Bay Parkway (IND Culver Line)
Bay Parkway is a local station on the IND Culver Line of the New York City Subway, located in Midwood, Brooklyn at the intersection of Bay Parkway and McDonald Avenue above Washington Cemetery. It is served by the F train at all times; this elevated station, opened on March 16, 1919, has two side platforms and three tracks with the center one not used. Both platforms have beige windscreens and brown canopies with green frames in the center and waist-high black steel fences at either ends; the station signs are in the standard black with white helvetica font. From June 7, 2016, to May 1, 2017, the southbound platform at this station was closed for renovations; the Manhattan-bound platform was closed for a longer period of time, from May 22, 2017 until July 30, 2018. This station's only entrance is an elevated station house beneath the tracks, it has two staircases to each platform at their centers, waiting area, turnstile bank, token booth, three street stairs. Two of those stairs go down to either northwest corner of McDonald Avenue and Bay Parkway while the third goes down to the southeast corner.
Both station house balconies have emergency exit doors between the platform stairs and street stairs. Nycsubway.org – BMT Culver Line: Bay Parkway Station Reporter — F Train The Subway Nut — Bay Parkway Pictures Bay Parkway entrance from Google Maps Street View Platforms from Google Maps Street View Platforms from Google Maps Street View
Avenue P (IND Culver Line)
Avenue P is a local station on the IND Culver Line of the New York City Subway. It is served by the F train at all times; this elevated station, opened on March 16, 1919, has two side platforms and three tracks with the center track not used. From June 7, 2016 to May 8, 2017, the Coney Island-bound platform of this station was closed for renovations as part of a $140 million renewal project on the Culver Line; the Manhattan-bound platform was closed for a longer period of time, from May 22, 2017 until July 30, 2018. The station has a full-time mezzanine at McDonald Avenue, it has six staircases: two to the northeast and southwest corners of that intersection, two to each platform. There is a station facility constructed inside the mezzanine on the Manhattan-bound side, giving evidence that there was a third staircase, removed at the southeast corner of McDonald Avenue and Avenue P. nycsubway.org – BMT Culver Line: Avenue P Station Reporter — F Train The Subway Nut — Avenue P Pictures Avenue P entrance from Google Maps Street View Platforms from Google Maps Street View
Rapid transit or mass rapid transit known as heavy rail, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport found in urban areas. Unlike buses or trams, rapid transit systems are electric railways that operate on an exclusive right-of-way, which cannot be accessed by pedestrians or other vehicles of any sort, and, grade separated in tunnels or on elevated railways. Modern services on rapid transit systems are provided on designated lines between stations using electric multiple units on rail tracks, although some systems use guided rubber tires, magnetic levitation, or monorail; the stations have high platforms, without steps inside the trains, requiring custom-made trains in order to minimize gaps between train and platform. They are integrated with other public transport and operated by the same public transport authorities. However, some rapid transit systems have at-grade intersections between a rapid transit line and a road or between two rapid transit lines.
It is unchallenged in its ability to transport large numbers of people over short distances with little to no use of land. The world's first rapid transit system was the underground Metropolitan Railway which opened as a conventional railway in 1863, now forms part of the London Underground. In 1868, New York opened the elevated West Side and Yonkers Patent Railway a cable-hauled line using static steam engines. China has the largest number of rapid transit systems in the world at 31, with over 4,500 km of lines and is responsible for most of the world's rapid transit expansion in the past decade; the world's longest single-operator rapid transit system by route length is the Shanghai Metro. The world's largest single rapid transit service provider by number of stations is the New York City Subway; the busiest rapid transit systems in the world by annual ridership are the Tokyo subway system, the Seoul Metropolitan Subway, the Moscow Metro, the Beijing Subway, the Shanghai Metro, the Guangzhou Metro, the New York City Subway, the Mexico City Metro, the Paris Métro, the Hong Kong MTR.
Metro is the most common term for underground rapid transit systems used by non-native English speakers. Rapid transit systems may be named after the medium by which passengers travel in busy central business districts. One of these terms may apply to an entire system if a large part of the network runs at ground level. In most of Britain, a subway is a pedestrian underpass. In Scotland, the Glasgow Subway underground rapid transit system is known as the Subway. In most of North America, underground mass transit systems are known as subways; the term metro is a shortened reference to a metropolitan area. Chicago's commuter rail system that serves the entire metropolitan area is called Metra, while its rapid transit system that serves the city is called the "L". Rapid transit systems such as the Washington Metro, Los Angeles Metro Rail, the Miami Metrorail, the Montreal Metro are called the Metro; the opening of London's steam-hauled Metropolitan Railway in 1863 marked the beginning of rapid transit.
Initial experiences with steam engines, despite ventilation, were unpleasant. Experiments with pneumatic railways failed in their extended adoption by cities. Electric traction was more efficient and cleaner than steam and the natural choice for trains running in tunnels and proved superior for elevated services. In 1890 the City & South London Railway was the first electric-traction rapid transit railway, fully underground. Prior to opening the line was to be called the "City and South London Subway", thus introducing the term Subway into railway terminology. Both railways, alongside others, were merged into London Underground; the 1893 Liverpool Overhead Railway was designed to use electric traction from the outset. The technology spread to other cities in Europe, the United States and Canada, with some railways being converted from steam and others being designed to be electric from the outset. Budapest, Chicago and New York all converted or purpose-designed and built electric rail services.
Advancements in technology have allowed new automated services. Hybrid solutions have evolved, such as tram-train and premetro, which incorporate some of the features of rapid transit systems. In response to cost, engineering considerations and topological challenges some cities have opted to construct tram systems those in Australia, where density in cities was low and suburbs tended to spread out. Since the 1970s, the viability of underground train systems in Australian cities Sydney and Melbourne, has been reconsidered and proposed as a solution to over-capacity. Since the 1960s many new systems were introduced in Europe and Latin America. In the 21st century, most new expansions and systems are located in Asia, with China becoming the world's leader in metro expansion operating some of the largest systems and possessing 60 cities operating, constructing or planning a rapid transit system. Rapid transit is used in cities and metropolitan areas to transport large numbers of people short distances at high frequency.
The extent of the rapid transit system varies between cities, with se
Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation
The Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation was an urban transit holding company, based in Brooklyn, New York City, United States, incorporated in 1923. The system was sold to the city in 1940. Today, together with the IND subway system, it forms the B Division of the modern New York City Subway; the original BMT routes form the J/Z, L, M, N, Q, R and W trains, as well as the Franklin Avenue Shuttle, with the IND B, D, F using BMT trackage in Brooklyn, as does a short section of the A in Queens. The M train enters the IND via the Chrystie Street Connection after crossing the Williamsburg Bridge, the Q, along with some rush-hour N trains enter the IND from the BMT 63rd Street Line and the R train enters the IND via the 60th Street Tunnel Connection; the Z train supplements the J in the peak direction during rush hours only. The Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation took over the assets of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company in 1923 following the previous company's bankruptcy. Like its predecessor it controlled subsidiaries which operated the great majority of the rapid transit and streetcar lines in Brooklyn with extensions into Queens and Manhattan.
One of these, New York Rapid Transit Corporation operated the elevated and subway lines. In 1923, their president, Gerhard Melvin Dahl, published a document called "Transit Truths" to explain the issues the company faced. In it he complained that the company had "met with the bitter and unfair opposition of Mayor Hylan." In a separate letter to Hylan he said: "For seven years, you have been misleading and fooling the people in this community… For seven years, you have blocked every effort at transit relief. You, only you, are to blame for the present…deplorable condition of the whole transit situation. You have used the transit situation as a political escalator". In the late 1930s, the BMT was pressed by the City administration of Mayor Fiorello H. La Guardia to sell its operations to the City, which wanted to have all subway and elevated lines municipally owned and operated; the City had two powerful incentives to coerce the sale: the BMT was forced by provisions of the Dual Contracts to charge no more than a five-cent fare, an amount set in 1913, before the inflation of World War I. the City had the right of “recapture” of those lines, built or improved with City participation under those Dual Contracts.
This meant that, if the City forced the issue, the BMT could have been left with a fragmented system and City competition in many of its market areas. The BMT sold all of its transit operations to the City on June 1, 1940. After World War II the city-built IND subway took over parts of the former BMT, starting in 1954 with the extension of the D train from its terminal at Church Avenue via a new connection with the former BMT Culver line at Ditmas Avenue. From 1954 the three remaining Culver stations between Ninth Avenue and Ditmas Avenue were used by the Culver Shuttle; the service was discontinued in 1975 because of budget cuts and was demolished. The 60th Street Tunnel Connection between the IND Queens Boulevard Line and BMT Broadway Line opened in December 1955; this new route was used by the BMT Brighton local, which ran to Astoria, for service to Forest Hills along with the IND GG local. The next year saw the new extension of the IND Fulton Street Line in Brooklyn connected to the rebuilt section of the former BMT Fulton Street elevated at 80th Street in Queens in April,1956.
The portion of the BMT Fulton Street El running west of 80th Street to Rockaway Avenue was demolished. The late 1950s and early 1960s saw the biggest project of that era with the building of the Chrystie Street Connection, the IND Sixth Ave express tracks; this project connected the IND Sixth Avenue services to the BMT services that ran over the Manhattan and Williamsburg Bridges. Express services were directly connected to the Manhattan Bridge, local services could use either the Williamsburg Bridge or the existing Rutgers Street Tunnel. Both connections opened in November 1967 and created the largest re-routing of train services in the history of the NYCTA; the BMT West End and Brighton Lines became served by IND services as a result. Between 1967 and 1976, some IND Sixth Avenue trains called KK and K, used the Chrystie Street Connection to the BMT Jamaica Line over the Williamsburg Bridge; that connection was discontinued due to budget cuts in 1976. In 1988, the BMT Archer Avenue Line was opened, connecting to what was the east end of the BMT Jamaica Line.
Two stations—Sutphin Boulevard–Archer Avenue–JFK Airport and Jamaica Center–Parsons/Archer—were added. In 1989, the BMT 63rd Street Line opened as an extension of the express tracks of the BMT Broadway Line, connecting to the IND 63rd Street Line at Lexington Avenue–63rd Street station. A connection from the Broadway/63rd Street Lines to the IND Second Avenue Line opened in 2017. In June 2010, as a result of more budget cuts, the Chrystie Street Connection was put back into revenue service use for M service; the BMT operated rapid transit through the New York Rapid Transit Corporation and surface transit through the Brooklyn and Queens Transit Corporation. The BMT was a national leader in the transit industry, was a proponent of advanced urban railways, participating in development of advanced streetcar designs, including the PCC car, whose design and advanced components influenced railcar design worldwide for decades; the company sought to extend the art of rapid transit car design with such innovations as articulated cars, lightweight equipment, advanced control systems, shared components with streetcar fleets.
Unlike the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, the other private operator of subways in New York City, the
An elevated railway is a rapid transit railway with the tracks above street level on a viaduct or other elevated structure. The railway may be broad gauge, standard gauge, narrow gauge, light rail, monorail, or a suspension railway. Elevated railways are used in urban areas where there would otherwise be a large number of level crossings. Most of the time, the tracks of elevated railways that run on steel viaducts can be seen from street level; the earliest elevated railway was the London and Greenwich Railway on a brick viaduct of 878 arches, built between 1836 and 1838. The first 2.5 miles of the London and Blackwall Railway was on a viaduct. During the 1840s there were other schemes for elevated railways in London that did not come to fruition. From the late 1860s onward elevated railways became popular in US cities; the New York West Side and Yonkers Patent Railway operated with cable cars from 1868 to 1870, thereafter locomotive-hauled. This was followed by the Manhattan Railway in 1875, the South Side Elevated Railroad and the elevated lines of the Boston Elevated Railway.
The Chicago transit system itself is known as "L", short for "elevated". The Berlin Stadtbahn and the Vienna Stadtbahn are mainly elevated; the first electric elevated railway was the Liverpool Overhead Railway, which operated through Liverpool docks from 1893 until 1956. In London, the Docklands Light Railway is a modern elevated railway that opened in 1987 and, has expanded; the trains are automatic. Another modern elevated railway is Tokyo's driverless Yurikamome line, opened in 1995. Most monorails are elevated railways, such as the Disneyland Monorail System, the Tokyo Monorail, the Sydney Monorail, the KL Monorail, the Las Vegas Monorail, the São Paulo Monorail. Many maglev railways are elevated. During the 1890s there was some interest in suspension railways in Germany, with the Schwebebahn Dresden, the Wuppertal Schwebebahn. H-Bahn suspension railways were built in Dortmund and Düsseldorf airport, 1975; the Memphis Suspension Railway opened in 1982. The Shonan Monorail and the Chiba Urban Monorail in Japan, despite their names, are suspension railways too.
Suspension railways are monorail. People mover or automated people mover is a type of driverless grade-separated, mass-transit system; the term is used only to describe systems that serve as loops or feeder systems, but is sometimes applied to more complex automated systems. Similar to monorails, Bombardier Innovia APM technology uses only one rail to guide the vehicle along the guideway. APMs are common at airports and effective at helping passengers reach their gates. Several elevated APM systems at airports including the PHX Sky Train at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport. Berlin U-Bahn Chicago "L" Copenhagen Metro Hamburg U-Bahn Lahore Metro Manila Light Rail Transit System Miami Metrorail New York City Subway Philadelphia's Market–Frankford Line Rapid Metro Gurgaon Line 3 Scarborough, a medium capacity metro rail line in Toronto, Canada BTS Skytrain, two elevated rapid transit lines in Bangkok, Thailand SkyTrain, British Columbia, Canada. Sydney Metro Northwest Line in Sydney, Australia Vienna U-Bahn Wenhu line, Taiwan Wuppertal Suspension Railway Hyderabad Metro All Lines in Hyderabad, IndiaDisused: Boston Elevated Railways - Atlantic Avenue Elevated, Charlestown Elevated, Washington Street Elevated, Causeway Street Elevated Elevated railways operated by the Interborough Rapid Transit Company and Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company in New York City Liverpool Overhead Railway AirTrain JFK, a people mover at and around John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York City, New York, United States ATL Skytrain, a people mover at Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport, Georgia, United States Changi Airport Skytrain, an inter-terminal people mover at Changi International Airport in Singapore Detroit People Mover, an urban transit people mover in Detroit, United States H-Bahn, an inter-terminal automated people mover in Dortmund and Dusseldorf, Germany MIA Mover, a people mover at Miami International Airport, Florida, United States PHX Sky Train, a people mover at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport, Arizona, United States Tubular Rail, trackless elevated train.
UC San Diego Blue Line extension will be aerial light rail
Bensonhurst is a large, multiethnic neighborhood in the southwestern part of the New York City borough of Brooklyn, in the United States. It is bounded by 14th Avenue to the northwest, 60th Street and McDonald Avenue to the northeast, 86th Street to the southwest, 25th Avenue and Avenue P to the southeast. Bensonhurst's adjacent neighborhoods include Dyker Heights to the northwest, Borough Park and Mapleton to the northeast, Bath Beach to the southwest, Gravesend to the southeast. Bensonhurst is known as a Little Italy of Brooklyn due to its large Italian-American population. Bensonhurst has the largest population of residents born in China of any neighborhood in New York City and is now home to Brooklyn's second Chinatown; the neighborhood accounts for 9.5% of the 330,000 Chinese-born residents of the city, based on data from 2007 to 2011. Bensonhurst is part of Brooklyn Community District 11 and its primary ZIP Codes are 11204 and 11214, it is patrolled by the 62nd Precinct of the New York City Police Department.
Politically it is represented by the New York City Council's 43rd, 44th, 47th Districts. Bensonhurst derives its name from Egbert Benson, whose lands were sold by his children and grandchildren to James D. Lynch, a New York real estate developer. Lynch bought the old farmlands of the Benson family in the mid-1880s, by 1888, began selling private lots in an area dubbed as Bensonhurst-by-the-Sea, now Bath Beach; the first sale of lands in "The New Seaside Resort" area was advertised in the July 24, 1888 issue of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the combined population of Bensonhurst West and Bensonhurst East was 151,705, an increase of 8,499 from the 143,206 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 1,890.81 acres, the neighborhood had a population density of 75.7 inhabitants per acre. The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 48.7% White, 0.7% African American, 0.1% Native American, 35.7% Asian, 0% Pacific Islander, 0.2% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races.
Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 13.4% of the population. The entirety of Community Board 11 had 204,829 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 83.8 years. This is higher than the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods. Most inhabitants are middle-aged adults and youth: 20% are between the ages of 0–17, 31% between 25–44, 26% between 45–64; the ratio of college-aged and elderly residents was lower, at 8% and 15% respectively. As of 2016, the median household income in Community District 12 was $53,493. In 2018, an estimated 23% of Bensonhurst residents lived in poverty, compared to 21% in all of Brooklyn and 20% in all of New York City. Less than one in ten residents were unemployed, compared to 9% in the rest of both Brooklyn and New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 52% in Bensonhurst, about the same as the citywide and boroughwide rates of 52% and 51% respectively.
Based on this calculation, as of 2018, Bensonhurst is considered to be un-gentrified relative to the rest of the city. In the early 20th century, many Italians and Jewish migrants moved into the neighborhood, prior to World War II, the neighborhood was about Jewish and Italian. In the 1950s, under pressure of an influx of immigrants from southern Italy and with new housing being built in the suburbs, the Jewish population began to decline, after several decades, most of the Jewish population left the neighborhood, leaving the area predominantly Italian. With a large Italian-American population, Bensonhurst is considered the main "Little Italy" of Brooklyn; the Italian-speaking community was over 20,000 strong, according to the census of 2000. The Italian-speaking community, though, is becoming "increasingly elderly and isolated, with the small, tight-knit enclave in the city disappearing as they give way to demographic changes." Its main thoroughfare, 18th Avenue between 60th Street and Shore Parkway, is lined with predominantly small, Italian family-owned businesses—many of which have remained in the same family for several generations.
86th Street is another popular local thoroughfare, located under the elevated BMT West End Line. Around 1989, an influx of immigrants from China and the former USSR began to arrive from Southern China, Russia and Armenia. In the 1990s, Bensonhurst grew in cultural diversity. Bensonhurst is home to many ethnic Polish, Russian, Bosnian, Turkish, Uzbek, Palestinian, Lebanese, Mexican, Salvadorian and Puerto Rican Americans. In 2000, the New York City Department of City Planning determined that just over half of the residents were born in another country. By 2013, then-Mayor Michael Bloomberg announced that the city's foreign-born population had reached a record high, that Bensonhurst had the city's second-highest number of foreign-born people with 77,700 foreign born immigrants in the neighborhood, just after Washington Heights. Bensonhurst has long been well-known as a Little Italy of Brooklyn, containing a large Italian-American and Italian-immigrant population; the annual Festa di Santa Rosalia, is held on 18th Avenue from Bay Ridge Parkway to 66th Street in late August or early September.
"The Feast" is presented by Bensonhurst resident and marketer Franco Corrado, as well as by the Santa Rosalia Society, on 18th Avenue. Born in Rome in 1955, Corrado has been an active social member of the Italian-American commu
The MetroCard is the payment method for the New York City Subway. It is a plastic card on which the customer electronically loads fares; the card was introduced in 1992 to enhance the technology of the transit system and eliminate the burden of carrying and collecting tokens. The MTA discontinued the use of tokens in the subway on May 3, 2003, on buses on December 31, 2003; the MetroCard is managed by a division of the MTA known as Revenue Control, MetroCard Sales, part of the Office of the Executive Vice President. The MetroCard Vending Machines are manufactured by Inc.. The current swipe MetroCard is expected to be phased out by 2023, it will be replaced by OMNY, a contactless payment system where riders pay for their fare by waving or tapping credit or debit bank cards, smartphones, or MTA-issued contactless smart cards. The idea for a farecard with a magnetic strip for the MTA system was proposed in 1983, it was the "highest priority" for then-MTA Chairman Richard Ravitch. The card would replace the tokens.
This plan was supported by the public. In 1984, Ravitch's successor Bob Kiley said that he would try to create a system for the new farecards within the next four years. However, bureaucratic actions and disagreements delayed the rollout of the system. In March 1990, the MTA board voted to allocate funding for the magnetic fare collection system. Three months the New York state legislature voted to allow the MTA to proceed for its plans for the new system. By 1991, the token technology was becoming dated: all other transit systems were using magnetic farecards, which were found to be much cheaper than the token system. In July of that year, the MTA board approved the roll-out of the magnetic farecard system; the MTA opened a request for bids to furnish and operate the farecard system, Cubic Transportation Systems offered the lowest bid at $100 million. On October 30, 1992, the installation of Automated Fare Collection turnstiles began; the farecard system was given the name MetroCard by April 1993.
At the time, the first subway stations were supposed to receive MetroCard-compatible turnstiles before year's end, buses were scheduled to be retrofitted with MetroCard collection equipment by late 1995. On June 1, 1993, MTA distributed 3,000 MetroCards in the first major test of the technology for the entire subway and bus systems. Less than a year on January 6, 1994, MetroCard-compatible turnstiles opened at Wall Street on the IRT Lexington Avenue Line and Whitehall Street–South Ferry on the BMT Broadway Line. All MetroCard turnstiles were installed by May 14, 1997, when the entire bus and subway system accepted MetroCard. On September 28, 1995, buses on Staten Island started accepting MetroCard, by the end of 1995, MetroCard was accepted on all New York City Transit buses. Before 1997, the MetroCard design was blue with yellow lettering; these blue cards are now collector's items. On July 4, 1997, the first free transfers were made available between bus and subway at any location with MetroCard.
This program was billed as MetroCard Gold. Card colors changed to the current blue lettering on goldenrod background. On January 1, 1998, bonus free rides were given for purchases of $15 or more. On July 4, six months 7-Day and 30-Day Unlimited Ride MetroCards were introduced, at $17 and $63 respectively. A 30-day Express Bus Plus MetroCard, allowing unlimited rides on express buses in addition to local buses and the subway, was introduced at $120; the 1-Day Fun Pass was introduced on January 1, 1999, at a cost of $4. The debut of the MetroCard allowed the MTA to add bonus fare incentives, such as free bus transfers to other buses or subways. Half of the ridership increase between 1997 and 1999 was attributed to these incentives; the first MetroCard Vending Machines were installed on January 25, 1999 in two stations, by the end of 1999 347 MVMs were in service at 74 stations. On April 13, 2003, tokens were no longer sold. Starting May 4, 2003, tokens were no longer accepted, except on buses; the following fare increases were implemented: Base fare increased from $1.50 to $2.00 1-Day Unlimited MetroCard fare increased from $4 to $7 7-Day Unlimited MetroCard fare increased from $17 to $21 30-day Express Bus Plus was replaced with a 7-day Express Bus Plus card, which cost $33 each.
30-Day Unlimited MetroCard fare increased from $63 to $70 The bonus for pay-per-ride increased to 20% of the purchase amount for purchases of $10 or more Tokens would be phased out, but for the next two months they acted as $1.50 credit towards a $2 bus ride. On February 27, 2005, another fare hike occurred: 7-day Express Bus Plus increased by $8, to $41. 7-Day Unlimited increased by $3, to $24. 30-Day Unlimited increased by $6, to $76. On March 2, 2008, another set of fare increases was implemented: 1-Day Unlimited fare increased by 50 cents, to $7.50. 7-Day Unlimited fare increased by $1, to $25. 14-Day Unlimited was introduced for $47. 30-Day Unlimited increased by $5, to $81. The bonus for pay-per-ride decreased to 15% of the purchase amount for purchases of $7 or more. On June 28, 2009, the agency had its second fare hike in as many years: The base fare and single-ride ticket increased by 25 cents, to $2.25. 1-Day Unlimited fare increased by 75 cents, to $8.25. 7-Day Unlimited fare increased by $7, to $27.
7-Day Express Bus Plus fare increased by $4, to $45. 14-Day Unlimited fare increased by