SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Aviation

Aviation or air transport are the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry. Aircraft includes fixed-wing and rotary-wing types, morphable wings, wing-less lifting bodies, as well as lighter-than-air craft such as hot air balloons and airships. Aviation began in the 18th century with the development of the hot air balloon, an apparatus capable of atmospheric displacement through buoyancy; some of the most significant advancements in aviation technology came with the controlled gliding flying of Otto Lilienthal in 1896. Since that time, aviation has been technologically revolutionized by the introduction of the jet which permitted a major form of transport throughout the world; the word aviation was coined by the French writer and former naval officer Gabriel La Landelle in 1863. He derived the term from the verb avier, itself derived from the Latin word avis and the suffix -ation. There are early legends of human flight such as the stories of Icarus in Greek myth and Shah Kay Kāvus in Persian myth, the flying automaton of Archytas of Tarentum.

Somewhat more credible claims of short-distance human flights appear, such as the winged flights of Abbas ibn Firnas, Eilmer of Malmesbury, the hot-air Passarola of Bartholomeu Lourenço de Gusmão. The modern age of aviation began with the first untethered human lighter-than-air flight on November 21, 1783, of a hot air balloon designed by the Montgolfier brothers; the practicality of balloons was limited. It was recognized that a steerable, or dirigible, balloon was required. Jean-Pierre Blanchard flew the first human-powered dirigible in 1784 and crossed the English Channel in one in 1785. Rigid airships became the first aircraft to transport passengers and cargo over great distances; the best known aircraft of this type were manufactured by the German Zeppelin company. The most successful Zeppelin was the Graf Zeppelin, it flew over one million miles, including an around-the-world flight in August 1929. However, the dominance of the Zeppelins over the airplanes of that period, which had a range of only a few hundred miles, was diminishing as airplane design advanced.

The "Golden Age" of the airships ended on May 6, 1937 when the Hindenburg caught fire, killing 36 people. The cause of the Hindenburg accident was blamed on the use of hydrogen instead of helium as the lift gas. An internal investigation by the manufacturer revealed that the coating used in the material covering the frame was flammable and allowed static electricity to build up in the airship. Changes to the coating formulation reduced the risk of further Hindenburg type accidents. Although there have been periodic initiatives to revive their use, airships have seen only niche application since that time. In 1799, Sir George Cayley set forth the concept of the modern airplane as a fixed-wing flying machine with separate systems for lift and control. Early dirigible developments included machine-powered propulsion, rigid frames and improved speed and maneuverability There are many competing claims for the earliest powered, heavier-than-air flight; the first recorded powered flight was carried out by Clément Ader on October 9, 1890 in his bat-winged self-propelled fixed-wing aircraft, the Ader Éole.

It was the first manned, heavier-than-air flight of a significant distance but insignificant altitude from level ground. Seven years on 14 October 1897, Ader's Avion III was tested without success in front of two officials from the French War ministry; the report on the trials was not publicized until 1910. In November 1906, Ader claimed to have made a successful flight on 14 October 1897, achieving an "uninterrupted flight" of around 300 metres. Although believed at the time, these claims were discredited; the Wright brothers made the first successful powered and sustained airplane flight on December 17, 1903, a feat made possible by their invention of three-axis control. Only a decade at the start of World War I, heavier-than-air powered aircraft had become practical for reconnaissance, artillery spotting, attacks against ground positions. Aircraft began to transport people and cargo as designs grew more reliable; the Wright brothers took aloft the first passenger, Charles Furnas, one of their mechanics, on May 14, 1908.

During the 1920s and 1930s great progress was made in the field of aviation, including the first transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown in 1919, Charles Lindbergh's solo transatlantic flight in 1927, Charles Kingsford Smith's transpacific flight the following year. One of the most successful designs of this period was the Douglas DC-3, which became the first airliner to be profitable carrying passengers starting the modern era of passenger airline service. By the beginning of World War II, many towns and cities had built airports, there were numerous qualified pilots available; the war brought many innovations to aviation, including the first jet aircraft and the first liquid-fueled rockets. After World War II in North America, there was a boom in general aviation, both private and commercial, as thousands of pilots were released from military service and many inexpensive war-surplus transport and training aircraft became available. Manufacturers such as Cessna and Beechcraft expanded production to provide light aircraft for the new middle-class market.

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Ian Johnston (police officer)

Sir William Ian Ridley Johnston, CBE, QPM, DL was the Chief Constable of British Transport Police. He became Chief Constable on 1 May 2001 when he succeeded David Williams QPM, who had served as Chief Constable for three and a half years. Johnston was born in 1945. Johnston joined the Metropolitan Police in 1965 and served as Staff Officer to former Metropolitan Police Commissioner, Peter Imbert. In 1982, he graduated from London School of Economics with a first in Social Administration. Having completed the Senior Command Course at Bramshill, Johnston moved to Kent Constabulary in 1989, where he served as Assistant Chief Constable in charge of first Administration and Supply, Operations, before moving back to the Metropolitan Police in 1992 as a Deputy Assistant Commissioner. In 1994 he was appointed Assistant Commissioner for the South East London area, but in 1999 moved to Assistant Commissioner with responsibility for Territorial Policing in 2000. In September 2009 Sir Ian retired from the British Transport Police and was succeeded by Andrew Trotter OBE QPM Johnston came to media attention having given evidence before the enquiry and following the publication of the Macpherson Report into the murder of Stephen Lawrence.

On behalf of the Metropolitan Police, Johnston apologised to the Lawrence family for institutionalised racism. Johnston reiterated this argument in the aftermath of the London Tube bombings in 2005. Johnston had been mooted as being the next Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police after the retirement of Sir John Stevens in 2005. Sir John had described Johnston as a "substantial figure" at the Met, noted that following his departure for British Transport Police Johnston was missed; the role of Commissioner was to be given to Sir Ian Blair. After retiring from BTP, Ian Johnston was appointed Director of Security and Resilience at LOCOG, for the London 2012 Olympics. In post, he was responsible for signing the contract with G4S, which in July 2012 led to the announcement that British troops would be deployed at the Olympics to cover shortfalls. According to an insider from LOCOG talking to Newsnight, "there was inadequate scrutiny", "the management of security at Locog was "thoroughly amateurish and incompetent"", "It was the wrong strategy, to use only one company", compared with the approach of LOCOG's event services division.

Ian Johnston holds the chair of the Association of Chief Police Officers Crime Business Area, is chairman of Orpington Rovers Football Club, Bromley. In the 1995 New Years Honours list he was awarded the Queen's Police Medal. On 16 June 2001, as part of that year's Queen's Birthday Honours, he was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire "for services to the Police", he was knighted in the 2009 Birthday Honours. He was Appointed a Deputy Lieutenant for the Borough of Camden on 1 January 2008

Language and Book Development Agency

The Language and Book Development Agency Language Center is the institution responsible for standardizing and regulating the Indonesian language as well as maintaining the indigenous languages of Indonesia. It is under the Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia; the Agency has a secretariat, four division heads, 12 sub-division heads, two central heads, six sector heads and 12 sub-sector heads, as well as a number of regional offices. The agency was founded in 1947 as the Language and Culture Research Institute, part of the University of Indonesia, it was headed by Prof. Dr. Gerrit Jan Held. Parallel to this, the newly formed Indonesian government, having just declared independence in 1945, created the Home of Language in March 1948. At that time, this organisation was under the Culture Division of the Ministry of Education and Culture. In 1952, both organisations were integrated into the Faculty of Literature at the University of Indonesia; the combined organisation was named the Division of Culture.

Seven years on June 1, 1959, the division was renamed the Division of Language and Literature, was integrated into the Department of Education and Culture. On November 3, 1966, the division was again renamed to Directorate of Language and Literature under the Directorate General of Culture, itself under the Department of Education and Culture. On May 27, 1969, the directorate was renamed to Division of National Language under the same Directorate General. On April 1, 1975, the LBN was once again renamed to The Center of Language Research. Unofficially, the term "Pusat Bahasa" was used to refer to the PPPB due to its lengthy name. Due to a presidential order in 2000, the PPPB was renamed as the "Language Center", placed under the Secretariat General of the Department of National Education. In 2009, the Indonesian Government and People's Representative Council passed Law 24/2009 on the Flag, State Symbol and National Anthem; because of that act and a presidential order, the Language Center was renamed as Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa or the "Language Development and Fostering Agency", placed under the Ministry of Education and Culture.

As of 30 October 2018 and refer to presidential decree No 101/2018, the Agency has been renamed as Badan Pengembangan Bahasa dan Perbukuan. Official website