonne, La Ville-du-Bois, Les Ulis, Villabé Athis-Mons and Wasquehal. In July 2011, the first Carrefour Planet was opened in Paderno Dugnano, Italy of 13,000 square meters. In 2012, it was announced that the transformation from Carrefour to Carrefour Planet costs too much, as a result Carrefour stops further process of converting Carrefour hypermarkets, hypermarkets converted to Planet stays as-is but loses the Planet sign in France; as of August 2013, there are still 15 Carrefour Planet stores in Belgium, 1 in Greece and 1 in Italy. Carrefour Carrefour Market Carrefour Express

Herbert Stone MacDonald

Herbert Stone MacDonald was an Ontario lawyer and political figure. He represented Leeds South in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario as a Conservative member from 1871 to 1873, he was born in Gananoque in 1842, attended Queen's University. He studied law, first articling with Albert Norton Richards, was called to the bar in 1863 and practiced law in Brockville. In 1864, he married the daughter of David Jones, he was a lieutenant in the local militia. MacDonald was a member of the Orange Order, serving as grand master for Ontario East, he introduced a bill in 1873 to incorporate the Orange Order, passed in the legislature but the Lieutenant Governor, William Pearce Howland, held the bill for consideration by the federal parliament and it was replaced by a more general bill in 1874. In October 1873, MacDonald resigned his seat in the legislative assembly to become junior judge in the county court for Leeds and Grenville. In 1878, he was named senior judge in the county court, he served on the council for Trinity College, Toronto and as director for Bishop Ridley College and the Brockville General Hospital.

Member's parliamentary history for the Legislative Assembly of Ontario The Canadian men and women of the time: a handbook of Canadian biography, HJ Morgan