Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts, Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. In North America, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology, archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology, Archaeology is particularly important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world, Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
The discipline involves surveying and eventually analysis of data collected to learn more about the past, in broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Nonetheless, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, the science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts. Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, in Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Antiquarians, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, one of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England.
John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other monuments in southern England. He was ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings and he attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture and shield-shapes. Excavations were carried out in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum and these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and even human shapes, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard, the importance of concepts such as stratification and context were overlooked. The father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington and he undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798, funded by Sir Richard Colt Hoare. Cunnington made meticulous recordings of neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, one of the major achievements of 19th century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy.
The idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton, the application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites
A gazebo is a pavilion structure, sometimes octagonal or turret-shaped, often built in a park, garden or spacious public area. Gazebos are freestanding or attached to a wall, roofed. They provide shade, ornamental features in a landscape, some gazebos in public parks are large enough to serve as bandstands or rain shelters. Gazebos include pavilions, alhambras, follies, such structures are popular in warm and sunny climates. They feature in the literature of China and many other classical civilizations, examples of such structures are the garden houses at Montacute House in Somerset, England. The gazebo at Elton on the Hill in Nottinghamshire, thought to date from the late 18th or early 19th century, is a square crenelated, brick and it is part of an extensive system of red-brick walled gardens. In contemporary England and North America, gazebos are typically built of wood and covered with roofing materials. Gazebos can be tent-style structures of poles covered by tensioned fabric, gazebos may have screens to aid in the exclusion of flying insects.
Temporary gazebos are often set up in the campsites of music festivals in the United Kingdom and North America, the etymology given by Oxford Dictionaries is Mid 18th century, perhaps humorously from gaze, in imitation of Latin future tenses ending in -ebo, compare with lavabo. L. L. Bacon put forward a derivation from Casbah, W. Sayers proposed Hispano-Arabic qushaybah, in a poem by Cordoban poet Ibn Quzman. The word gazebo was used by British architects John and William Halfpenny in their book Rural Architecture in the Chinese Taste, george Washington had a small eight-sided garden structure at Mount Vernon. Thomas Jefferson wrote about gazebos, called summerhouses or pavilions, although it is often referred to as a gazebo, the iconic structure from the 1965 film The Sound of Music is a greenhouse. Eric and the Dread Gazebo Bandstand Spring House Gazebo Chickee Chinese pavilion
Tilia is a genus of about 30 species of trees native throughout most of the temperate Northern Hemisphere. Commonly called lime trees in the British Isles, they are not related to the lime fruit, other names include linden, and basswood for the North American species. The genus occurs in Europe and eastern North America, but the greatest species diversity is found in Asia, Tilia species are mostly large, deciduous trees, reaching typically 20 to 40 metres tall, with oblique-cordate leaves 6 to 20 centimetres across. As with elms, the number of species is uncertain, as many if not most of the species will hybridise readily. Limes are hermaphroditic, having perfect flowers with male and female parts, pollinated by insects. The genus is called lime or linden in Britain and linden, lime. Within Germanic languages, English lithe, German lind lenient, yielding are from the same root, neither the name nor the tree is related to the citrus fruit called lime. Another common name used in North America is basswood, derived from bast, teil is an old name for the lime tree.
Latin tilia is cognate to Greek πτελέᾱ, elm tree, τιλίαι, black poplar, ultimately from a Proto-Indo-European word *ptel-ei̯ā with a meaning of broad, perhaps broad-leaved or similar. The Tilias sturdy trunk stands like a pillar and the divide and subdivide into numerous ramifications on which the twigs are fine. In summer, these are profusely clothed with large leaves and the result is a head of abundant foliage. The flowers of the European and American Tilia species are similar, except the American bears a petal-like scale among its stamens, all of the Tilia species may be propagated by cuttings and grafting, as well as by seed. They grow rapidly in rich soil, but are subject to the attack of many insects, Tilia is notoriously difficult to propagate from seed unless collected fresh in the fall. If allowed to dry, the seeds will go into a deep dormancy, cars left under the trees can quickly become coated with a film of the syrup thus dropped from higher up. The ant/aphid farming process does not appear to any serious damage to the trees.
In Europe, some linden trees reached considerable ages, a coppice of T. cordata in Westonbirt Arboretum in Gloucestershire is estimated to be 2,000 years old. In the courtyard of the Imperial Castle at Nuremberg is a Tilia which, by tradition recounted in 1900, was planted by the Empress Cunigunde, the Tilia of Neuenstadt am Kocher in Baden-Württemberg, was estimated at 1000 years old when it fell. The Alte Linde tree of Naters, Switzerland, is mentioned in a document in 1357, a plaque at its foot mentions that in 1155 a linden tree was already on this spot
Populus is a genus of 25–35 species of deciduous flowering plants in the family Salicaceae, native to most of the Northern Hemisphere. English names variously applied to different species include poplar /ˈpɒp. lər/, aspen, in the September 2006 issue of Science Magazine, the Joint Genome Institute announced that the western balsam poplar was the first tree whose full DNA code had been determined by DNA sequencing. The genus has a genetic diversity, and can grow from 15–50 m tall. The shoots are stout, with the terminal bud present, leaf size is very variable even on a single tree, typically with small leaves on side shoots, and very large leaves on strong-growing lead shoots. The leaves often turn bright gold to yellow before they fall during autumn, the flowers are mostly dioecious and appear in early spring before the leaves. They are borne in long, sessile or pedunculate catkins produced from buds formed in the axils of the leaves of the previous year. The flowers are each seated in a disk which is borne on the base of a scale which is itself attached to the rachis of the catkin.
The scales are obovate and fringed, hairy or smooth, the female flower has no calyx or corolla, and comprises a single-celled ovary seated in a cup-shaped disk. The style is short, with two to four stigmata, variously lobed, and numerous ovules, pollination is by wind, with the female catkins lengthening considerably between pollination and maturity. Poplars of the section are often wetlands or riparian trees. The aspens are among the most important boreal broadleaf trees and aspens are important food plants for the larvae of a large number of Lepidoptera species. Pleurotus populinus, the oyster mushroom, is found exclusively on dead wood of Populus trees in North America. The genus Populus has traditionally divided into six sections on the basis of leaf and flower characters. Recent genetic studies have supported this, confirming some previously suspected reticulate evolution due to past hybridisation and introgression events between the groups. Some species had differing relationships indicated by their nuclear DNA and chloroplast DNA sequences and they have the advantage of growing to a very large size at a rapid pace.
Almost all poplars take root readily from cuttings or where broken branches lie on the ground, trees with fastigiate branching are particularly popular, and are widely grown across Europe and southwest Asia. Common poplar varieties are, G48 w22 The trees are grown from kalam or cuttings, harvested annually in January and February, most commonly used to make plywood, Yamuna Nagar in Haryana state has a large plywood industry reliant upon poplar. It is graded according to known as over, under
French formal garden
The French formal garden, called the jardin à la française, is a style of garden based on symmetry and the principle of imposing order on nature. The Garden à la française evolved from the French Renaissance garden, the gardens were designed to represent harmony and order, the ideals of the Renaissance, and to recall the virtues of Ancient Rome. His successor Henry II, who had traveled to Italy and had met Leonardo da Vinci. The Château de Chenonceau had two gardens in the new style, one created for Diane de Poitiers in 1551, in 1536 the architect Philibert de lOrme, upon his return from Rome, created the gardens of the Château dAnet following the Italian rules of proportion. The different parts of the gardens were not harmoniously joined together, all this was to change in the middle of the 17th century with the development of the first real Garden à la française. The first important garden à la française was the Chateau of Vaux-le-Vicomte, created by Nicolas Fouquet, Fouquet commissioned Louis Le Vau to design the chateau, Charles Le Brun to design statues for the garden, and André Le Nôtre to create the gardens.
For the first time, that garden and the chateau were perfectly integrated, the symmetry attained at Vaux achieved a degee of perfection and unity rarely equalled in the art of classic gardens. The chateau is at the center of this spatial organization which symbolizes power. The Gardens of Versailles, created by André Le Nôtre between 1662 and 1700, were the greatest achievement of the Garden à la francaise. The central symbol of the Garden was the sun, the emblem of Louis XIV, the views and perspectives, to and from the palace, continued to infinity. The king ruled over nature, recreating in the not only his domination of his territories. Andre Le Nôtre died in 1700, but his pupils and his ideas continued to dominate the design of gardens in France through the reign of Louis XV. The major inspiration for gardens continued to be architecture, rather than nature – the architect Ange-Jacques Gabriel designed elements of the gardens at Versailles, nonetheless, a few variations in the strict geometry of the garden à la française began to appear.
Elaborate parterres of broderies, with their curves and counter-curves, were replaced by parterres of grass bordered with flowerbeds, circles became ovals, called rotules, with alleys radiating outward in the shape of an x, and irregular octagon shapes appeared. Gardens began to follow the landscape, rather than moving earth to shape the ground into artificial terraces. Jacques Boyceau, sieur de la Barauderie the superintendent of royal gardens under Louis XIII and his book, Traité du jardinage selon les raisons de la nature et de lart. Ensemble divers desseins de parterres, bosquets et autres ornements was published after his death in 1638, claude Mollet, was the chief gardener of three French Kings, Henry IV, Louis XIII and the young Louis XIV. The gardens he created became the symbols of French grandeur and rationality, joseph-Antoine Dezallier dArgenville wrote Theorie et traite de jardinage, laid out the principles of the Garden à la francaise, and included drawings and designs of gardens and parterres
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany as well as one of its constituent 16 states. With a population of approximately 3.5 million, Berlin is the second most populous city proper, due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Around one-third of the area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers. Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world, following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all-Germany. Berlin is a city of culture, media. Its economy is based on high-tech firms and the sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations. Berlin serves as a hub for air and rail traffic and has a highly complex public transportation network. The metropolis is a popular tourist destination, significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics. Modern Berlin is home to world renowned universities, orchestras and its urban setting has made it a sought-after location for international film productions.
The city is known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts. Since 2000 Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene, the name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of todays Berlin, and may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl-. All German place names ending on -ow, -itz and -in, since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city. It is therefore a canting arm, the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century. Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920, the central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document,1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, and profited from the right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod.
In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, in 1415 Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. In 1443 Frederick II Irontooth started the construction of a new palace in the twin city Berlin-Cölln
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – known as the Empire of the Great Ming – for 276 years following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming, described by some as one of the greatest eras of orderly government, although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng, regimes loyal to the Ming throne – collectively called the Southern Ming – survived until 1683. He rewarded his supporters and employed them as a counterweight against the Confucian scholar-bureaucrats. One, Zheng He, led seven enormous voyages of exploration into the Indian Ocean as far as Arabia, the rise of new emperors and new factions diminished such extravagances, the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor during the 1449 Tumu Crisis ended them completely. The imperial navy was allowed to fall into disrepair while forced labor constructed the Liaodong palisade, haijin laws intended to protect the coasts from Japanese pirates instead turned many into smugglers and pirates themselves.
The growth of Portuguese and Dutch trade created new demand for Chinese products and produced an influx of Japanese. This abundance of specie remonetized the Ming economy, whose money had suffered repeated hyperinflation and was no longer trusted. While traditional Confucians opposed such a prominent role for commerce and the newly rich it created, combined with crop failure and epidemic, the dynasty collapsed before the rebel leader Li Zicheng, who was defeated by the Manchu-led Eight Banner armies who founded the Qing dynasty. The Mongol-led Yuan dynasty ruled before the establishment of the Ming dynasty, consequently and the economy were in shambles, and rebellion broke out among the hundreds of thousands of peasants called upon to work on repairing the dykes of the Yellow River. A number of Han Chinese groups revolted, including the Red Turbans in 1351, the Red Turbans were affiliated with the White Lotus, a Buddhist secret society. Zhu Yuanzhang was a peasant and Buddhist monk who joined the Red Turbans in 1352.
In 1356, Zhus rebel force captured the city of Nanjing, with the Yuan dynasty crumbling, competing rebel groups began fighting for control of the country and thus the right to establish a new dynasty. In 1363, Zhu Yuanzhang eliminated his archrival and leader of the rebel Han faction, Chen Youliang, in the Battle of Lake Poyang, arguably the largest naval battle in history. Known for its ambitious use of ships, Zhus force of 200,000 Ming sailors were able to defeat a Han rebel force over triple their size, claimed to be 650. The victory destroyed the last opposing rebel faction, leaving Zhu Yuanzhang in uncontested control of the bountiful Yangtze River Valley, Zhu Yuanzhang took Hongwu, or Vastly Martial, as his era name. Hongwu made an effort to rebuild state infrastructure. He built a 48 km long wall around Nanjing, as well as new palaces, Hongwu organized a military system known as the weisuo, which was similar to the fubing system of the Tang dynasty. With a growing suspicion of his ministers and subjects, Hongwu established the Jinyiwei, some 100,000 people were executed in a series of purges during his rule
Hobbema was born and died in Amsterdam. Son of a carpenter named Lubbert Meyndertsz, he adopted the surname Hobbema quite early on and his signed pictures come from 1658 to 1689. For a considerable period it was profitable to pass Hobbemas as Ruisdaels, meindert Hobbema was married at the age of thirty to Eeltije Vinck of Gorcum, who was his serving maid, in the Oude Kerk at Amsterdam, on 2 November 1668. Witnesses to the marriage were the brides brother Cornelius Vinck and Jacob Ruisdael, of Hobbemas marriage there came between 1668 and 1673 four children. In 1704 Eeltije died, and was buried in the section of the Leiden cemetery at Amsterdam. Hobbema himself survived till December 1709, receiving burial on the 14th of that month in the section of the Westerkerk cemetery at Amsterdam. Husband and wife had lived during their lifetime in the Rozengracht, at no great distance from Rembrandt, Hals, Jacob Ruysdael, and Hobbema were in one respect alike. They all died in misery, insufficiently rewarded perhaps for their toil, posterity has recognised that Hobbema and Ruisdael together represent the final development of landscape art in Holland.
De Vries, Cornelis Gerritsz Decker, Jan Looten, Adriaen Hendriksz Verboom, Guillam Dubois, Jan van Kessel, in the exercise of his craft Hobbema was patient beyond all conception. It is doubtful whether any one ever so completely mastered as he did the life of woods and hedges. If the chance be given him he mirrors all these things in the pool near a cottage. The same spot will furnish him with several pictures and it has been said that Hobbema did not paint his own figures, but transferred that duty to Adriaen van de Velde, Barend Gael, and Abraham Storck. As to this much is conjecture, the best of Hobbemas dated pictures are those of the years 1640 to 1642. Of the former, several in the galleries of Brussels and St Petersburg, of several pieces in the National Gallery, including the Avenue at Middelharnis, which some assign to 1689, and the Ruins of Brederode Castle, two are dated 1667. A sample of the last of these years is in the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge, there are other fine Hobbemas in the Antwerp Museum and the Scottish National Gallery.
In 1891 a hamlet in Alberta was called Hobbema after the painter, on 1 January 2014 the name was changed to Maskwacis on request of the native Cree who live in the area. The landscape and pastoral painters of Holland pp. 39–62 and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Hobbema, Meyndert. Hobbema online Web Gallery of Art Works and literature at PubHist Hobbema biography A monumental Hobbema A Pond in the Forest,1868 The Avenue at Middelharnis
A boulevard, often abbreviated Blvd, is a type of large road, usually running through a city. It is a misconception that every boulevard has a median. Phnom Penh has numerous boulevards scattered throughout the city, norodom Boulevard, Sisowath Boulevard, Monivong Boulevard, and Sothearos Boulevard are the most famous. Indira Gandhi Sarani, formerly Red Road, is a road in Kolkata that runs from Raj Bhavan to Fort William, the road, a wide boulevard, was built in 1820 which bisects the historic Kolkata Maidan. The British authorities during colonial era intended for the road to be able to host large parades, the name Red Road was given due to its surfacing. During the Second World War, the road, in the heart of Kolkata, the annual Kolkata Marathon starts from outside the Rangers Club on Red Road. The name Indira Gandhi Sarani was adopted in 1985, mumbais Marine Drive is a 4.3 km long C shaped coastal road located in South Mumbai along the Arabian Sea. It is called the Queens Necklace because if the stretch is viewed from an elevated point, a promenade lies parallel to the road.
It is one of the major tourist attractions in Mumbai, the Gateway of India is located just 1.7 km away from Marine Drive. Though rarely used, Marine Drives official name is Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Marg, local residents use it for morning exercises as well. It is popular among youths who come here to enjoy the splash of water during high tide, New Delhis premier boulevard is the Rajpath, which is a thoroughfare. New Delhi being the capital, many such thoroughfares were built widely to sustain the exploding traffic growth that New Delhi. Rajpath, a tree lined road with ponds and fountains, was designed, along with Janpath, various national events such as Independence Day parades and Republic Day parades among many others take place over here annually. Hyderabads Necklace Road is a boulevard adjoining the Hussain Sagar lake, in Chennai, the major road is the Mount Road. Another boulevard is Radakrishnan Salai, called Cathedral Road, which is in Chennai in Tamil Nadu State in Southern India along the Bay of Bengal.
In Iran, Boulevard is generally defined as a road surrounded by trees in sides and divided by a green space line including grass. There are many boulevards in Iran, one of the most famous one is Keshavarz Boulevard in Tehran which is usually referred to as The Boulevard. Isfahan has a historical boulevard which is called Chaharbagh Boulevard, Tel Aviv, was originally designed along the guidelines set out by architect Sir Patrick Geddes
Landscape design is an independent profession and a design and art tradition, practised by landscape designers, combining nature and culture. In contemporary practice, landscape design bridges the space between landscape architecture and garden design, Landscape design focuses on both the integrated master landscape planning of a property and the specific garden design of landscape elements and plants within it. The practical, aesthetic and environmental sustainability are components of landscape design and it is often divided into hardscape design and softscape design. Landscape designers often collaborate with related disciplines such as architecture and geography and civil engineering, landscape contracting, design projects may involve two different professional roles, landscape design and landscape architecture. There can be significant overlap of talent and skill between the two roles, depending on the education and experience of the professional, both landscape designers and landscape architects practice landscape design.
There are innumerable other design factors and considerations brought to the process of designing a garden that is beautiful, well-functioning. The professional section of garden designers in Europe and the Americas went by the name Landscape Gardener, in the 1890s, the distinct classification of landscape architect was created, with educational and licensing test requirements for using the title legally. Beatrix Farrand, the woman in the founding group, refused the title preferring Landscape Gardener. Matching the client and technical needs of a project, and the practitioner with talent, legal qualifications. Institutional education in landscape design appeared in the early 20th century, over time it became available at various levels. Departments of landscape architecture are located within university schools of architecture or environmental design and minors are available in horticultural botany, natural resources, landscape engineering, construction management and applied arts, and landscape design history.
Traditionally, hand drawn drawings documented the design and position of features for construction, many landscape designers have an interest and involvement with gardening, personally or professionally. Some integrate this scope with their practice, informally or as licensed landscape contractors. Gardens are dynamic and not static after construction and planting are completed, involvement with landscape management and direction of ongoing garden direction and care depend on the professionals and clients needs and inclinations. As with the other interrelated landscape disciplines, there can be overlap of services offered under the titles of landscape designer or professional gardener, garden design Landscape architecture Landscape assessment Landscape design history Landscape planning Space in landscape design Concrete landscape curbing
The style began around 1600 in Rome and Italy, and spread to most of Europe. The aristocracy viewed the dramatic style of Baroque art and architecture as a means of impressing visitors by projecting triumph, Baroque palaces are built around an entrance of courts, grand staircases, and reception rooms of sequentially increasing opulence. However, baroque has a resonance and application that extend beyond a reduction to either a style or period. It is yields the Italian barocco and modern Spanish barroco, German Barock, Dutch Barok, others derive it from the mnemonic term Baroco, a supposedly laboured form of syllogism in logical Scholastica. The Latin root can be found in bis-roca, in informal usage, the word baroque can simply mean that something is elaborate, with many details, without reference to the Baroque styles of the 17th and 18th centuries. The word Baroque, like most periodic or stylistic designations, was invented by critics rather than practitioners of the arts in the 17th, the term Baroque was initially used in a derogatory sense, to underline the excesses of its emphasis.
In particular, the term was used to describe its eccentric redundancy and noisy abundance of details, although it was long thought that the word as a critical term was first applied to architecture, in fact it appears earlier in reference to music. Another hypothesis says that the word comes from precursors of the style, Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola and he did not make the distinctions between Mannerism and Baroque that modern writers do, and he ignored the phase, the academic Baroque that lasted into the 18th century. Long despised, Baroque art and architecture became fashionable between the two World Wars, and has remained in critical favour. In painting the gradual rise in popular esteem of Caravaggio has been the best barometer of modern taste, William Watson describes a late phase of Shang-dynasty Chinese ritual bronzes of the 11th century BC as baroque. The term Baroque may still be used, usually pejoratively, describing works of art, the appeal of Baroque style turned consciously from the witty, intellectual qualities of 16th-century Mannerist art to a visceral appeal aimed at the senses.
It employed an iconography that was direct, obvious, germinal ideas of the Baroque can be found in the work of Michelangelo. Even more generalised parallels perceived by some experts in philosophy, prose style, see the Neapolitan palace of Caserta, a Baroque palace whose construction began in 1752. In paintings Baroque gestures are broader than Mannerist gestures, less ambiguous, less arcane and mysterious, more like the stage gestures of opera, Baroque poses depend on contrapposto, the tension within the figures that move the planes of shoulders and hips in counterdirections. Baroque is a style of unity imposed upon rich, heavy detail, Baroque style featured exaggerated lighting, intense emotions, release from restraint, and even a kind of artistic sensationalism. There were highly diverse strands of Italian baroque painting, from Caravaggio to Cortona, the most prominent Spanish painter of the Baroque was Diego Velázquez. The Baroque style gradually gave way to a more decorative Rococo, while the Baroque nature of Rembrandts art is clear, the label is less often used for Vermeer and many other Dutch artists.
Flemish Baroque painting shared a part in this trend, while continuing to produce the traditional categories