SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Avestan

Avestan known as Zend, comprises two languages: Old Avestan and Younger Avestan. The languages are known only from their use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture, from which they derive their name. Both are early Iranian languages, a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages within the Indo-European family, its immediate ancestor was the Proto-Iranian language, a sister language to the Proto-Indo-Aryan language, with both having developed from the earlier Proto-Indo-Iranian. As such, Old Avestan is quite close in grammar and lexicon with Vedic Sanskrit, the oldest preserved Indo-Aryan language; the Avestan text corpus was composed in ancient Arachosia, Aria and Margiana, corresponding to the entirety of present-day Afghanistan, parts of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The Yaz culture of Bactria-Margiana has been regarded as a archaeological reflection of the early "Eastern Iranian" culture described in the Avesta. "Avestan, associated with northeastern Iran, Old Persian, which belongs to the southwest, together constitute what is called Old Iranian."

Scholars traditionally classify Iranian languages as "old", "middle" and "new" according to their age, as "eastern" or "western" according to geography, within this framework Avestan is classified as Eastern Old Iranian. But the east-west distinction is of limited meaning for Avestan, as the linguistic developments that distinguish Eastern from Western Iranian had not yet occurred. Avestan does not display some typical Western Iranian innovations visible in Old Persian, so in this sense, "eastern" only means "non-western". Old Avestan is related to Old Persian and agrees morphologically with Vedic Sanskrit; the old ancestor dialect of Pashto was close to the language of the Gathas. The Avestan language is attested in two forms, known as "Old Avestan" and "Younger Avestan". Younger Avestan did not evolve from Old Avestan; every Avestan text, regardless of whether composed in Old or Younger Avestan, underwent several transformations. Karl Hoffmann traced the following stages for Avestan. In chronological order: The natural language of the composers of the Gathas, the Yasna Haptanghaiti, the four sacred prayers.

Changes precipitated by slow chanting Changes to Old Avestan due to transmission by native speakers of Younger Avestan The natural language of the scribes who wrote grammatically correct Younger Avestan texts Deliberate changes introduced through "standardization" Changes introduced by transfer to regions where Avestan was not spoken Adaptions/translations of portions of texts from other regions Composition of ungrammatical late Avestan texts Phonetic notation of the Avestan texts in the Sasanian archetype Post-Sasanian deterioration of the written transmission due to incorrect pronunciation Errors and corruptions introduced during copyingMany phonetic features cannot be ascribed with certainty to a particular stage since there may be more than one possibility. Every phonetic form that can be ascribed to the Sasanian archetype on the basis of critical assessment of the manuscript evidence must have gone through the stages mentioned above so that "Old Avestan" and "Young Avestan" mean no more than "Old Avestan and Young Avestan of the Sasanian period."

The script used for writing Avestan developed during the 3rd or 4th century AD. By the language had been extinct for many centuries, remained in use only as a liturgical language of the Avesta canon; as is still the case today, the liturgies were recited by rote. The script devised to render Avestan was natively known as Din dabireh "religion writing", it is written right-to-left. Among the 53 characters are about 30 letters that are – through the addition of various loops and flourishes – variations of the 13 graphemes of the cursive Pahlavi script, known from the post-Sassanian texts of Zoroastrian tradition; these symbols, like those of all the Pahlavi scripts, are in turn based on Aramaic script symbols. Avestan incorporates several letters from other writing systems, most notably the vowels, which are derived from Greek minuscules. A few letters were free inventions, as were the symbols used for punctuation; the Avestan alphabet has one letter that has no corresponding sound in the Avestan language.

The Avestan script is alphabetic, the large number of letters suggests that its design was due to the need to render the orally recited texts with high phonetic precision. The correct enunciation of the liturgies was considered necessary for the prayers to be effective; the Zoroastrians of India, who represent one of the largest surviving Zoroastrian communities worldwide transcribe Avestan in Brahmi-based scripts. This is a recent development first seen in the ca. 12th century texts of Neryosang Dhaval and other Parsi Sanskritist theologians of that era, which are contemporary with the oldest surviving manuscripts in Avestan script. Today, Avestan is most typeset in the Gujarati script; some Avestan letters with no corresponding symbol are synthesized with additional diacritical marks, for example, the /z/ in zaraϑuštra is written with j with a dot below. Avestan has retained voiced sibilants, has fricative rather than aspirate series. There are various conventions for transliteration of Dīn Dabireh

Commercial Bank Cameroon

Commercial Bank Cameroon referred to as Commercial Bank of Cameroon, is a commercial bank in Cameroon. It is one of the fourteen Cameroonian commercial banks licensed by the Central Bank of Central African States, the national banking regulator; the bank caters to both businesses through a variety of financial products. CBC is the flagship of the Commercial Bank Group, headquartered in Douala, with subsidiaries in Chad, Central African Republic, Equatorial Guinea and São Tomé and Príncipe. In 1997, following the closure of the Cameroonian operations of several International banks, including Crédit Agricole, BICIC and Meridien BIAO, Cameroonian corporate investors, private Cameroonian citizens and the German Investment Corporation, pooled resources and put together FCFA 3 billion to start Commercial Bank of Cameroon. Over the years, the owners of CBC have expanded their operations to four other Central African countries; as of December 2007, the Commercial Bank of Cameroon had an estimated capital base of US$19 million and total assets of about US$309 million.

As of October 2010, the following companies comprise the Commercial Bank Group: Commercial Bank of Cameroon - Cameroon Commercial Bank Chad - Chad Commercial Bank Centrafrique - Central African Republic Commercial Bank Equatorial Guinea - Equatorial Guinea Commercial Bank São Tomé and Príncipe - São Tomé and Príncipe SFA Financial Products - Cameroon - Commercial Bank Group has 51.4% shareholding. The stock of Commercial Bank Cameroon, is owned by Cameroonian and foreign investors; the major shareholders are listed in the table below: The bank maintains branches at the following locations: Maroua Branch - Maroua Garoua Branch - Boulevard Lamido Hayatou, Garoua Bafoussam Branch - Avenue de la Republique, Bafoussam Akwa Branch - Boulevard de l'Unite, Akwa Douala Branch - Boulevard Charles De Gaulle, Douala Main Branch Yaoundé Branch - Yaoundé Commercial Bank Centrafrique Commercial Bank Group List of banks in Cameroon Central Bank of Central African States Website of Commercial Bank Cameroon (French & English Website of Central Bank of Central African States Overview of Cameroonian Commercial Banks

Digea

Digea is a Greek network operator that provides a digital terrestrial television system in Greece for seven nationwide free-to-air channels. In addition to these free-to-air nationwide stations, the network is open to any other station choosing to use its services; the name Digea is a word play in Greek: composed of the words "Digital" and "Gaea" translated as "Digital Earth". It symbolizes the basis for life in our world; the company’s main area of activity is the provision of networking and multiplexing services, both to the above-mentioned shareholders as well as to any legal entity opting to use the company’s services. 24/09/2009: The first digital broadcasting of Digea consisting of television stations Alpha TV, Alter Channel, ANT1, Makedonia TV, Mega Channel, Skai TV and Star Channel was carried out in the Gulf of Corinth from the transmitting site of Xylokastro. 14/01/2010: Digital broadcasting began in Thessaloniki - Central Macedonia from the transmitting sites of Chortiatis and Philippion.

18/06/2010: Digital broadcasting began in Athens - Attica from the transmitting sites of Hymettus and Aegina. 01/09/2010: Digital broadcasting of regional scale channels TV 0-6, Attica TV, Extra Channel, High TV, MAD TV, MTV Greece and Sport TV added in Athens - Attica from the transmitting site of Aegina. 19/11/2010: Digital broadcasting began in Alexandroupoli - South West Thrace from the transmitting site of Plaka. 08/02/2011: Digital broadcasting of regional scale channels Blue Sky, Channel 9, Kontra Channel and TELEASTY added in Athens - Attica from the transmitting site of Aegina. 25/02/2011: Digital broadcasting began in Rhodes from the transmitting site of Monte Smith. 27/05/2011: Digital broadcasting began in Central Thessaly from the transmitting site of Dovroutsi. 09/12/2011: Digital broadcasting began in Northern Aetolia-Acarnania and Arta from the transmitting site of Acarnanian Mountains. 03/02/2012: Digital broadcasting began in Patras and Southern Aetolia-Acarnania from the transmitting site of Aroi.

26/06/2013: Digital broadcasting began in Crete from the transmitting site of Malaxa and Rogdia. 27/09/2013: Digital broadcasting began in Messenia and Laconia from the transmitting site of Petalidi. 27/06/2014: Analog-to-digital full switchover throughout Peloponnese areas. Analog signal is due to everyone who watches digital TV should retune their TVs. 01/08/2014: Analog-to-digital full switchover throughout Attica areas. Analog signal is due to everyone who watches digital TV should retune their TVs. 05/09/2014: Analog-to-digital full switchover throughout Eastern Macedonia and Thrace area and North Aegean areas. Analog signal is due to everyone who watches digital TV should retune their TVs. 21/11/2014: Analog-to-digital full switchover throughout Central Macedonia and Central Greece areas. Analog signal is due to everyone who watches digital TV should retune their TVs. 19/12/2014: Analog-to-digital full switchover throughout Western Macedonia and Ionian Islands areas. Analog signal is due to everyone who watches digital TV should retune their TVs.

06/02/2015: Analog-to-digital full switchover throughout Crete and Aegean Islands areas. Analog signal is due to everyone who watches digital TV should retune their TVs. Alpha TV - private national scale television station Alter Channel - off the air ANT1 - private national scale television station Makedonia TV - private national scale television station Mega Channel - private national scale television station Open TV - private national scale television station Skai TV - private national scale television station Star Channel - private national scale television station Action 24 - private regional scale television station of Galatsi - Attica Attica TV - private regional scale television station of Aspropyrgos - Attica Blue Sky - private regional scale television station of Irakleio - Attica Channel 9 - private regional scale television station of Paiania - Attica Extra Channel - private regional scale television station of Peristeri - Attica ART - political party LAOS national scale television station started only in Kallithea - Attica High TV - private regional scale television station of Athens - Attica Kontra Channel - private regional scale television station of Tavros - Attica MAD TV - private regional scale television station of Pallini - Attica New Epsilon TV - private regional scale television station of Peristeri - Attica Alert TV - private regional scale television station of Tavros - Attica Nickelodeon - private regional scale television station of Irakleio and national cable, satellite and IPTV channel - Attica RISE TV - private regional scale television station of Irakleio - Attica Smile TV - private regional scale television station of Rizoupoli - Attica Television in Greece List of radio stations in Greece Official Site Digea coverage progress in Greece