SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Avesta

The Avesta is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in Avestan language. The Avesta texts fall into several different categories, arranged either by usage; the principal text in the liturgical group is the Yasna, which takes its name from the Yasna ceremony, Zoroastrianism's primary act of worship, at which the Yasna text is recited. The most important portion of the Yasna texts are the five Gathas, consisting of seventeen hymns attributed to Zoroaster himself; these hymns, together with five other short Old Avestan texts that are part of the Yasna, are in the Old Avestan language. The remainder of the Yasna's texts are in Younger Avestan, not only from a stage of the language, but from a different geographic region. Extensions to the Yasna ceremony include the texts of the Visperad; the Visperad extensions consist of additional invocations of the divinities, while the Vendidad is a mixed collection of prose texts dealing with purity laws. Today, the Vendidad is the only liturgical text, not recited from memory.

Some of the materials of the extended Yasna are from the Yashts, which are hymns to the individual yazatas. Unlike the Yasna and Vendidad, the Yashts and the other lesser texts of the Avesta are no longer used liturgically in high rituals. Aside from the Yashts, these other lesser texts include the Nyayesh texts, the Gah texts, the Siroza, various other fragments. Together, these lesser texts are conventionally called "Little Avesta" texts; when the first Khordeh Avesta editions were printed in the 19th century, these texts became a book of common prayer for lay people. The term Avesta is from the 9th/10th-century works of Zoroastrian tradition in which the word appears as Zoroastrian Middle Persian abestāg, Book Pahlavi ʾpstʾkʼ. In that context, abestāg texts are portrayed as received knowledge, are distinguished from the exegetical commentaries thereof; the literal meaning of the word abestāg is uncertain. The repeated derivation from *upa-stavaka is from Christian Bartholomae, who interpreted abestāg as a contraction of a hypothetical reconstructed Old Iranian word for "praise-song".

The surviving texts of the Avesta, as they exist today, derive from a single master copy produced by collation and recension in the Sasanian Empire. That master copy, now lost, is known as the'Sassanian archetype'; the oldest surviving manuscript of an Avestan language text is dated 1323 CE. Summaries of the various Avesta texts found in the 9th/10th century texts of Zoroastrian tradition suggest that a significant portion of the literature in the Avestan language has been lost. Only about one-quarter of the Avestan sentences or verses referred to by the 9th/10th century commentators can be found in the surviving texts; this suggests that three-quarters of Avestan material, including an indeterminable number of juridical and legendary texts, have been lost since then. On the other hand, it appears that the most valuable portions of the canon, including all of the oldest texts, have survived; the reason for this is that the surviving materials represent those portions of the Avesta that were in regular liturgical use, therefore known by heart by the priests and not dependent for their preservation on the survival of particular manuscripts.

A pre-Sasanian history of the Avesta, if it had one, is in the realm of myth. The oldest surviving versions of these tales are found in the ninth to 11th century texts of Zoroastrian tradition; the legends run as follows: The twenty-one nasks of the Avesta were created by Ahura Mazda and brought by Zoroaster to his patron Vishtaspa. Vishtaspa or another Kayanian, Daray had two copies made, one of, stored in the treasury, the other in the royal archives. Following Alexander's conquest, the Avesta was supposedly destroyed or dispersed by the Greeks after they translated the scientific passages that they could make use of. Several centuries one of the Parthian emperors named Valaksh then had the fragments collected, not only of those, written down, but of those that had only been orally transmitted; the Denkard transmits another legend related to the transmission of the Avesta. In that story, credit for collation and recension is given to the early Sasanian-era priest Tansar, who had the scattered works collected, of which he approved only a part as authoritative.

Tansar's work was supposedly completed by Adurbad Mahraspandan who made a general revision of the canon and continued to ensure its orthodoxy. A final revision was undertaken in the 6th century under Khosrow I. In the early 20th century, the legend of the Parthian-era collation engendered a search for a'Parthian archetype' of the Avesta. In the theory of Friedrich Carl Andreas, the archaic nature of the Avestan texts was assumed to be due to preservation via written transmission, unusual or unexpected spellings in the surviving texts were assumed to be reflections of errors introduced by Sasanian-era transcription from the Aramaic alphabet-derived

Michael Clark (sportsman)

Michael Wayne Clark is an Australian cricketer and former Australian rules footballer. Clark had shoulder problems when he played with Swan Districts in 1996, in 1997 required a knee reconstruction; the son of former Australian Test cricketer Wayne Clark, he pursued a career in the Australian Football League with the Fremantle Dockers. Drafted in the 1997 AFL Draft, he played only 1 game with the Dockers in 1999, he was delisted at the end of that year to be re-drafted by the Collingwood Football Club in the 1999 AFL Draft, but did not manage a senior game with the club, being delisted during the 2000 season after fracturing his fibula. He made his debut with the Western Warriors in the 2000–2001 season, after chronic back-injury problems, announced his retirement from cricket in February 2006. Michael Clark's playing statistics from AFL Tables Michael Clark at ESPNcricinfo

Lil Suzy

Suzanne Casale Melone, better known as Lil Suzy, is an American freestyle/pop singer. Lil Suzy is known for her hits "Take Me in Your Arms", "Promise Me" and "Can't Get You Out of My Mind" and is a singer and songwriter, influential in the freestyle in the early 1990s. Lil Suzy was born in Brooklyn, New York, United States on March 1, 1979, she began her career at the age of five years, to be discovered by an agent while singing in Manhattan Beach, doing covers of singers like Tina Turner, Cyndi Lauper and Madonna. She started doing shows for openings Thelma Houston and Village People. At the age of 8 years, Suzy got her first contract with a record company, Fever Records, in 1988 she released her first single, "Randy". At age 12 she joined the label Warlock Records, Tony Garcia as a producer, released her first studio album called Love Can't Wait; the first single released, "Take Me in Your Arms", became her most popular song. Another single, "Falling in Love", was released in 1992. In early 1994, her second album, Back to Dance produced by Tony Garcia, was released.

The only single, "Turn the Beat Around", released in late 1993, did not achieve success. Due to the limited success of the album, Lil Suzy left her label and became president of her own record label, Empress Records. In April 1995, Lil released her third album, Life Goes On; this album is significant for showing a new musical style geared more for Eurodance. It contains four singles, with the first being "Promise Me", which reached No. 62 on the Billboard Hot 100. In 1997, Lil Suzy released her fourth studio album and the last to contain new songs, with four singles, Can't Get You Out of My Mind the most popular one, it contains the participation of the singer Crystal Waters, on the track "Lost Love Letter". This album contains a cover of the Netzwerk song, "Memories". In 1999, The MegaMix was released, a compilation of old hits and new remixes. On 2 October 2000, she opened a beauty salon in Staten Island. In 2002, The Greatest Hits, a compilation of her greatest hits rerecorded. In the same year, together with Collage, she released the single "Don't You Want Me" for the German market.

The single is a cover of the song by The Human League. In 2009, Lil Suzy released a new song called "Dance Tonight", available for download on iTunes. Lil Suzy is regarded as one of the top freestyle singers and was best known for the club hit "Take Me in Your Arms", which charted at No. 49 on the Billboard Hot 100 in 1992 and was named Billboard magazine's Best New Dance Artist that year, making her the youngest artist to receive the honor. She first came to public attention in 1987 when she was just 8 years old, with the release of her debut single "Randy", a feisty freestyle love song. On October 2, 2000, she opened a nail salon in Staten Island. In November 20 of that same year, Lil Suzy released a Greatest Hits album that included re-recorded versions of most of her singles, she toured with Lisette Melendez and Angel Clivillés, the original lead singer of 1980s/1990s girl group The Cover Girls. The trio performs as S. A. L. Lil Suzy has toured with Amber, the now disbanded electronic group, Prophecy Collective.

1996 - "Suzanna", Collage with the participation of Lil Suzy, released the compilation Metropolitan Freestyle Extravaganza Volume 7 1997 - "Runaway", released on the CD Dance Trip 2000 1999 - "He's All I Want for Christmas / Letter to Santa", released on the CD Freestyle X-Mas 1999 - "All I Want ", Collage with the participation of Lil Suzy, released on the CD Chapter II: 1999. 2001 - "From the Inside", distributed promotionally. 2001 - "Just a Freak" Lil Suzy involving Stephanie, unreleased track. 2002 - "Treat Me Right" recorded in 2001, was released on the CD Euro Freestyle Invasion. 2002 - "You'll See", an unreleased track. 2003 - "I Still Cry" recorded in 2002, was released on the CD Euro Freestyle Invasion II. 2004 - "I'm in Love", an unreleased track. 2005 - "Walls of Love", an unreleased track. - Lil' Suzy's Official Web Site Lil Suzy on Twitter on MySpace