The term cultivar most commonly refers to an assemblage of plants selected for desirable characteristics that are maintained during propagation. More generally, cultivar refers to the most basic classification category of cultivated plants governed by the ICNCP, most cultivars have arisen in cultivation, but a few are special selections from the wild. Popular ornamental garden plants like roses, daffodils, trees used in forestry are special selections grown for their enhanced quality and yield of timber. Cultivars form a part of Liberty Hyde Baileys broader grouping. Cultivar was coined by Bailey and it is regarded as a portmanteau of cultivated and variety. A cultivar is not the same as a variety, a taxonomic rank below subspecies. In recent times, the naming of cultivars has been complicated by the use of statutory plant patents, the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants offers legal protection of plant cultivars to people or organisations who introduce new cultivars to commerce. UPOV requires that a cultivar be distinct and stable, to be distinct, it must have characteristics that easily distinguish it from any other known cultivar.
To be uniform and stable, the cultivar must retain these characteristics under repeated propagation, a cultivar is given a cultivar name, which consists of the scientific Latin botanical name followed by a cultivar epithet. The cultivar epithet is usually in a vernacular language, for example, the full cultivar name of the King Edward potato is Solanum tuberosum King Edward. The King Edward part of the name is the cultivar epithet, the origin of the term cultivar arises from the need to distinguish between wild plants and those with characteristics that have arisen in cultivation. This distinction dates back to the Greek philosopher Theophrastus, the Father of Botany, botanical historian Alan Morton notes that Theophrastus in his Enquiry into Plants had an inkling of the limits of culturally induced changes and of the importance of genetic constitution. In Species Plantarum, Linnaeus listed all the known to him. Most of the listed by Linnaeus were of garden origin rather than being wild plants.
Over time there was an increasing need to distinguish between plants growing in the wild, and those with variations that had produced in cultivation. In the nineteenth century many garden-derived plants were given names, sometimes in Latin. In the twentieth century an improved international terminology was proposed for the classification and it is essentially the equivalent of the botanical variety except in respect to its origin. However, Bailey was never explicit about the etymology of the word, and it has suggested that it is a contraction of the words cultigen and variety
Populus is a genus of 25–35 species of deciduous flowering plants in the family Salicaceae, native to most of the Northern Hemisphere. English names variously applied to different species include poplar /ˈpɒp. lər/, aspen, in the September 2006 issue of Science Magazine, the Joint Genome Institute announced that the western balsam poplar was the first tree whose full DNA code had been determined by DNA sequencing. The genus has a genetic diversity, and can grow from 15–50 m tall. The shoots are stout, with the terminal bud present, leaf size is very variable even on a single tree, typically with small leaves on side shoots, and very large leaves on strong-growing lead shoots. The leaves often turn bright gold to yellow before they fall during autumn, the flowers are mostly dioecious and appear in early spring before the leaves. They are borne in long, sessile or pedunculate catkins produced from buds formed in the axils of the leaves of the previous year. The flowers are each seated in a disk which is borne on the base of a scale which is itself attached to the rachis of the catkin.
The scales are obovate and fringed, hairy or smooth, the female flower has no calyx or corolla, and comprises a single-celled ovary seated in a cup-shaped disk. The style is short, with two to four stigmata, variously lobed, and numerous ovules, pollination is by wind, with the female catkins lengthening considerably between pollination and maturity. Poplars of the section are often wetlands or riparian trees. The aspens are among the most important boreal broadleaf trees and aspens are important food plants for the larvae of a large number of Lepidoptera species. Pleurotus populinus, the oyster mushroom, is found exclusively on dead wood of Populus trees in North America. The genus Populus has traditionally divided into six sections on the basis of leaf and flower characters. Recent genetic studies have supported this, confirming some previously suspected reticulate evolution due to past hybridisation and introgression events between the groups. Some species had differing relationships indicated by their nuclear DNA and chloroplast DNA sequences and they have the advantage of growing to a very large size at a rapid pace.
Almost all poplars take root readily from cuttings or where broken branches lie on the ground, trees with fastigiate branching are particularly popular, and are widely grown across Europe and southwest Asia. Common poplar varieties are, G48 w22 The trees are grown from kalam or cuttings, harvested annually in January and February, most commonly used to make plywood, Yamuna Nagar in Haryana state has a large plywood industry reliant upon poplar. It is graded according to known as over, under
The LEnfant Plan for the city of Washington is the urban plan developed in 1791 by Major Pierre Charles LEnfant for George Washington, the first President of the United States. Major LEnfant was a French engineer who served in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, in 1789, when discussions were underway regarding a new federal capital city for the United States, LEnfant wrote to President Washington asking to be commissioned to plan the city. However, any decision on the capital was put on hold until July 1790 when Congress passed the Residence Act, included in the new district were the river port towns of Georgetown and Alexandria. LEnfant arrived in Georgetown on March 9,1791, and began his work, Washington arrived on March 28, to meet with LEnfant and the Commissioners for several days. On June 22, LEnfant presented his first plan for the city to the President. On August 19, he appended a new map to a letter that he sent to the President, President Washington retained a copy of one of LEnfants plans, showed it to the Congress, and gave it to the three Commissioners.
In this, they had the support of Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, with the aid of his brother, Benjamin Ellicott, revised the plan, despite LEnfants protests. Ellicotts revisions, which included the straightening of the longer avenues,15, created changes to the citys layout. Andrew Ellicott stated in his letters that, although he was refused the original plan and it is therefore possible that Ellicott recreated the plan. After LEnfant departed, Andrew Ellicott continued the city survey in accordance with the revised plan, as a result, Ellicotts revisions subsequently became the basis for the capital citys development. The work of André Le Nôtre, particularly his Gardens of Versailles, is said to have influenced LEnfant’s master plan for the capital, LEnfants Plan of the city intended for the permanent seat of the government of the United States. Encompassed an area bounded by the Potomac River, the Eastern Branch, the base of the escarpment of the Atlantic Seaboard Fall Line and his plan specified locations for two buildings, the Congress House and the Presidents House.
The Congress House would be built on Jenkins Hill, which LEnfant described as a pedestal awaiting a monument, the Presidents House would be situated on a ridge parallel to the Potomac River north of the mouth of Tiber Creek, which LEnfant proposed to canalize. LEnfant envisioned the Presidents House to have gardens and monumental architecture. Emphasizing the importance of the new legislature, the Congress House would be located on a longitude designated as 0,0. The plan specified that most streets would be out in a grid. To form the grid, some streets would travel in an east-west direction, diagonal broader avenues, named after the states of the Union, crossed the north/south-east/west grid. The diagonal avenues intersected with the north-south and east-west streets at circles and rectangular plazas that would honor notable Americans, a prominent geometric feature of LEnfants plan was a large right triangle whose hypotenuse was a wide avenue connecting the Presidents Houseand the Congress House
The term chapel usually refers to a place of prayer and worship that is attached to a larger, often nonreligious institution or that is considered an extension of a primary religious institution. Chapel has referred to independent or nonconformist places of worship in Great Britain—outside of the established church, the earliest Christian places of worship are now often referred to as chapels, as they were not dedicated buildings but rather a dedicated chamber within a building. Most larger churches had one or more secondary altars, which if they occupied a distinct space, in Russian Orthodox tradition, the chapels were built underneath city gates, where most people could visit them. The most famous example is the Iberian Chapel, although chapels frequently refer to Christian places of worship, they are commonly found in Jewish synagogues and do not necessarily connote a specific denomination. In England—where the Church of England is established by law—non-denominational or inter-faith chapels in such institutions may nonetheless be consecrated by the local Anglican bishop, non-denominational chapels are commonly encountered as part of a non-religious institution such as a hospital, university or prison.
Many military installations have chapels for the use of military personnel, the earliest Christian places of worship were not dedicated buildings but rather a dedicated chamber within a building, such as a room in an individuals home. Here one or two people could pray without being part of a communion/congregation, people who like to use chapels may find it peaceful and relaxing to be away from the stress of life, without other people moving around them. The word, like the word, chaplain, is ultimately derived from Latin. The other half he wore over his shoulders as a small cape, the beggar, the stories claim, was Christ in disguise, and Martin experienced a conversion of heart, becoming first a monk, bishop. This cape came into the possession of the Frankish kings, the tent which kept the cape was called the capella and the priests who said daily Mass in the tent were known as the capellani. From these words, via Old French, we get the names chapel, the word appears in the Irish language in the Middle Ages, as Welsh people came with the Norman and Old English invaders to the island of Ireland.
While the traditional Irish word for church was eaglais, a new word, séipéal, in British history, chapel or meeting house, was formerly the standard designation for church buildings belonging to independent or Nonconformist religious societies and their members. As a result, chapel is used as an adjective in the UK to describe the members of such churches. A proprietary chapel is one that belonged to a private person. In the 19th century they were common, often being built to cope with urbanisation, frequently they were set up by evangelical philanthropists with a vision of spreading Christianity in cities whose needs could no longer be met by the parishes. Some functioned more privately, with a wealthy person building a chapel so they could invite their favorite preachers and they are anomalies in the English ecclesiastical law, having no parish area, but being able to have an Anglican clergyman licensed there. Historically many Anglican Churches were Proprietary Chapels, over the years they have often been converted into normal Parishes.
While the usage of the chapel is not exclusively limited to Christian terminology
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany as well as one of its constituent 16 states. With a population of approximately 3.5 million, Berlin is the second most populous city proper, due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Around one-third of the area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers. Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world, following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all-Germany. Berlin is a city of culture, media. Its economy is based on high-tech firms and the sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations. Berlin serves as a hub for air and rail traffic and has a highly complex public transportation network. The metropolis is a popular tourist destination, significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics. Modern Berlin is home to world renowned universities, orchestras and its urban setting has made it a sought-after location for international film productions.
The city is known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts. Since 2000 Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene, the name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of todays Berlin, and may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl-. All German place names ending on -ow, -itz and -in, since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city. It is therefore a canting arm, the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century. Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920, the central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document,1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, and profited from the right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod.
In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, in 1415 Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. In 1443 Frederick II Irontooth started the construction of a new palace in the twin city Berlin-Cölln
A mansion is a large dwelling house. The word itself derives through Old French from the Latin word mansio dwelling, the English word manse originally defined a property large enough for the parish priest to maintain himself, but a mansion is no longer self-sustaining in this way. Manor comes from the same root—territorial holdings granted to a lord who would remain there—hence it is easy to see how the word Mansion came to have its meaning, within an ancient Roman city, patrician dwellings might be very extensive, and luxurious. Such mansions on one hill in Rome became so extensive that the term palatial was actually derived from the name Palatine hill and is the origin of palace. Following the fall of Rome the practice of building unfortified villas ceased, the oldest inhabited mansions around the world usually began their existence as fortified castles in the middle ages. As social conditions slowly changed and stabilised fortifications were able to be reduced and it became fashionable and possible for homes to be beautiful rather than grim and forbidding allowing for the development of the modern mansion.
In British English a mansion block refers to a block of flats or apartments designed for the appearance of grandeur, in many parts of Asia, including Hong Kong and Japan, the word mansion refers to a block of apartments. In Europe, from the 15th century onwards, a combination of politics, as a result, many were transformed into mansions without defences or demolished and rebuilt in a more modern, undefended style. Due to intermarriage and primogeniture inheritance amongst the aristocracy, it common for one noble to often own several country houses. These would be visited throughout the year as their owner pursued the social. Many owners of a house would own a town mansion in their countrys capital city. These town mansions were referred to as houses in London, hotels in Paris and it might be noted that sometimes the house of a clergyman was called a mansion house. This was a period of social change, as the educated prided themselves on enlightenment. The uses of these edifices paralleled that of the Roman villas and it was vital for powerful people and families to keep in social contact with each other as they were the primary moulders of society.
The rounds of visits and entertainments were a part of the societal process. State business was discussed and determined in informal settings. Times of revolution reversed this value, in the great houses of Italy, the number of retainers was often even greater than in England, whole families plus extended relations would often inhabit warrens of rooms in basements and attics. It is doubtful that a 19th-century Marchesa would even know the number of individuals who served her
In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only woody plants with secondary growth, plants that are usable as lumber or plants above a specified height. Trees are not a group but include a variety of plant species that have independently evolved a woody trunk. In looser senses, the palms, the tree ferns, bananas. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old, the tallest known tree, a coast redwood named Hyperion, stands 115.6 m high. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years and it is estimated that there are just over 3 trillion mature trees in the world. A tree typically has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground by the trunk and this trunk typically contains woody tissue for strength, and vascular tissue to carry materials from one part of the tree to another. For most trees it is surrounded by a layer of bark which serves as a protective barrier, below the ground, the roots branch and spread out widely, they serve to anchor the tree and extract moisture and nutrients from the soil.
Above ground, the divide into smaller branches and shoots. The shoots typically bear leaves, which light energy and convert it into sugars by photosynthesis, providing the food for the trees growth. Flowers and fruit may be present, but some trees, such as conifers, instead have pollen cones and seed cones, such as tree ferns, trees play a significant role in reducing erosion and moderating the climate. They remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store large quantities of carbon in their tissues and forests provide a habitat for many species of animals and plants. Tropical rainforests are one of the most biodiverse habitats in the world, trees provide shade and shelter, timber for construction, fuel for cooking and heating, and fruit for food as well as having many other uses. In parts of the world, forests are shrinking as trees are cleared to increase the amount of available for agriculture. Because of their longevity and usefulness, trees have always revered, with sacred groves in various cultures.
Although tree is a term of common parlance, there is no universally recognised precise definition of what a tree is, either botanically or in common language. In its broadest sense, a tree is any plant with the form of an elongated stem, or trunk. Trees are defined by height, with smaller plants from 0.5 to 10 m being called shrubs
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – known as the Empire of the Great Ming – for 276 years following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming, described by some as one of the greatest eras of orderly government, although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng, regimes loyal to the Ming throne – collectively called the Southern Ming – survived until 1683. He rewarded his supporters and employed them as a counterweight against the Confucian scholar-bureaucrats. One, Zheng He, led seven enormous voyages of exploration into the Indian Ocean as far as Arabia, the rise of new emperors and new factions diminished such extravagances, the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor during the 1449 Tumu Crisis ended them completely. The imperial navy was allowed to fall into disrepair while forced labor constructed the Liaodong palisade, haijin laws intended to protect the coasts from Japanese pirates instead turned many into smugglers and pirates themselves.
The growth of Portuguese and Dutch trade created new demand for Chinese products and produced an influx of Japanese. This abundance of specie remonetized the Ming economy, whose money had suffered repeated hyperinflation and was no longer trusted. While traditional Confucians opposed such a prominent role for commerce and the newly rich it created, combined with crop failure and epidemic, the dynasty collapsed before the rebel leader Li Zicheng, who was defeated by the Manchu-led Eight Banner armies who founded the Qing dynasty. The Mongol-led Yuan dynasty ruled before the establishment of the Ming dynasty, consequently and the economy were in shambles, and rebellion broke out among the hundreds of thousands of peasants called upon to work on repairing the dykes of the Yellow River. A number of Han Chinese groups revolted, including the Red Turbans in 1351, the Red Turbans were affiliated with the White Lotus, a Buddhist secret society. Zhu Yuanzhang was a peasant and Buddhist monk who joined the Red Turbans in 1352.
In 1356, Zhus rebel force captured the city of Nanjing, with the Yuan dynasty crumbling, competing rebel groups began fighting for control of the country and thus the right to establish a new dynasty. In 1363, Zhu Yuanzhang eliminated his archrival and leader of the rebel Han faction, Chen Youliang, in the Battle of Lake Poyang, arguably the largest naval battle in history. Known for its ambitious use of ships, Zhus force of 200,000 Ming sailors were able to defeat a Han rebel force over triple their size, claimed to be 650. The victory destroyed the last opposing rebel faction, leaving Zhu Yuanzhang in uncontested control of the bountiful Yangtze River Valley, Zhu Yuanzhang took Hongwu, or Vastly Martial, as his era name. Hongwu made an effort to rebuild state infrastructure. He built a 48 km long wall around Nanjing, as well as new palaces, Hongwu organized a military system known as the weisuo, which was similar to the fubing system of the Tang dynasty. With a growing suspicion of his ministers and subjects, Hongwu established the Jinyiwei, some 100,000 people were executed in a series of purges during his rule
Southern United States
The Southern United States, commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America. The South does not fully match the geographic south of the United States and New Mexico, which are geographically in the southern part of the country, are rarely considered part, while West Virginia, which separated from Virginia in 1863, commonly is. Some scholars have proposed definitions of the South that do not coincide neatly with state boundaries, while the states of Delaware and Maryland, as well as the District of Columbia permitted slavery prior to the start of the Civil War, they remained with the Union. However, the United States Census Bureau puts them in the South, the South is defined as including the southeastern and south-central United States. The region is known for its culture and history, having developed its own customs, musical styles, and cuisines, the Southern ethnic heritage is diverse and includes strong European and some Native American components.
Since the late 1960s, black people have many offices in Southern states, especially in the coastal states of Virginia. Historically, the South relied heavily on agriculture, and was rural until after 1945. It has since become more industrialized and urban and has attracted national and international migrants, the American South is now among the fastest-growing areas in the United States. Houston is the largest city in the Southern United States, sociological research indicates that Southern collective identity stems from political and cultural distinctiveness from the rest of the United States. The region contains almost all of the Bible Belt, an area of high Protestant church attendance and predominantly conservative, studies have shown that Southerners are more conservative than non-Southerners in several areas, including religion, international relations and race relations. Apart from its climate, the experience in the South increasingly resembles the rest of the nation. The arrival of millions of Northerners and millions of Hispanics meant the introduction of cultural values, the process has worked both ways, with aspects of Southern culture spreading throughout a greater portion of the rest of the United States in a process termed Southernization.
The question of how to define the subregions in the South has been the focus of research for nearly a century, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, the Southern region of the United States includes sixteen states. As of 2010, an estimated 114,555,744 people, or thirty-seven percent of all U. S. residents, lived in the South, the nations most populous region. Other terms related to the South include, The Old South, the New South, usually including the South Atlantic States. The Solid South, region largely controlled by the Democratic Party from 1877 to 1964, before that, blacks were elected to national office and many to local office through the 1880s, Populist-Republican coalitions gained victories for Fusionist candidates for governors in the 1890s. Includes at least all the 11 former Confederate States, Southeastern United States, usually including the Carolinas, the Virginias, Kentucky, Alabama and Florida. The Deep South, various definitions, usually including Louisiana, Mississippi, occasionally, parts of adjoining states are included
Aesculus hippocastanum is a species of flowering plant in the soapberry and lychee family Sapindaceae. It is a deciduous, synoecious tree, commonly known as horse-chestnut or conker tree. Aesculus hippocastanum is a tree, growing to about 39 metres tall with a domed crown of stout branches. The leaves are opposite and palmately compound, with 5–7 leaflets, each leaflet is 13–30 cm long, making the leaf up to 60 cm across. The leaf scars left on twigs after the leaves have fallen have a horseshoe shape. The flowers are white with a yellow to pink blotch at the base of the petals. Usually only 1–5 fruit develop on each panicle, the shell is a green, each conker is 2–4 cm diameter, glossy nut-brown with a whitish scar at the base. Aesculus hippocastanum is native to an area in the Pindus Mountains mixed forests. However, it can be found in parts of Europe as far north as Gästrikland in Sweden, as well as in many parks and cities in the United States. In Britain and Ireland, the seeds are used for the childrens game conkers.
During the First World War, there was a campaign to ask for everyone to collect horse-chestnuts, weizmanns process could use any source of starch, but the government chose to ask for conkers to avoid causing starvation by depleting food sources. But conkers were found to be a source, and the factory only produced acetone for three months, they were collected again in World War II for the same reason. The seeds, especially those that are young and fresh, are poisonous, containing alkaloid saponins. Although not dangerous to touch, they cause sickness when eaten, consumed by horses, they can cause tremors, though the seeds are said to repel spiders there is little evidence to support these claims. The presence of saponin may repel insects but it is not clear whether this is effective on spiders, horse-chestnuts have been threatened by the leaf-mining moth Cameraria ohridella, whose larvae feed on horse chestnut leaves. The moth was described from Macedonia where the species was discovered in 1984, the flower is the symbol of the city of Kiev, capital of Ukraine.
Although the horse-chestnut is sometimes known as the buckeye, this name is reserved for the New World members of the Aesculus genus. In Germany, horse-chestnuts are often found in gardens, particularly in Bavaria
Hobbema was born and died in Amsterdam. Son of a carpenter named Lubbert Meyndertsz, he adopted the surname Hobbema quite early on and his signed pictures come from 1658 to 1689. For a considerable period it was profitable to pass Hobbemas as Ruisdaels, meindert Hobbema was married at the age of thirty to Eeltije Vinck of Gorcum, who was his serving maid, in the Oude Kerk at Amsterdam, on 2 November 1668. Witnesses to the marriage were the brides brother Cornelius Vinck and Jacob Ruisdael, of Hobbemas marriage there came between 1668 and 1673 four children. In 1704 Eeltije died, and was buried in the section of the Leiden cemetery at Amsterdam. Hobbema himself survived till December 1709, receiving burial on the 14th of that month in the section of the Westerkerk cemetery at Amsterdam. Husband and wife had lived during their lifetime in the Rozengracht, at no great distance from Rembrandt, Hals, Jacob Ruysdael, and Hobbema were in one respect alike. They all died in misery, insufficiently rewarded perhaps for their toil, posterity has recognised that Hobbema and Ruisdael together represent the final development of landscape art in Holland.
De Vries, Cornelis Gerritsz Decker, Jan Looten, Adriaen Hendriksz Verboom, Guillam Dubois, Jan van Kessel, in the exercise of his craft Hobbema was patient beyond all conception. It is doubtful whether any one ever so completely mastered as he did the life of woods and hedges. If the chance be given him he mirrors all these things in the pool near a cottage. The same spot will furnish him with several pictures and it has been said that Hobbema did not paint his own figures, but transferred that duty to Adriaen van de Velde, Barend Gael, and Abraham Storck. As to this much is conjecture, the best of Hobbemas dated pictures are those of the years 1640 to 1642. Of the former, several in the galleries of Brussels and St Petersburg, of several pieces in the National Gallery, including the Avenue at Middelharnis, which some assign to 1689, and the Ruins of Brederode Castle, two are dated 1667. A sample of the last of these years is in the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge, there are other fine Hobbemas in the Antwerp Museum and the Scottish National Gallery.
In 1891 a hamlet in Alberta was called Hobbema after the painter, on 1 January 2014 the name was changed to Maskwacis on request of the native Cree who live in the area. The landscape and pastoral painters of Holland pp. 39–62 and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Hobbema, Meyndert. Hobbema online Web Gallery of Art Works and literature at PubHist Hobbema biography A monumental Hobbema A Pond in the Forest,1868 The Avenue at Middelharnis