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Aveiro, Portugal

Aveiro is a city and a municipality in Portugal. In 2011, the population was 78,450, in an area of 197.58 square kilometres: it is the second most populous city in the Centro Region of Portugal. Along with the neighbouring city of Ílhavo, Aveiro is part of an urban agglomeration that includes 120,000 inhabitants, making it one of the most important populated regions by density in the Centro Region, primary centre of the Intermunicipal Community of Aveiro and Baixo Vouga. Administratively, the president of the municipal government is José Ribau Esteves, elected by coalition between the Social Democratic Party and the Democratic Social Centre, who governs the ten civil parishes; the presence of human settlement in the territory of Aveiro extends to the period associated with the great dolmens of pre-history, which exist in most of the region. The latinised toponym ‘’Averius’’ derived from the Celtic word aber. For a long period Aveiro was an important economic link in the production of salt and commercial shipping.

It was a centre of salt exploration by the Romans and trade centre through the Middle-ages, registered since 26 January 959. During this testament, Mumadona Dias highlighted the ancient name for Aveiro, this time referring to the monastery's lands in Alauario et Salinas "a gathering place or preserve of birds and of great salt". From 11th century onwards, Aveiro became popular with Portuguese royalty. King João I, on the advice of his son Pedro, the donatary of Aveiro, requested the construction of fortification walls. King D. Duarte conceded in 1435 the privilege of providing an annual duty-free fair referred to as the Feira de Março, today still an annual tradition; the Princess St. Joana, daughter of Afonso V lived in Aveiro, entering the convent of Jesus, lived there until her death on 12 May 1490. During her life her presence brought attention to the town, favoured it with an elevated level of development for the time; the first charter was conceded by Manuel I of Portugal on 4 August 1515, as indicated in the Livro de Leituras Novas de Forais da Estremadura.

Its geographic position along the Aveiro River had always helped it to subsist and grow, supported by salt market and maritime commercial development. By the beginning of the 15th century, there existed a great wall around the historical centre, intonating the significance of the community and growth of the population; this included the founding of many religious institutions and their supports, which assisted during the 17th and 18th century crises associated with silt in the waterway. In the winter of 1575, a terrible storm closed the entrance to its port, ending a thriving trade in metals and tiles, creating a reef barrier at the Atlantic Ocean; the walls were subsequently used to create the docks around the new sand bar. Between the 16th and 17th centuries, the river's instability at the mouth resulted in the closure of the canal, impeding the use of the port of Aveiro, creating stagnation in the waters of the lagoon; this blow to the economy created a social and economic crisis, resulted in the decrease in the population and emigration.

It was at this time that the Church of the Miserícordia was constructed, during the Philippine Dynastic union. In 1759, King José I elevated the town to the status of city, a few months after condemning the Duke of Aveiro, José Mascarenhas, to death; as a result, Aveiro became known as Nova Bragança: it was abandoned much and returned to Aveiro. In 1774, by request of King José, Pope Clement XIV instituted the Diocese of Aveiro. In the 19th century, the Aveirense were active during the Liberal Wars, it was José Estêvão Coelho de Magalhães, a parliamentary member, determinant in resolving the problem of access along the Ria, he helped with the development of transport the railway line between Lisbon and Porto. It was the opening of the artificial canals, completed in 1808, that allowed Aveiro to expand economically, marking the beginning in the town's growth; the municipality was elevated to the status of town, centered on its principal church, consecrated to the Archangel Michael, today the location of the Praça da República.

Located on the shore of the Atlantic Ocean, Aveiro is an industrial city with an important seaport. The seat of the municipality is the city of Aveiro, comprising the five urban parishes with about 73,003 inhabitants; the city of Aveiro is the capital of the District of Aveiro, the largest city in the Baixo Vouga intermunicipal community subregion. Aveiro is known as "the Portuguese Venice", due to its system of canals and boats similar to the Italian city of Venice. Aveiro has a warm-summer mediterranean climate influenced by its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean; the maritime influence causes a narrow temperature range resulting in summers averaging around 24 °C in daytime temperatures lower than inland areas on the same parallel on the Iberian Peninsula. As typical of mediterranean climates, summers are dry and winters are wet. A coastal feature is that frosts are never severe; the hottest temperature recorded was 39.3 °C. Temperatures above 32 °C are occasional, averages only a couple of times per annum.

Administratively, the municipality is divided into 10 civil parishes: Aradas Cacia Eixo e Eirol Esgueira Glória e Vera Cruz (ur

Shakori Hills Grassroots Festival

The Shakori Hills GrassRoots Festival of Music and Dance is a biannual music and dance festival held the first Thursday thru Sunday in May and October in Pittsboro. The festival takes place on a 75-acre farmstead, managed by Shakori Hills Community Arts Center Inc. a nonprofit organization. The festival supports the music and art programs of the SHCAC, it is associated with and modeled after the larger Finger Lakes Grassroots Festival that takes place near Trumansburg, New York each summer. The spring festival started in April 2003 and the fall festival was launched in 2004; the festival lasts four days, beginning on Thursday afternoon and going through Sunday night. The farmstead has two large outdoor stages, one large covered dance tent, the Front Porch Stage for music workshops, a Cabaret Tent, The Outpost, programmed with teenagers in mind. 4-Day and single day passes are available. Primitive, RV camping is available for an additional fee. In addition to the music, the festival has music and dance workshops, a sustainability fair, kids activities, food and craft vending with local food trucks and artisans.

The family-friendly festival is free for children 12 and under and offers a special youth rate for 13–15-year-olds. Attendance is stronger on Saturday and Sunday with Thursday being known as a "locals" night; the spring festival is double the size of the fall festival. Each festival draws fifty or more bands. Many genres of music are represented, including bluegrass, country-western, psychedelic rock, folk rock and world music. Past headliners include Del McCoury Band, Lukas Nelson & Promise of the Real, The Wood Brothers, Bela Fleck and the Flecktones, Billy Strings, Nahko Bear, Robert Randolph, Yonder Mountain String Band, Donna the Buffalo, Nickel Creek, Keith Frank, Patty Loveless, Toubab Krewe, Steve Earle and the Dukes, Rising Appalachia. Band and instrument contests are held with the best band winning a slot on a Sunday stage. Music goes late into the evening. Saturday evening is capped by a popular drum circle. List of jam band music festivals Official Shakori Hills GrassRoots Festival of Music and Dance homepage

Fribourg railway station

Fribourg railway station serves the municipality of Fribourg, capital of the canton of Fribourg, Switzerland. Opened in 1862, it is owned and operated by SBB-CFF-FFS; the station forms part of the Lausanne–Bern railway, the original portion of the Olten–Lausanne railway line. It is the junction for the Yverdon-les-Bains–Payerne–Fribourg railway, the Fribourg–Ins railway. Fribourg railway station is right in the heart of the city centre, which has shifted from the Old City to the railway station quarter since the station's construction; the station was opened on 20 August 1862 by the Western Swiss Railways, upon completion of the Fribourg–Bern section of the Lausanne–Bern railway. Completion of that section had been delayed for two years, due to the need to construct the 352 m long Grandfey Viaduct over the Saane/Sarine river, just to the north of the station. On 2 September 1862, the remaining section of the line was opened between Fribourg; the first station building at Fribourg was a simple wooden hut.

Between 1872 and 1873, a more substantial replacement building was constructed adjacent to the hut. The new building's design had been entrusted to the architect Adolphe Fraisse; the army had not wanted the Lausanne–Bern railway to pass through Fribourg. The military had believed; the government and the city had to fight for the station. By 1905, the authorities wanted a new station building, completed in 1928. On 7 September 2007, the 1872 station building became a cultural centre, incorporating a café, an entertainment hall and two festival theatres, for $4.5 million Swiss francs. A Swiss heritage site of regional significance, the building houses the Nouveau Monde and its theatre, the International Film Festival of Fribourg and Belluard Bollwerk International. IC InterCity Geneva Airport - Geneva - Lausanne - Fribourg - Bern - Zürich HB - Zürich Airport - St. Gallen IR InterRegio Geneva Airport - Geneva - Lausanne - Fribourg - Bern - Zofingen - Sursee - Lucerne RE RegioExpress Palézieux/Bulle - Romont - Fribourg - Bern S 1 Bern Fribourg - Bern - Thun R Regio Romont - Fribourg - Payerne - Estavayer-le-Lac - Yverdon-les-Bains R Regio Fribourg - Murten - Neuchâtel/InsInformations: CFF web site Seven urban bus lines operated by the Transports publics fribourgeois call at the station, including TPF trolleybus lines.

History of rail transport in Switzerland Rail transport in Switzerland This article is based upon a translation of the French-language version as at December 2011. Media related to Fribourg railway station at Wikimedia Commons SBB-CFF-FFS - official site Interactive station plan

Furner Conservation Park

Furner Conservation Park is a protected area located in the Australian state of South Australia in the locality of Furner about 310 kilometres south-east of the state capital of Adelaide and about 27 kilometres north west of the municipal seat of Millicent. The conservation park occupies land in section 245 of the cadastral unit of the Hundred of Kennion, it was constituted as a conservation park under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 on 22 November 1973. As of 2016, it covered an area of 289 hectares. In 1980, the conservation park's listing on the now-defunct Register of the National Estate argued it to be significant because it was a “relatively undisturbed remnant of open forest and woodland representing the vegetation associations of both consolidated dune and interdunal flat” and “features a picturesque understorey of some diversity which provides much needed habitat for a typical south-east South Australian forest fauna.”In 1990, the conservation park was described as consisting of "a undulating sandy rise with bleached sands and a yellow-grey B horizon" with "secondary landforms are parallel stony rises with exposed calcarenite, red, weakly-structured sandy soils and low-lying sandy flats."

The vegetation cover was described as consisting of three main associations. The first was "an open woodland of messmate stringybark… on the sandy rise with a similar but denser formation on most of the sandy flats." The second was "a woodland of river red gum… and rough barked manna gum" with some "areas of swamp gum… on the flats in the eastern part of the conservation park near the watercourse known as Reedy Creek. The third was "a pink gum… open woodland with isolated drooping sheoaks … on the stony rises."In 1990, the conservation park was "mainly used by field naturalist" and it was considered to have "potential" for use as an educational resource by the Kangaroo Inn Area School located about 4 kilometres to the north-west in the locality of Kangaroo Inn. The conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category III protected area. Protected areas of South Australia Furner Conservation Park webpage on the Protected Planet website Furner Conservation Park webpage on the Birds SA website

Hepatic plexus

The hepatic plexus, the largest offset from the celiac plexus, receives filaments from the left vagus and right phrenic nerves. It accompanies the hepatic artery, ramifying upon its branches, upon those of the portal vein in the substance of the liver. Branches from this plexus accompany all the divisions of the hepatic artery. A considerable plexus accompanies the gastroduodenal artery and is continued as the inferior gastric plexus on the right gastroepiploic artery along the greater curvature of the stomach, where it unites with offshoots from the lienal plexus. Cystic plexus is the derivation of hepatic plexus; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 986 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Douglas Eastwood, M. D.. "Sympathetic Nerve Block in Early Acute Cholecystitis". Arch. Surg. 63: 128–131. Doi:10.1001/archsurg.1951.01250040131019

Witt vector

In mathematics, a Witt vector is an infinite sequence of elements of a commutative ring. Ernst Witt showed how to put a ring structure on the set of Witt vectors, in such a way that the ring of Witt vectors over the finite field of order p is the ring of p-adic integers. In the 19th century, Ernst Eduard Kummer studied cyclic extensions of fields as part of his work on Fermat's Last Theorem; this led to the subject now known as Kummer theory. Let k be a field containing a primitive nth root of unity. Kummer theory classifies degree n cyclic field extensions K of k; such fields are in bijection. But suppose that k has characteristic p; the problem of studying degree p extensions of k, or more degree pn extensions, may appear superficially similar to Kummer theory. However, in this situation, k cannot contain a primitive pth root of unity. If x is a pth root of unity in k it satisfies x p = 1; because raising to the pth power is the Frobenius homomorphism, this equation may be rewritten as p = 0, therefore x = 1.

Kummer theory is never applicable to extensions whose degree is divisible by the characteristic. The case where the characteristic divides the degree is now called Artin–Schreier theory because the first progress was made by Artin and Schreier, their initial motivation was the Artin–Schreier theorem, which characterizes the real closed fields as those whose absolute Galois group has order two. This inspired them to ask. In the midst of proving that no other such fields exist, they proved that degree p extensions of a field k of characteristic p were the same as splitting fields of Artin–Schreier polynomials; these are by definition of the form x p − x − a. By repeating their construction, they described degree p2 extensions. Abraham Adrian Albert used this idea to describe degree pn extensions; each repetition entailed complicated algebraic conditions to ensure that the field extension was normal. Schmid generalized further to non-commutative cyclic algebras of degree pn. In the process of doing so, certain polynomials related to addition of p-adic integers appeared.

Witt seized on these polynomials. By using them systematically, he was able to give simple and unified constructions of degree pn field extensions and cyclic algebras, he introduced a ring now called Wn, the ring of n-truncated p-typical Witt vectors. This ring has k as a quotient, it comes with an operator F, called the Frobenius operator because it reduces to the Frobenius operator on k. Witt observes that the degree pn analog of Artin–Schreier polynomials is F − x − a, where a ∈ W n. To complete the analogy with Kummer theory, define ℘ to be the operator x ↦ F − x; the degree pn extensions of k are in bijective correspondence with cyclic subgroups Δ ⊆ W n / ℘ of order pn, where Δ corresponds to the field k. Any p -adic integer can be written as a power series a 0 + a 1 p 1 + a 2 p 2 + ⋯, where the a i's are taken from the integer interval =, it is hard to provide an algebraic expression for addition and multiplication using this representation, as one faces the problem of carrying between digits.

However, taking representative coefficients a i ∈ is only one of many choices, Hensel himself suggested the roots of unity in the field as representatives. These representatives are therefore the number 0 {\displaystyle