Chapultepec Castle is located on top of Chapultepec Hill. The name Chapultepec stems from the Nahuatl word chapoltepēc which means at the grasshoppers hill and it is located in the middle of Chapultepec Park in Mexico City at a height of 2,325 meters above sea level. In 1775 Viceroy Bernardo de Gálvez ordered the construction of a home for himself at the highest point of Chapultepec Hill. Francisco Bambitelli, Lieutenant Colonel of the Spanish Army and engineer, drew up the blueprint, after Bambitellis departure to Havana, Captain Manuel Agustín Mascaró took over the leadership of the project and during his tenure the works proceeded at a rapid pace. Mascaró was accused of building a fortress with the intent of rebelling against the Spanish Crown from there, the viceroy, died suddenly on November 8,1786, fueling speculation that he was poisoned. No evidence has yet been found which supports this claim, lacking a head engineer, the Spanish Crown ordered that the building be auctioned at a price equivalent to one-fifth of the quantity thus far spent thereon.
Alexander von Humboldt visited the site in 1803 and condemned the sale of the windows by the Royal Treasury as a way of raising funds for the Crown. The building was bought in 1806 by the municipal government of Mexico City. Chapultepec Castle was abandoned during the Mexican War of Independence and for years later. On September 13,1847, the Niños Héroes died defending the castle while it was taken by United States forces during the Battle of Chapultepec of the US invasion of Mexico and they are honored with a large mural on the ceiling above the main entrance to the castle. The United States Marine Corps honors the Battle of Chapultepec and the subsequent occupation of Mexico City through the first line of the Marines Hymn, From the Halls of Montezuma. Several new rooms were built on the floor of the palace during the tenure of President Miguel Miramón. Botanist Wilhelm Knechtel was in charge of creating the aerial located on the roof of the building. Additionally, the Emperor brought from Europe countless pieces of furniture, objets dart, at this time, the castle was still located on the outskirts of Mexico City.
Maximilian ordered the construction of a boulevard, to connect the Imperial residence with the city centre. Following the reestablishment of the Republic in 1867 by President Benito Juárez, the observatory was only functional for five years until they decided to move it to the former residence of the Archbishop in Tacubaya. The reason was to allow the return of the Colegio Militar to the premises as well as transforming the building into the presidential residence, the palace underwent several structural changes from 1882 and during the presidency of Porfirio Díaz. The other Presidents who made the palace their official residence were Francisco I, Venustiano Carranza, Álvaro Obregón, Plutarco Elías Calles, Emilio Portes Gil, Pascual Ortiz Rubio and Abelardo Rodríguez
Miguel Hidalgo, Mexico City
Miguel Hidalgo is one of the 16 delegaciones into which Federal District of Mexico City is divided. It was created in 1970, joining the historic areas of Tacuba and Tacubaya along with a number of neighborhoods such as Polanco. Tacubaya and Tacuba both have long histories as independent settlements and were designated as “Barrios Mágicos” by the city for tourism purposes, the borough is located in the northwest Federal District of Mexico City, just west of the historic center. The borough is divided into eighty one neighborhoods called colonias, the largest of these is Bosques de las Lomas at 3. 2km2, and the smallest is Popo Ampliación with only. 33km2. It is bordered by the boroughs of Azcapotzalco, Cuauhtémoc, Benito Juárez, Álvaro Obregón and it has a territory of 47. 68km2 which is 3.17 percent of the total Federal District. The borough consists of an area used to the west bank of Lake Texcoco. The geography of the borough includes canyons and mesas associated with the Sierra de las Cruces, in the northeast, mostly defined by the Circuit Interior road, is the most important elevation, the Cerro de Chapultepec at 2, 260masl.
The area today is almost completely developed with green spaces mostly limited to parks, the largest green space is Chapultepec Park at 2.2 km2. Parque Lineal was the rail line of the Ferrocarril de Cuernavaca. The strip was converted into a park in 2011, where the park crosses Lago Constanza Street in Colonia Anáhuac, there are often cultural events held. One of the newest parks in the borough is located on Lago Caneguin in Colonia Argentina, the unnamed park has 10,000 meters of surface area, gymnasium, bicycle path, multipurpose room, rain water containment system and child care center. It serves about 40,000 area residents, in 2008, reforestation efforts were undertaken, beginning at the Cañitas Park. While there were important rivers such as Remedios, today there are no longer any free flowing currents of water. The climate is semi moist and temperate with annual rainfall varying between 700 and 800mm, the average annual temperature is 15C with lows in the winter about 8C and highs around 19C.
Certain areas of the borough have problems with the stability of the due to old abandoned underground mines. The number of living in these areas is estimated at over 25,000. Abandoned mines have detected in Tacubaya, Lomas Altas, Bosque de las Lomas. As of 2005, the borough had 106,005 residences of which 25,308 were freestanding houses,54,079 were apartments and this total number grew to a total of 123,910
Luxury goods are often synonymous with superior goods and Veblen goods. Luxury goods are said to have high income elasticity of demand, as people become wealthier and this means, that should there be a decline in income its demand will drop. Income elasticity of demand is not constant with respect to income, although the technical term luxury good is independent of the goods quality, they are generally considered to be goods at the highest end of the market in terms of quality and price. Classic luxury goods include haute couture clothing and luggage, many markets have a luxury segment including, for example, yacht, bottled water, tea, watches, clothes and high fidelity. The hiring of full-time or live-in domestic servants is a luxury reflecting disparities of income, some financial services, especially in some brokerage houses, can be considered luxury services by default because persons in lower-income brackets generally do not use them. The three dominant trends in the luxury goods market are globalization and diversification.
Globalization is a result of the availability of these goods, additional luxury brands. Consolidation involves the growth of big companies and ownership of brands across many segments of luxury products, examples include LVMH, and Kering, which dominate the market in areas ranging from luxury drinks to fashion and cosmetics. Leading global consumer companies, such as Procter & Gamble, are attracted to the industry. The luxury goods market has been on a climb for many years. Apart from the setback caused by the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, the industry has performed well, particularly in 2000. In that year, the luxury goods market – which includes drinks, cosmetics, watches, luggage, handbags – was worth close to $170 billion. The United States has been the largest regional market for goods and is estimated to continue to be the leading personal luxury goods market in 2013. The largest sector in this category was luxury drinks, including premium whisky and this sector was the only one that suffered a decline in value.
In 2012, China surpassed Japan as the worlds largest luxury market, chinas luxury consumption accounts for over 25% of the global market. The Economist Intelligence Unit published a report on the outlook for luxury goods in Asia which explores the trends and forecasts for the luxury goods market across key markets in Asia. In 2014, the sector is expected to grow over the next 10 years because of 440 million consumers spending a total of 880 billion euros. Secular luxury manuscripts were commissioned by the wealthy and differed in the same ways from cheaper books
Prague is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. It is the 14th largest city in the European Union and it is the historical capital of Bohemia. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city has a temperate climate, with warm summers and chilly winters. Prague has been a political and economic centre of central Europe with waxing and waning fortunes during its history and it was an important city to the Habsburg Monarchy and its Austro-Hungarian Empire. Prague is home to a number of cultural attractions, many of which survived the violence. Main attractions include the Prague Castle, the Charles Bridge, Old Town Square with the Prague astronomical clock, since 1992, the extensive historic centre of Prague has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. The city has more than ten major museums, along with theatres, cinemas. An extensive modern public transportation system connects the city, also, it is home to a wide range of public and private schools, including Charles University in Prague, the oldest university in Central Europe.
Prague is classified as an Alpha- global city according to GaWC studies, Prague ranked sixth in the Tripadvisor world list of best destinations in 2016. Its rich history makes it a popular tourist destination, and the city more than 6.4 million international visitors annually. Prague is the fifth most visited European city after London, Istanbul, the region was settled as early as the Paleolithic age. In the last century BC, the Celts were slowly driven away by Germanic tribes, around the area where present-day Prague stands, the 2nd century map of Ptolemaios mentioned a Germanic city called Casurgis. In the following century, the Czech tribes built several fortified settlements in the area, most notably in Levý Hradec, Butovice and in the Šárka valley. The construction of what came to be known as the Prague Castle began near the end of the 9th century, the first masonry under Prague Castle dates from the year 885 at the latest. The other prominent Prague fort, the Přemyslid fort Vyšehrad, was founded in the 10th century, Prague Castle is dominated by the cathedral, which was founded in 1344, but completed in the 20th century.
The legendary origins of Prague attribute its foundation to the 8th century Czech duchess and prophetess Libuše and her husband, Přemysl, legend says that Libuše came out on a rocky cliff high above the Vltava and prophesied, I see a great city whose glory will touch the stars. She ordered a castle and a town called Praha to be built on the site, a 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the city was founded as Boihaem in c.1306 BC by an ancient king, Boyya. The region became the seat of the dukes, and kings of Bohemia, under Roman Emperor Otto II the area became a bishopric in 973
Undergrounding is the replacement of overhead cables providing electrical power or telecommunications, with underground cables. Undergrounding can increase the costs of electric power transmission and distribution. Telegraph cable undergrounding was considered in Northern Germany as early as 1870, the aerial cables that carry high-voltage electricity and are supported by large pylons are generally considered an unattractive feature of the countryside. Underground cables can transmit power across densely populated or areas where land is costly or environmentally or aesthetically sensitive and underwater crossings may be a practical alternative for crossing rivers. Less subject to damage from weather conditions Reduced range of electromagnetic fields emission. However depending on the depth of the cable, greater emf may be experienced. Underground cables pose no hazard to low flying aircraft or to wildlife, much less subject to conductor theft, illegal connections and damage from armed conflict.
Above ground lines cost around $10 per foot and underground lines cost in the range of $20 to $40 per foot, in highly urbanized areas the cost of underground transmission can be 10-14 times as expensive as overhead. Whereas finding and repairing overhead wire breaks can be accomplished in hours, underground repairs can take days or weeks, underground cable locations are not always obvious, which can lead to unwary diggers damaging cables or being electrocuted. Operations are more difficult since the reactive power of underground cables produces large charging currents. Transmission and distribution companies generally future-proof underground lines by installing the cables while being still cost-effective. Underground cables are subject to damage by ground movement. The advantages can in some cases outweigh the disadvantages of the investment cost. Most electrical power in Japan is still provided by aerial cables, in Tokyos 23 wards, according to Japans Construction and Transport Ministry, just 7.3 percent of cables were laid underground as of March 2005.
The UK regulator Office of Gas and Electricity Markets permits transmission companies to recoup the cost of some undergrounding in their prices to consumers, the undergrounding must be in National Parks or designated Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty to qualify. The most visually intrusive overhead cables of the transmission network are excluded from the scheme. Some undergrounding projects are funded by the proceeds of the national lottery, all low and medium voltage electrical power in the Netherlands is now supplied underground. Other EU countries such as the UK and Germany are undergrounding a portion of their cables each year, in the United States, the California Public Utilities Commission Rule 20 permits the undergrounding of electrical power cables under certain situations
Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a federal republic in the southern half of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States, to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by Guatemala and the Caribbean Sea, and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost two million square kilometers, Mexico is the sixth largest country in the Americas by total area, Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and a federal district that is its capital and most populous city. Other metropolises include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana, pre-Columbian Mexico was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations, such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, Three centuries later, this territory became Mexico following recognition in 1821 after the colonys Mexican War of Independence. The tumultuous post-independence period was characterized by instability and many political changes.
The Mexican–American War led to the cession of the extensive northern borderlands, one-third of its territory. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, the dictatorship was overthrown in the Mexican Revolution of 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the countrys current political system. Mexico has the fifteenth largest nominal GDP and the eleventh largest by purchasing power parity, the Mexican economy is strongly linked to those of its North American Free Trade Agreement partners, especially the United States. Mexico was the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts. By 2050, Mexico could become the fifth or seventh largest economy. The country is considered both a power and middle power, and is often identified as an emerging global power. Due to its culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas.
Mexico is a country, ranking fourth in the world by biodiversity. In 2015 it was the 9th most visited country in the world, Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus and the Pacific Alliance. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, the Valley of Mexico, and its people, the Mexica and this became the future State of Mexico as a division of New Spain prior to independence. It is generally considered to be a toponym for the valley became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result. After New Spain won independence from Spain, representatives decided to name the new country after its capital and this was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan
Lomas de Chapultepec
Lomas de Chapultepec is a colonia, or officially recognized neighborhood, located in the Miguel Hidalgo borough of Mexico City. It dates back to the 1920s, when it was founded with the name Chapultepec Heights, home to some of the biggest mansions in the city and many high-net-worth individuals, it has gained a reputation of exclusivity. Its main entrance is through Paseo de la Reforma, in the early 1920s, Mexico City suffered a housing shortage as a result of internal migrants fleeing from uncertainty in the provinces caused by the Mexican Revolution. To meet demand, the Ayuntamientos of the Distrito Federal passed various city ordinances in order to make it easier for investors to develop urban subdivisions. A total of 26 to 32 colonias were built as a direct result, in September 28,1921 the corporation, Chapultepec Heights Company, was formed with the objective of developing the land acquired from the Hacienda de los Morales. The company was founded by five investors who were able to buy the 687 hectares of the ex-Hacienda for about one cent per square meter, in 1922, Chapultepec Heights was planned by José Luis Cuevas Pietrasanta in the Garden City fashion.
With large lots, large gardened yards, wide winding streets, gardened boulevards, the early settlers attracted to the area were young professionals and some of the nouveau riche revolutionaries and the new business class of Mexico City. Smaller homes were built on the streets while mostly large houses were built on Paseo de la Reforma and Paseo de Las Palmas. Most of the houses were built in the Colonial Californiano style, with stone carvings around windows and doors. Many of these homes are catalogued and protected by the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes as they have been deemed a cultural patrimony. Later on, Modern houses designed by architects such as Luis Barragán, Juan Sordo, Ricardo Legorreta. Many of the houses built during the era known as the Mexican Miracle are still standing, the colonia grew in size, being mostly inhabited by the upper class and wealthy immigrants that arrived in Mexico in the early 20th century. Today, Lomas de Chapultepec is inhabited by Mexican and foreign business professionals, politicians, in recent years commercial and business areas have developed on the edges of the neighborhood and there are various embassies located in the area.
Sales in the part of Mexico City, which includes luxury areas like Lomas de Chapultepec. The developed area was planted with a number and variety of trees. Combining for a population of 20,440 inhabitants in the colonia, interjet has its headquarters in Lomas de Chapultepec. Google Mexico has its headquarters there, private schools, The Westhill Institute has two campuses in Las Lomas and Carpatos. The Las Lomas campus of Peterson Schools is in Lomas de Chapultepec, the Plantel Lomas Kindergarten Prado Norte facility of the Campus Poniente/Campus West of the Colegio Alemán Alexander von Humboldt is located in Lomas de Chapultepec
Prague Castle is a castle complex in Prague, Czech Republic, dating from the 9th century. It is the residence of the President of the Czech Republic. The castle was a seat of power for kings of Bohemia, Holy Roman emperors, the Bohemian Crown Jewels are kept within a hidden room inside it. The castle is among the most visited tourist attractions in Prague attracting over 1.8 million visitors annually, the history of the castle began in 870 when its first walled building, the Church of the Virgin Mary, was built. The Basilica of Saint George and the Basilica of St. Vitus were founded under the reign of Vratislaus I, Duke of Bohemia, the first convent in Bohemia was founded in the castle, next to the church of St. George. A Romanesque palace was erected here during the 12th century, King Ottokar II of Bohemia improved fortifications and rebuilt the royal palace for the purposes of representation and housing. In the 14th century, under the reign of Charles IV the royal palace was rebuilt in Gothic style, in place of rotunda and basilica of St.
Vitus began building of a vast Gothic church, that were completed almost six centuries later. During the Hussite Wars and the decades, the castle was not inhabited. In 1485, King Ladislaus II Jagello began to rebuild the castle, the massive Vladislav Hall was added to the Royal Palace. New defence towers were built on the north side of the castle. A large fire in 1541 destroyed large parts of the castle, under the Habsburgs, some new buildings in Renaissance style were added. Ferdinand I built the Belvedere as a palace for his wife Anne. Rudolph II used Prague Castle as his main residence and he founded the northern wing of the palace, with the Spanish Hall, where his precious art collections were exhibited. The Second Prague defenestration in 1618 began the Bohemian Revolt, during the subsequent wars, the Castle was damaged and dilapidated. Many works from the collection of Rudolph II were looted by Swedes in 1648, the last major rebuilding of the castle was carried out by Empress Maria Theresa in the second half of the 18th century.
Following his abdication in 1848, and the succession of his nephew, Franz Joseph, to the throne, in 1918, the castle became the seat of the president of the new Czechoslovak Republic, T. G. The New Royal Palace and the gardens were renovated by Slovenian architect Jože Plečnik, in this period the St Vitus Cathedral was finished. Renovations continued in 1936 under Plečniks successor Pavel Janák, during the Nazi occupation of Czechoslovakia in World War II, Prague Castle became the headquarters of Reinhard Heydrich, the Reich Protector of Bohemia and Moravia
From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not de facto exist but its government-in-exile continued to operate. From 1948 to 1990, Czechoslovakia was part of the Soviet bloc with a command economy and its economic status was formalized in membership of Comecon from 1949, and its defense status in the Warsaw Pact of May 1955. A period of liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when the Soviet Union, assisted by several other Warsaw Pact countries. In 1993, Czechoslovakia split into the two states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Form of state 1918–1938, A democratic republic, 1938–1939, After annexation of Sudetenland by Nazi Germany in 1938, the region gradually turned into a state with loosened connections among the Czech and Ruthenian parts. A large strip of southern Slovakia and Carpatho-Ukraine was annexed by Hungary, 1939–1945, The region was split into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak Republic.
A government-in-exile continued to exist in London, supported by the United Kingdom, United States and its Allies, after the German invasion of Russia, Czechoslovakia adhered to the Declaration by United Nations and was a founding member of the United Nations. 1946–1948, The country was governed by a government with communist ministers, including the prime minister. Carpathian Ruthenia was ceded to the Soviet Union, 1948–1989, The country became a socialist state under Soviet domination with a centrally planned economy. In 1960, the country became a socialist republic, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. It was a state of the Soviet Union. 1989–1990, The federal republic consisted of the Czech Socialist Republic, 1990–1992, Following the Velvet Revolution, the state was renamed the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, consisting of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic. Neighbours Austria 1918–1938, 1945–1992 Germany Hungary Poland Romania 1918–1938 Soviet Union 1945–1991 Ukraine 1991–1992 Topography The country was of irregular terrain.
The western area was part of the north-central European uplands, the eastern region was composed of the northern reaches of the Carpathian Mountains and lands of the Danube River basin. Climate The weather is mild winters and mild summers, influenced by the Atlantic Ocean from the west, Baltic Sea from the north, and Mediterranean Sea from the south. The area was long a part of the Austro Hungarian Empire until the Empire collapsed at the end of World War I, the new state was founded by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, who served as its first president from 14 November 1918 to 14 December 1935. He was succeeded by his ally, Edvard Beneš. The roots of Czech nationalism go back to the 19th century, nationalism became a mass movement in the last half of the 19th century