Avian influenza

Avian influenza, known informally as avian flu or bird flu, is a variety of influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds. The type with the greatest risk is pathogenic avian influenza. Bird flu is similar to swine flu, dog flu, horse flu and human flu as an illness caused by strains of influenza viruses that have adapted to a specific host. Out of the three types of influenza viruses, influenza A virus is a zoonotic infection with a natural reservoir entirely in birds. Avian influenza, for most purposes, refers to the influenza A virus. Though influenza A is adapted to birds, it can stably adapt and sustain person-to person transmission. Recent influenza research into the genes of the Spanish flu virus shows it to have genes adapted from both human and avian strains. Pigs can be infected with human and swine influenza viruses, allowing for mixtures of genes to create a new virus, which can cause an antigenic shift to a new influenza A virus subtype which most people have little to no immune protection against.

Avian influenza strains are divided into two types based on their pathogenicity: high pathogenicity or low pathogenicity. The most well-known HPAI strain, H5N1, appeared in China in 1996, has low pathogenic strains found in North America. Companion birds in captivity are unlikely to contract the virus and there has been no report of a companion bird with avian influenza since 2003. Pigeons can contract avian strains, but become ill and are incapable of transmitting the virus efficiently to humans or other animals. Between early 2013 and early 2017, 916 lab-confirmed human cases of H7N9 were reported to the World Health Organization. On 9 January 2017, the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China reported to WHO 106 cases of H7N9 which occurred from late November through late December, including 35 deaths, 2 potential cases of human-to-human transmission, 80 of these 106 persons stating that they have visited live poultry markets; the cases are reported from Jiangsu, Anhui, Shanghai and Hunan.

Similar sudden increases in the number of human cases of H7N9 have occurred in previous years during December and January. The most quoted date for the beginning of recorded history of avian influenza was in 1878 when it was differentiated from other diseases that caused high mortality rates in birds. Fowl plague, however included Newcastle disease until as as the 1950s. Between 1959 and 1995, there were 15 recorded occasions of the emergence of HPAI viruses in poultry, but losses were minimal. Between 1996 and 2008 however, HPAI outbreaks in poultry have occurred at least 11 times and 4 of these outbreaks have involved millions of birds. In the 1990s, the world's poultry population grew 76% in developing countries and 23% in developed countries, contributing to the increased prevalence of avian influenza. Before the 1990s, HPAI caused high mortality in poultry. Outbreaks have become more common due to the high density and frequent movement of flocks from intensive poultry production. Influenza A/H5N1 was first isolated from a goose in China in 1996.

Human infections were first reported in 1997 in Hong Kong. Since 2003, more than 700 human cases of Asian HPAI H5N1 have been reported to the WHO from 15 countries in Asia, the Pacific and the Middle East, though over 60 countries have been affected. Genetic factors in distinguishing between "human flu viruses" and "avian flu viruses" include: PB2:: Amino acid position 627 in the PB2 protein encoded by the PB2 RNA gene; until H5N1, all known avian influenza viruses had a Glu at position 627, while all human influenza viruses had a Lys. HA:: Avian influenza HA viruses bind alpha 2-3 sialic acid receptors, while human influenza HA viruses bind alpha 2-6 sialic acid receptors. Swine influenza viruses have the ability to bind both types of sialic acid receptors. Hemagglutinin is the major antigen of the virus against which neutralizing antibodies are produced, influenza virus epidemics are associated with changes in its antigenic structure; this was derived from pigs, should technically be referred to as "pig flu".

There are many subtypes of avian influenza viruses, but only some strains of five subtypes have been known to infect humans: H5N1, H7N3, H7N7, H7N9, H9N2. At least one person, an elderly woman in Jiangxi Province, died of pneumonia in December 2013 from the H10N8 strain, the first human fatality confirmed to be caused by that strain. Most human cases of the avian flu are a result of either handling dead infected birds or from contact with infected fluids, it can be spread through contaminated surfaces and droppings. While most wild birds have only a mild form of the H5N1 strain, once domesticated birds such as chickens or turkeys are infected, H5N1 can become much more deadly because the birds are in close contact. H5N1 is a large threat in Asia with infected poultry due to low hygiene conditions and close quarters. Although it is easy for humans to contract the infection from birds, human-to-human transmission is more difficult without prolonged contact. However, public health officials are concerned that strains of avian flu may mutate to become transmissible between humans.

Spreading of H5N1 from Asia to Europe is much more caused by both legal and illegal poultry trades than dispersing through wild bird migrations, being that in recent studies, there were no secondary rises in infection in Asia when wild birds migrate south again from their breeding grounds. Instead, the infection patterns followed transportation such as railroa


Uvalino is a red Italian wine grape variety, grown in the Piedmont wine region of northwest Italy. While the name uvalino means "small berries", ampelographers believe that the name may be derived from uvario which in the local Piedmontese dialect was used to denote wine grapes that were minor blending varieties. In recent years, the high levels of the antioxidant resveratrol of Uvalino has brought attention to the grape due to its potential health benefits; the first documented account of Uvalino was of the grape variety growing in the communes of Castelletto Molina and Nizza Monferrato in the province of Asti by botanist Giorgio Gallesio in 1831. In 2006, DNA analysis revealed that Uvalino has a parent-offspring relationship with the nearly extinct Piemontese grape Neretto di Marengo. Uvalino, was on the verge of extinction until the late 20th century when winemaker Mariuccia Borio was inspired by wine made by famous Barolo winemaker Renato Ratti from a small planting of Uvalino at his Villa Pattono estate in La Morra in the province of Cuneo.

Reminded of a wine from her childhood, Borio began working with Ratti and the Asti extension of the Institute of Experimental Viticulture of Conegliano Veneto to revive plantings of the grape variety. By 2002, their efforts got Uvalino placement on the official registry of Italian grape varieties. Uvalino is a late-ripening grape variety that can be robust and resistant to many viticultural hazards such as botrytis bunch rot, its low-sensitivity to many late season hazards like fungal infections allows growers to give the grapes long "hang time" on the vine before harvest to achieve more ripe phenolics flavors. Being only added to the official registry of Italian grape varieties in 2002, there is not yet an official census count of how many plantings of Uvalino there are in Italy. However, ampelographers believe that the grape is exclusively grown in the Piedmont region. According to Master of Wine Jancis Robinson, as a varietal, Uvalino tends to produce full-bodied wines with noticeable tannins and acidity levels with aromas of sweet spices and red fruits.

Over the years, Uvalino has been known under a variety of synonyms including: Cunaiola, Freisone and Lambruschino. However, the Vitis International Variety Catalogue does not recognize any official synonyms for Uvalino but does note that Uvalino is used as synonym for the Italian wine grape Pistolino and Uvalino nero is a synonym for Croatina


Kathikund is a community development block that forms one of the administrative units of Dumka district, Jharkhand state, India. It is located 23 km from the district headquarters. Kathikund, the eponymous CD Block headquarters, is located at 24°21′32″N 87°25′11″E; as per 2011 Census of India Kathikund CD Block had a total population of 71,458, all of which were rural. There were 35,860 females. Scheduled Castes numbered 1,753 and Scheduled Tribes numbered 45,406. Population below 6 years was 12,841; as per 2011 census the total number of literates in Kathikund CD Block was 31,703 out of which 19,074 were males and 12,629 were females. As per 2011 census, literacy in Dumka district was 61.02. Literacy in Jharkhand was 66.41% in 2011. Literacy in India in 2011 was 74.04%. See – List of Jharkhand districts ranked by literacy rate SANMAT: A Chennai Based NGO/Civil Society named Sanmat working on public health issues & community health. Sanmat is taking care of MESO Hospital,Kathikund by providing operation & management support to ITDA.

Another program, being run by Sanmat is to train different SHG and villagers to turn them to economically empowered by creating village level entrepreneurs. Sanmat is supporting Jharkhand Skill Development Mission as Training Partner. Nav Bharat Jagriti Kendra has been working in Khathikund since 2010 on disability related issue. Four blocks of Dumka have been covered under this program. There are four result areas are there in which NBJK is engage in Kathikund block; this organization is working for the awareness regarding the causes and prevention of disability along with govt schemes related to disabled people. These aware generation activities are being done for non disabled people; this organization is working for livelihood of their families. The organization is promoting to Person with disability. Micro credit program is being implemented by the organization to insure the livelihood of person with disability. NBJK is working with disabled and Male who are non disabled. Disabled specific groups, women groups and men groups are being formed.

Many of the disabled people have joined to their federation, formed on block level and district level. The Kathikund Block has had many other ngo's working in the area like the FPB, World Vision, Enriching Lives Inspiring Minds Foundation etc... Another NGO/Civil Society named Sanmat working on public health issues. Sanmat is taking care of MESO Hospital,Kathikund by providing operation & management of Hospital. Another program, being run by Sanmat is to train different SHG and villagers to turn them to social entrepreneurs. </ref>