An aviary is a large enclosure for confining birds. Unlike birdcages, aviaries allow birds a larger living space. Aviaries contain plants and shrubbery to simulate a natural environment. Large aviaries are found in the setting of a zoological garden. Spacious walk-in aviaries exist in bird parks such as Jurong BirdPark in Singapore. Pittsburgh is home to the USA's National Aviary the most prominent example in North America of an aviary not set inside a zoo; the Tracy Aviary is an example of a bird park within a public urban park, Liberty Park in Salt Lake City, Utah. Some smaller sized aviaries can be found in European manorial gardens, such as Waddesdon Manor, UK, Versailles, France; some public aquaria, such as the Oregon Coast Aquarium, Oregon, or the Monterey Bay Aquarium, have aquatic aviaries. Home aviaries are popular with some bird fanciers. Many bird breeders list themselves as "aviaries", since most bird pairs breed best in aviaries in contrast to breeding cages. Home aviaries may be obtained from a commercial supplier.

There are two main subcategories of home aviaries: suspended aviaries. Grounded aviaries are affixed to the ground with a concrete base to prevent rats and other vermin from entering. Suspended aviaries are suspended in the air with only the'legs' of the aviaries affixed to the ground. Most grounded aviaries feature a woodwork or PVC frame unlike the metal frame of public aviaries. Aviaries are used for research purposes in ornithology institutes An aviary, a large cage to house and display birds, dates as far back and earlier than the 1500s found in the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan as noted by Hernan Cortes when he and his men arrived in 1521; the Raven Cage, is regarded as one of the oldest structures in the London Zoo. The first large aviary inside a zoological garden was established in 1880 in the setting of the Rotterdam Zoo. Aviaries were an important aspect for the many Rothschild houses that proliferated across Europe in the 19th century; this was a recalling of the aristocratic custom from the late 1600s, which involved the elite society displaying their power and wealth through the exhibition of exotic birds and animals.

For instance, Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild built his aviary in 1889 at Waddesdon Manor, UK, erected in the style of Versailles' trelliswork pavilions. In 1902, a flying cage was completed in the setting of the National Zoological Park of the Smithsonian Institution. A new Great Flying Cage was built in 1964; the Saint Louis Zoo is home to the 1904 World's Fair Flight Cage. It is one of only two permanent structures built for the World's Fair. In 1904, it was the largest bird cage built, it remains one of the world's largest free-flight aviaries. The 69 m long, 26 m wide, 15 m high cage was built by the Smithsonian Institution for the St. Louis World's Fair. Local pride in the giant cage motivated St. Louis to establish a zoo in 1910. In 1937, the San Diego Zoo's aviary designed by architect Louis John Gill opened; the mammoth steel structure, 55 m long, 18 m wide and more than 30 m high, funded by the Works Progress Administration at a cost of $50,000, had no beams, cross or guy-wires to impede the flight of the birds.

With the Antwerp cage system, birds are only separate from public with a light system used indoor the Bird Building at Antwerp Zoo. At the Frankfurt Zoo, the bird house was built in 1969, its Bird Halls presented birds for the first time in large glassed miniature habitats. In diving exhibits and kingfishers could be seen hunting under water, in the free-flight hall visitors still walk amongst tropical birds in dense vegetation. In 1963, the same principle was used outdoors to construct the Bird Thicket, ten aviaries surrounded by dense bushes and designed in various habitat settings, which visitors can enter through wire netted doors and curtains of cords; the Snowdon Aviary in London Zoo was designed by Antony Armstrong-Jones, 1st Earl of Snowdon, Cedric Price and Frank Newby, built in 1962–1964. The Bronx Zoo's World of Birds, a two-story bird house completed in 1972, is a huge, indoor free-flight exhibit; the one-way flow pattern in the exhibit moves the visitors through twenty-five birds habitats, ranging from desert to tropical forest.

Each setting recreates with impressive fidelity the microculture of the birds that fly merrily about within their diorama world, complete with living plants. Five of the aviaries are open: in two of the largest the uncaged public walks through the habitat with birds overhead; the Henry Doorly Zoo's Simmons Aviary opened in 1983 and is one of the world's largest free-flight aviaries. About 500 birds from all parts of the world occupy the area of the aviary. In this 16,000-square-metre exhibit, visitors see flamingos, swans, cranes, spoonbills and egrets; the Aviary rises to 23 m at the center. The structure of two-inch nylon mesh is supported by a system of poles; the use of nylon instead of wire is a unique concept. Birds of Eden bird sanctuary, located in the Western Cape of South Africa, is the largest free flight aviary in the world; the aviary opened in 2005 and covers

Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2018

The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2018 known as CHOGM 2018, was the 25th meeting of the heads of government of the Commonwealth of Nations. It was held in the United Kingdom; the meeting had been planned to have been held by Vanuatu at the end of 2017, but was moved to the United Kingdom after the impact of Cyclone Pam on the infrastructure of Vanuatu. The meeting was postponed to April 2018 due to other international commitments; the position of Commonwealth Chair-in-Office, held by the government leader of the CHOGM host country, was transferred at the summit from the Prime Minister of Malta to the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, who will hold the post until the 26th CHOGM. The theme of the summit was "Towards a Common Future"; the British hosts set out four main goals for the summit: prosperity: boosting intra-Commonwealth trade and investment security: increasing cooperation across security challenges including global terrorism, organised crime and cyber attacks fairness: promoting democracy, fundamental freedoms and good governance across the Commonwealth sustainability: building the resilience of small and vulnerable states to deal with the effects of climate change and other global crisesUnder consideration were: A Commonwealth Blue Charter on ocean governance, a Commonwealth connectivity agenda for trade and investment, a declaration on cybercrime, revised Commonwealth guidelines on election observation in member countries.

This was the first CHOGM held following the United Kingdom's decision to withdraw from the European Union, a decision which has resulted in calls for Britain to strengthen its economic ties with and play a greater role in the Commonwealth. The Commonwealth, as of 2018, was responsible for one-tenth of British trade compare to the EU with which the UK conducts half of its trade. Intra-Commonwealth trade, overall, is expected to increase by at least 17% to around US$700 billion by 2020; the British government hoped to use the CHOGM to open negotiations for expanded trade with Commonwealth nations to replace lost trade with the EU, however, as the summit began The Economist dismissed the belief that the Commonwealth could fill the gap created by Brexit as “an amiable delusion”. The succession of the Headship of the Commonwealth, the roles of other members of the Royal Family was discussed, a proposal to nominate Queen Elizabeth II for the Nobel Peace Prize is expected to feature in discussions.

At a speech welcoming Commonwealth leaders to Buckingham Palace on the first day of the summit, the Queen said "It is my sincere wish that the Commonwealth will continue to offer stability and continuity for future generations, will decide that one day the Prince of Wales should carry on the important work started by my father in 1949."On 20 April, the second day of the summit, the Commonwealth leaders agreed that Prince Charles would succeed the Queen as Head of the Commonwealth. The British government was accused by LGBT activists of backing away from plans to make LGBT rights in the Commonwealth of Nations an issue during the summit. Homosexuality remains a criminal offence in 37 out of 53 Commonwealth states. LGBT-rights campaigners from the UK and across the Commonwealth picketed Marlborough House, the headquarters of the Commonwealth Secretariat, on 19 April in order to draw attention to the issue. UK Prime Minister Theresa May said in a speech to Commonwealth leaders that she "deeply regrets" Britain's role in having same-sex conduct criminalized in colonial laws that remain in force in many Commonwealth countries, saying of these laws that “They were wrong and they are wrong now” and that the UK government supports the reform of these laws in former colonies.

The UK promised to spend £61m to combat the pollution of the world's oceans by plastics and announced that it would ban plastic straws and other waste and to help developing countries curb plastics and other environmental pollutants from contaminating the oceans, urged other Commonwealth countries to do the same. Five countries have joined the Commonwealth Clean Oceans Alliance: the UK, New Zealand, Sri Lanka and Ghana; the Commonwealth unanimously adopted the Commonwealth Cyber Declaration with leaders agreeing to work to strengthen their cybersecurity frameworks and response mechanisms by 2020. Jacinda Ardern, Prime Minister of New Zealand. Adama Barrow, President of the Gambia. Narendra Modi, Prime Minister of India. South African President Cyril Ramaphosa had to leave the summit early, returning to South Africa to deal with riots in North West province. Zimbabwe's Foreign Minister, Sibusiso Moyo, was in London and requested to attend the summit as an observer in an attempt by the country to re-engage with the Commonwealth following the departure of longtime President Robert Mugabe.

Moyo's presence would have been the first time Zimbabwe has attended a CHOGM in any capacity since leaving the Commonwealth in 2003. Moyo met various Commonwealth leaders on the sidelines of the summit, the UK expressed its support for readmitting Zimbabwe to the Commonwealth, but Moyo was not permitted to attend the summit itself as the Commonwealth has no provision for observer status. Julie Bishop, Minister for Foreign Affairs Overall, 47 out of 53 Commonwealth states were represented at the summit by their heads of government, with foreign ministers being the most senior attendees of the remaining countries; the leaders issued a Communiqué at the close of the summit in which they: committed their countries to ratifying and implementing the Convention on the Elimi

Red wolf

The red wolf is a canine native to the southeastern United States which has a reddish-tawny color to its fur. Morphologically it is intermediate between the coyote and gray wolf, is closely related to the eastern wolf of eastern Canada; the red wolf's proper taxonomic classification — in essence, whether it is an admixture of wolf and coyote or a third, distinct species — has been contentious for well over a century and is still under debate. Because of this, it is sometimes excluded from endangered species lists despite its critically low numbers. Under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, the U. S. Fisheries and Wildlife service recognizes the red wolf as an endangered and grants protected status. Canis rufus is not listed in the CITES Appendices of endangered species. Since 1996 the IUCN has listed it as a critically endangered species. Red wolves were distributed throughout the southeastern and south-central United States from the Atlantic Ocean to central Texas, southeastern Oklahoma and southwestern Illinois in the west, in the north from the Ohio River Valley, northern Pennsylvania and southern New York south to the Gulf of Mexico.

The red wolf was nearly driven to extinction by the mid-1900s due to aggressive predator-control programs, habitat destruction, extensive hybridization with coyotes. By the late 1960s, it occurred in small numbers in the Gulf Coast of western Louisiana and eastern Texas. Fourteen of these survivors were selected to be the founders of a captive-bred population, established in the Point Defiance Zoo and Aquarium between 1974 and 1980. After a successful experimental relocation to Bulls Island off the coast of South Carolina in 1978, the red wolf was declared extinct in the wild in 1980 to proceed with restoration efforts. In 1987, the captive animals were released into the Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge on the Albemarle Peninsula in North Carolina, with a second release, since reversed, taking place two years in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Of 63 red wolves released from 1987–1994, the population rose to as many as 100–120 individuals in 2012, but due to the lack of regulation enforcement by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the population has declined to 40 individuals in 2018 and about 14 as of 2019.

The taxonomic status of the red wolf is debated. It has been described as either a species with a distinct lineage, a recent hybrid of the gray wolf and the coyote, an ancient hybrid of the gray wolf and the coyote which warrants species status, or a distinct species that has undergone recent hybridization with the coyote; the naturalists John James Audubon and John Bachman were the first to suggest that the wolves of the southern United States were different from wolves in its other regions. In 1851 they recorded the "Black American Wolf" as C. l. var. arer that existed in Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, southern Indiana, southern Missouri and northern Texas. They recorded the "Red Texan Wolf" as C. l. var. rufus that existed from northern Arkansas, through Texas, into Mexico. In 1912 the zoologist Gerrit Smith Miller Jr. noted that the designation arer was unavailable and recorded these wolves as C. l. floridanus. In 1937, the zoologist Edward Alphonso Goldman proposed a new species of wolf Canis rufus.

Three subspecies of red wolf were recognized by Goldman, with two of these subspecies now being extinct. The Florida black wolf has been extinct since 1908 and the Mississippi Valley red wolf was declared extinct by 1980. By the 1970s, the Texas red wolf existed only in the coastal prairies and marshes of extreme southeastern Texas and southwestern Louisiana; these were removed from the wild to form a captive breeding program and reintroduced into eastern North Carolina in 1987. In 1967, the zoologists Barbara Lawrence and William H. Bossert believed that the case for classifying C. rufus as a species was based too on the small red wolves of central Texas, from where it was known that there existed hybridization with the coyote. They said that if an adequate number of specimens had have been included from Florida the separation of C. rufus from C. lupus would have been unlikely. The taxonomic reference Catalogue of Life classifies the red wolf as a subspecies of Canis lupus; the mammalogist W. Christopher Wozencraft, writing in Mammal Species of the World, regards the red wolf as a hybrid of the gray wolf and the coyote, but due to its uncertain status compromised by recognizing it as a subspecies of the gray wolf Canis lupus rufus.

When European settlers first arrived to North America, the coyote's range was limited to the western half of the continent. They existed in the arid areas and across the open plains, including the prairie regions of the midwestern states. Early explorers found some in Wisconsin. From the mid-1800s onward, coyotes began expanding beyond their original range; the taxonomic debate regarding North American wolves can be summarised as follows: There are two prevailing evolutionary models for North American Canis: a two-species model that identifies grey wolves and coyotes as distinct species that gave rise to various hybrids, including the Great Lakes-boreal wolf, the eastern coyote, the red wolf, the eastern wolf.