Somalia, officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian Ocean to the east, Somalia has the longest coastline on Africas mainland, and its terrain consists mainly of plateaus and highlands. Climatically, hot conditions prevail year-round, with monsoon winds. Somalia has an population of around 12.3 million. Around 85% of its residents are ethnic Somalis, who have inhabited the northern part of the country. Ethnic minorities are largely concentrated in the southern regions, the official languages of Somalia are Somali and Arabic, both of which belong to the Afroasiatic family. Most people in the country are Muslim, with the majority being Sunni, in antiquity, Somalia was an important commercial centre. It is among the most probable locations of the fabled ancient Land of Punt, during the Middle Ages, several powerful Somali empires dominated the regional trade, including the Ajuran Empire, the Adal Sultanate, the Warsangali Sultanate, and the Geledi Sultanate.
The toponym Somalia was coined by the Italian explorer Luigi Robecchi Bricchetti, Italian occupation lasted until 1941, yielding to British military administration. British Somaliland would remain a protectorate, while Italian Somaliland in 1949 became a United Nations Trusteeship under Italian administration, in 1960, the two regions united to form the independent Somali Republic under a civilian government. The Supreme Revolutionary Council seized power in 1969 and established the Somali Democratic Republic, led by Mohamed Siad Barre, this government collapsed in 1991 as the Somali Civil War broke out. Various armed factions began competing for influence in the power vacuum, during this period, due to the absence of a central government, Somalia was a failed state, and residents returned to customary and religious law in most regions. A few autonomous regions, including the Somaliland and Puntland administrations emerged in the north, the early 2000s saw the creation of fledgling interim federal administrations.
The Transitional National Government was established in 2000, followed by the formation of the Transitional Federal Government in 2004, in 2006, the TFG, assisted by Ethiopian troops, assumed control of most of the nations southern conflict zones from the newly formed Islamic Courts Union. The ICU subsequently splintered into more radical groups such as Al-Shabaab, by mid-2012, the insurgents had lost most of the territory that they had seized. In 2011–2012, a political process providing benchmarks for the establishment of permanent democratic institutions was launched, within this administrative framework a new provisional constitution was passed in August 2012, which reformed Somalia as a federation. Somalia has maintained an informal economy, mainly based on livestock, remittances from Somalis working abroad, Somalia has been inhabited since at least the Paleolithic. During the Stone Age, the Doian and Hargeisan cultures flourished here, the oldest evidence of burial customs in the Horn of Africa comes from cemeteries in Somalia dating back to the 4th millennium BCE
Bunbury, Western Australia
The port city of Bunbury is the third largest city in Western Australia after the state capital and Mandurah. It is situated 175 kilometres south of Perths central business district, Bunbury was first established in 1836, and was named in recognition of Lieutenant Henry William St Pierre Bunbury. The citys administrative area, Greater Bunbury, includes four local government areas, the port of Bunbury services the farming and timber industries of the south west. The original inhabitants of Greater Bunbury are the Indigenous Australian Noongar people, the people hunted and fished throughout the sub-region prior to the first European settlement in the 1830s. The first registered sighting of Greater Bunbury was by French explorer Captain Louis de Freycinet from his ship the Casuarina in 1803 and he named the area Port Leschenault after the expeditions botanist, Leschenault de La Tour. The bay on Greater Bunburys western shores was named Geographe after another ship in the fleet, in 1829, Dr Alexander Collie and Lieutenant Preston explored the area of Bunbury on land.
In 1830 Lieutenant Governor Sir James Stirling visited the area and a military post was subsequently established, the area was renamed Bunbury by the Governor in recognition of Lieutenant Henry William St Pierre Bunbury, who developed the very difficult inland route from Pinjarra to Bunbury. Bunbury township was mentioned in the Government Gazette in 1839, in March 1841 lots were declared open for selection. By 1842 Bunbury was home to 16 buildings including an inn, thereafter, a growing port serviced the settlers and the subsequent local industries that developed. One of the industries to open up to cement the importance of Bunbury as a port was the timber industry. Timber logs would be floated down the Collie River to be loaded aboard ships headed to the Northern Hemisphere or to South Africa where the hardwood timbers were used for railway sleepers, in 1884 the Government decided to construct a railway from Bunbury to Boyanup,16 miles long. When the line was completed in 1887, the contractor who had built it obtained a contract to control and work it, the line was eventually taken over by the Government in 1891 and operated with locomotives.
The Boyanup line was extended to Donnybrook, Western Australia in the same year, the railways connected the port of Bunbury to the coal and mineral deposits and agricultural areas to the north and east of Greater Bunbury. The population of the town was 2,970 in 1898, in 1903 a breakwater to further protect the bay and port area was completed. The Old Bunbury railway station served as the terminal for the Australind passenger train between Perth, transporting its first passengers on 24 November 1947. The last train to use the station departed on 28 May 1985 with a new opening at East Bunbury,4 kilometres to the south-east the following day. The railway land was sold and Blair Street realigned. Bunbury has a Mediterranean climate with summers and cool winters
Gulf St Vincent
Gulf St Vincent is a large inlet of water on the southern coast of Australia, in the state of South Australia. Adelaide, the South Australian capital, lies midway along the gulfs east coast, other towns located on the gulf, from west to east include Edithburgh, Port Vincent and Port Wakefield and Normanville. It was named Gulph of St. Vincent by Matthew Flinders on 30 March 1802, prior to then, it had been known as Golphe Josephine. The Adelaide Desalination Plant which is located on Gulf St Vincents eastern shore in Lonsdale, South Australia, the Gulf teems with crustacea and polychaeta, as well as various species of sea squirts and sea urchins. The benthos is a soft sediment shelf, with species of zosteraceae around the mouth of the Port River, Gulf St Vincent Important Bird Area South Australian State Gazetteer PlaceNames Online Search Friends of Gulf St Vincent Accessed 14 February 2014
The flowering plants, known as Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approx. 13,164 known genera and a total of c.295,383 known species, angiosperm means a plant that produces seeds within an enclosure, in other words, a fruiting plant. The term angiosperm comes from the Greek composite word meaning enclosed seeds, the ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period, during the range 245 to 202 million years ago, and the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya. They diversified extensively during the Lower Cretaceous, became widespread by 120 mya, angiosperms differ from other seed plants in several ways, described in the table. These distinguishing characteristics taken together have made the angiosperms the most diverse and numerous land plants, the amount and complexity of tissue-formation in flowering plants exceeds that of gymnosperms. The vascular bundles of the stem are arranged such that the xylem and phloem form concentric rings, in the dicotyledons, the bundles in the very young stem are arranged in an open ring, separating a central pith from an outer cortex.
In each bundle, separating the xylem and phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative tissue known as cambium, the soft phloem becomes crushed, but the hard wood persists and forms the bulk of the stem and branches of the woody perennial. Among the monocotyledons, the bundles are more numerous in the stem and are scattered through the ground tissue. They contain no cambium and once formed the stem increases in diameter only in exceptional cases, the characteristic feature of angiosperms is the flower. Flowers show remarkable variation in form and elaboration, and provide the most trustworthy external characteristics for establishing relationships among angiosperm species, the function of the flower is to ensure fertilization of the ovule and development of fruit containing seeds. The floral apparatus may arise terminally on a shoot or from the axil of a leaf, occasionally, as in violets, a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf. There are two kinds of cells produced by flowers.
Microspores, which divide to become pollen grains, are the male cells and are borne in the stamens. The female cells called megaspores, which divide to become the egg cell, are contained in the ovule. The flower may consist only of parts, as in willow. Usually, other structures are present and serve to protect the sporophylls, the individual members of these surrounding structures are known as sepals and petals. The outer series is usually green and leaf-like, and functions to protect the rest of the flower, the inner series is, in general, white or brightly colored, and is more delicate in structure. It functions to attract insect or bird pollinators, attraction is effected by color and nectar, which may be secreted in some part of the flower
Sabkha is a phonetic translation of the Arabic word for a salt flat. Sabkhas are supratidal, forming along coastlines and are characterized by evaporite-carbonate deposits with some siliciclastics. Sabkhas form subaerial and shoaling-upward sequences that have a thickness of a meter or less. The accepted type locality is along the coast of the Persian Gulf in the United Arab Emirates, the origin and progression of sabkha development in the Persian Gulf is discussed by Al-Farraj. In the khor-lagoon-sabkha model, a rise in sea-level floods coastal areas. If the features silt up, or the land rises, or the sea level falls, the water evaporates, leaving a flat salt pan. If the coastal region has irregular topography, the flooding creates large independent creeks, a khor is a shallow, subtidal flat or tidal inlet. The inlet may host grey mangroves, depending on whether less saline water is available from wadis or groundwater, as sediment begins to accumulate, the khors become more shallow and form a lagoon, or intertidal flat.
The lagoons continue to fill until the floor is exposed at low tide. An immature sabkha will be inundated during higher than normal spring tides, after rainstorms, mature sabkhas are only flooded after heavy rainstorms and may eventually coalesce to form a sabkha coastal plain. These coastal plains are flat, with reliefs between 10–50 cm, and their seaward slope can be as little as 1,1,000. The flatness of a sabkha is enhanced by aeolian siliciclastic dust being deposited in the topographic lows with most of the caused by evaporites. These environments can be found laterally contemporaneous in parallel belts to the coast as well, coral reefs, barrier islands, and oolite shoals form the barrier with the open shelf. Inland of this are the supratidal sabkhas, the sabkhas can be as wide as 15 km when seaward of dune fields supplying large amounts of sediment. Sabkhas seaward of low outcrops of Miocene carbonate-evaporites or alluvial fans off the Oman fold, if the coast has dune fields, flooding creates many smaller pools between the crests of the dunes.
In some parts of the world, these lakes can form in inland deserts. For example, large parts of the Empty Quarter in Saudi Arabia, in some places, the sabkha connect to form long accessible corridors into the desert. The third picture shows the south of the crescent-shaped Liwa Oasis in the southern UAE
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different Bantu languages, the remaining population consists of Africas largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a variety of cultures, languages. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the recognition of 11 official languages. The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup détat, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a role in the countrys recent history. The National Party imposed apartheid in 1948, institutionalising previous racial segregation, since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the countrys democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces.
South Africa is often referred to as the Rainbow Nation to describe the multicultural diversity. The World Bank classifies South Africa as an economy. Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, and the 34th-largest in the world, in terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa. However and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed, South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, and maintains significant regional influence. The name South Africa is derived from the geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, since 1961 the long form name in English has been the Republic of South Africa. In Dutch the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika, since 1994 the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning south, is a name for South Africa.
South Africa contains some of the oldest archaeological and human fossil sites in the world, extensive fossil remains have been recovered from a series of caves in Gauteng Province. The area is a UNESCO World Heritage site and has termed the Cradle of Humankind
A cotyledon is a significant part of the embryo within the seed of a plant, and is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as The primary leaf in the embryo of the higher plants, the seed-leaf. Upon germination, the cotyledon may become the embryonic first leaves of a seedling, the number of cotyledons present is one characteristic used by botanists to classify the flowering plants. Species with one cotyledon are called monocotyledonous, plants with two embryonic leaves are termed dicotyledonous and placed in the class Magnoliopsida. In the case of dicot seedlings whose cotyledons are photosynthetic, the cotyledons are functionally similar to leaves, true leaves and cotyledons are developmentally distinct. Cotyledons are formed during embryogenesis, along with the root and shoot meristems, true leaves, are formed post-embryonically from the shoot apical meristem, which is responsible for generating subsequent aerial portions of the plant. The cotyledon of grasses and many other monocotyledons is a modified leaf composed of a scutellum.
The scutellum is a tissue within the seed that is specialized to absorb stored food from the adjacent endosperm, the coleoptile is a protective cap that covers the plumule. Gymnosperm seedlings have cotyledons, and these are often variable in number, the highest number reported is for big-cone pinyon, with 24. The cotyledons may be ephemeral, lasting only days after emergence, or persistent, the cotyledons contain the stored food reserves of the seed. As these reserves are used up, the cotyledons may turn green and begin photosynthesis, the latter is typically the case where the cotyledons act as a storage organ, as in many nuts and acorns. Hypogeal plants have larger seeds than epigeal ones. They are capable of surviving if the seedling is clipped off, the tradeoff is whether the plant should produce a large number of small seeds, or a smaller number of seeds which are more likely to survive. Related plants show a mixture of hypogeal and epigeal development, even within the plant family. Groups which contain both hypogeal and epigeal species include, for example, the Araucariaceae family of Southern Hemisphere conifers, the Fabaceae, the frequently garden grown common bean - Phaseolus vulgaris - is epigeal while the closely related runner bean - Phaseolus coccineus - is hypogeal.
The term cotyledon was coined by Marcello Malpighi and Albertus Magnus may have recognized the distinction between the dicotyledons and monocotyledons
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate. From a geological perspective, it is considered a subcontinent of Asia and it is the largest peninsula in the world, at 3,237,500 km2. The Arabian Peninsula consists of the countries Yemen, Qatar, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, the Arabian Peninsula plays a critical geopolitical role in the Middle East and the Arab world due to its vast reserves of oil and natural gas. Before the modern era, it was divided into four regions, Najd, Southern Arabia. Hejaz and Najd make up most of Saudi Arabia, Southern Arabia consists of Yemen and some parts of Saudi Arabia and Oman. Eastern Arabia consists of the coastal strip of the Persian Gulf. The most prominent feature of the peninsula is desert, but in the southwest there are mountain ranges, harrat ash Shaam is a large volcanic field that extends from the northwestern Arabian Peninsula into Jordan and southern Syria. The peninsulas constituent countries are Kuwait, Qatar, the island nation of Bahrain lies off the east coast of the peninsula.
Six countries form the Gulf Cooperation Council, this is a disputed term. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia covers the part of the peninsula. The majority of the population of the live in Saudi Arabia. The peninsula contains the worlds largest reserves of oil, Saudi Arabia and the UAE are economically the wealthiest in the region. Qatar, a peninsula in the Persian Gulf on the larger peninsula, is home of the Arabic-language television station Al Jazeera. Kuwait, on the border with Iraq, is an important country strategically, though historically lightly populated, political Arabia is noted for a high population growth rate - as the result of both very strong inflows of migrant labor as well as sustained high birth rates. The population tends to be young and heavily skewed gender ratio dominated by males. In many states, the number of South Asians exceeds that of the local citizenry, the four smallest states, which have their entire coastlines on the Persian Gulf, exhibit the worlds most extreme population growth, roughly tripling every 20 years.
In 2014, the population of the Arabian Peninsula was 77,983,936. Listed here are the human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups in Arabia Haplogroup J is the most abundant component in the Arabian peninsula and its two main subclades, show opposite latitudinal gradients in the Middle East
United Arab Emirates
In 2013, the UAEs population was 9.2 million, of which 1.4 million are Emirati citizens and 7.8 million are expatriates. The country is a federation of seven emirates, and was established on 2 December 1971, the constituent emirates are Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ras al-Khaimah and Umm al-Quwain. Each emirate is governed by a monarch, they jointly form the Federal Supreme Council. One of the monarchs is selected as the President of the United Arab Emirates, Islam is the official religion of the UAE and Arabic is the official language. The UAEs oil reserves are the seventh-largest in the world while its natural gas reserves are the worlds seventeenth-largest, Sheikh Zayed, ruler of Abu Dhabi and the first President of the UAE, oversaw the development of the Emirates and steered oil revenues into healthcare and infrastructure. The UAEs economy is the most diversified in the Gulf Cooperation Council, while its most populous city of Dubai is an important global city, the country remains principally reliant on its export of petroleum and natural gas.
The UAE is criticised for its rights record, including the specific interpretations of Sharia used in its legal system. The UAEs rising international profile has led analysts to identify it as a regional. It appears the land of the Emirates has been occupied for thousands of years, there is no proof of contact with the outside world at that stage, although in time it developed with civilisations in Mesopotamia and Iran. This contact persisted and became wide-ranging, probably motivated by trade in copper from the Hajar Mountains, in ancient times, Al Hasa was part of Al Bahreyn and adjoined Greater Oman. Sassanid groups were present on the Batinah coast, in 637, Julfar was an important port that was used as a staging post for the Islamic invasion of the Sassanian Empire. The area of the Al Ain/Buraimi Oasis was known as Tuam and was an important trading post for camel routes between the coast and the Arabian interior. The earliest Christian site in the UAE was first discovered in the 1990s, a monastic complex on what is now known as Sir Bani Yas Island.
Thought to be Nestorian and built in 600 AD, the church appears to have been abandoned peacefully in 750 AD and it forms a rare physical link to a legacy of Christianity which is thought to have spread across the peninsula from 50 to 350 AD following trade routes. Certainly, by the 5th century, Oman had a bishop named John – the last bishop of Oman being Etienne, in 676 AD. This led to a group of travelling to Medina, converting to Islam and subsequently driving a successful uprising against the unpopular Sassanids. Following the death of Prophet Muhammad, the new Islamic communities south of the Persian Gulf threatened to disintegrate, with insurrections against the Muslim leaders. The Caliph Abu Bakr sent an army from the capital Medina which completed its reconquest of the territory with the battle of Dibba in which 10,000 lives are thought to have been lost
Sudan, known as North Sudan since South Sudans independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan, is a country in Northern Africa. It is the third largest country in Africa, the River Nile divides the country into eastern and western halves. Before the Sudanese Civil War, South Sudan was part of Sudan, Sudan was home to numerous ancient civilizations, such as the Kingdom of Kush, Nobatia, Makuria, Meroë and others, most of which flourished along the Nile. During the pre-dynastic period Nubia and Nagadan Upper Egypt were identical, by virtue of its proximity to Egypt, the Sudan participated in the wider history of the Near East inasmuch as it was Christianized by the 6th century, and Islamized in the 15th. As a result of Christianization, the Old Nubian language stands as the oldest recorded Nilo-Saharan language, Sudan was the largest country in Africa and the Arab world until 2011, when South Sudan separated into an independent country, following an independence referendum. Sudan is now the third largest country in Africa and the third largest country in the Arab world and its capital is Khartoum, the political and commercial centre of the nation.
It is a representative democratic federal republic. The politics of Sudan are regulated by an organization called the National Assembly. The Sudanese legal system is based on Islamic law, the countrys place name Sudan is a name given to a geographical region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western Africa to eastern Central Africa. The name derives from the Arabic bilād as-sūdān, or the lands of the Blacks, during the fifth millennium BC migrations from the drying Sahara brought neolithic people into the Nile Valley along with agriculture. The population that resulted from this cultural and genetic mixing developed social hierarchy over the centuries become the Kingdom of Kush at 1700 BC. The Kingdom of Kush was an ancient Nubian state centered on the confluences of the Blue Nile and White Nile, and the Atbarah River and it was established after the Bronze Age collapse and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt, centered at Napata in its early phase. After King Kashta invaded Egypt in the eighth century BC, the Kushite kings ruled as pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt for a century before being defeated and driven out by the Assyrians.
At the height of their glory, the Kushites conquered an empire that stretched from what is now known as South Kordofan all the way to the Sinai, pharaoh Piye attempted to expand the empire into the Near East, but was thwarted by the Assyrian king Sargon II. Sennacheribs successor Esarhaddon went further, and invaded Egypt itself, deposing Taharqa, Taharqa fled back to his homeland where he died two years later. Egypt became an Assyrian colony, king Tantamani, after succeeding Taharqa, Esarhaddon died while preparing to leave the Assyrian capital of Nineveh in order to eject him. However, his successor Ashurbanipal sent an army into southern Egypt and routed Tantamani. During Classical Antiquity, the Nubian capital was at Meroë, in ancient Greek geography, the Meroitic kingdom was known as Ethiopia
Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Great Australian Bight and Southern Ocean to the south, the state has about 2.6 million inhabitants, around 11% of the national total. 92% of the lives in the south-west corner of the state. The first European visitor to Western Australia was the Dutch explorer Dirk Hartog, the first European settlement of Western Australia occurred following the landing by Major Edmund Lockyer on 26 December 1826 of an expedition on behalf of the New South Wales colonial government. This was followed by the establishment of the Swan River Colony in 1829, including the site of the present-day capital, york was the first inland settlement in Western Australia. Situated 97 kilometres east of Perth, it was settled on 16 September 1831, Western Australia achieved responsible government in 1890, and federated with the other British colonies in Australia in 1901. Today its economy relies on mining and tourism.
The state produces 46% of Australias exports, Western Australia is the second-largest iron ore producer in the world. The International Hydrographic Organization designates the body of water south of the continent as part of the Indian Ocean, the total length of the states eastern border is 1,862 km. There are 20,781 km of coastline, including 7,892 km of island coastline, the total land area occupied by the state is 2.5 million km2. Most of the state is a low plateau with an elevation of about 400 metres, very low relief. This descends relatively sharply to the plains, in some cases forming a sharp escarpment. The extreme age of the landscape has meant that the soils are remarkably infertile, even soils derived from granitic bedrock contain an order of magnitude less available phosphorus and only half as much nitrogen as soils in comparable climates in other continents. Soils derived from extensive sandplains or ironstone are even less fertile, nearly devoid of soluble phosphate and deficient in zinc, molybdenum, the infertility of most of the soils has required heavy application by farmers of chemical fertilisers, particularly superphosphate and herbicides.
These have resulted in damage to invertebrate and bacterial populations, the grazing and use of hoofed mammals and, heavy machinery through the years have resulted in compaction of soils and great damage to the fragile soils. Large-scale land clearing for agriculture has damaged habitats for native flora, large areas of the states wheatbelt region have problems with dryland salinity and the loss of fresh water. The southwest coastal area has a Mediterranean climate and it was originally heavily forested, including large stands of karri, one of the tallest trees in the world. This agricultural region is one of the nine most bio-diverse terrestrial habitats, thanks to the offshore Leeuwin Current, the area is one of the top six regions for marine biodiversity and contains the most southerly coral reefs in the world
The Port River is a river located north of the Adelaide central business district in the Australian state of South Australia. The Port River is the branch of the largest tidal estuary on the eastern side of Gulf St Vincent. It extends inland through the historic Inner Harbour of Port Adelaide, before European settlement of Adelaides western suburbs and the construction of various flood mitigation channels and levees, the Port River formed one of the outlets of the River Torrens. The banks of the river are largely industrialised and have some of Adelaide’s wharves, bulk cargo and container handling facilities, one of its main attractions other than transport is the Port River dolphins, which are the only wild dolphins in the world that live within a city. Besides shipping using the main channel, a fishing fleet operates out of the North Arm which has a speed boat club. Recreational boating marinas are located in the Angas Inlet and on the Lefevre Peninsula, the ASC has its construction and maintenance facility and dock at Osborne, and there is a heritage-listed former Quarantine Station on Torrens Island.
Several power stations including the Torrens Island Power Station and the Pelican Point Power Station, the Port Adelaide Rowing Club has rowed on the river for one hundred and thirty years, and the river was formerly a frequent venue for the Intervarsity eights race. Flushing of the West Lakes occurs through a system that takes in fresh seawater through an inlet off the coast at the southern end. Spring tides are over 2½ metres AHD and at low tide mudflats are exposed near the outlet of the river, forming a ground for blue swimmer crabs. The Adelaide Dolphin Sanctuary, a 118 km² Dolphin sanctuary which was enacted by the 2005 Adelaide Dolphin Sanctuary Act covers all of the Barker Inlet and the Port River. Bottlenose dolphins are seen in the river and following small boats and have become a well known tourist attraction with dolphin cruises departing from Queens Wharf. The mudflats at the mouth of the river are part of the Gulf St Vincent Important Bird Area, prior to the 1836 settlement of South Australia, the river was a shallow and narrow tidal creek winding between mangrove swamps.
The river was discovered in 1834 by Captain John Jones after an 1831 sighting by Captain Collet Barker. The initial landing place in Adelaide was some way north of the current port and had poor conditions that for many years it was known as Port Misery. The current port location was opened in 1840 but, due to the depth of the river. This new harbour allowed the steamships that were arriving at Adelaide to dock, with smaller steam vessels. The river was first bridged in 1859 opening the Lefevre Peninsula to development and now is crossed by 3 road bridges including the Birkenhead bridge, the North Arm contains a significant ships graveyard with 25 identified wrecks and was used to house explosives stores from the 1880s. The remains of the iron and wooden ships that were abandoned between 1909 and 1945 are now bird roosts and a canoeing attraction, the ships in the graveyard were launched from 1857 to 1920 and includes the Dorothy H