SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Aviculture

Aviculture is the practice of keeping and breeding birds of wild birds in captivity. Aviculture is focused on not only the raising and breeding of birds, but on preserving avian habitat, public awareness campaigns. There are various reasons; some people breed birds to preserve a species. Some people breed parrots as companion birds, some people breed birds to make a profit. Aviculture is the practice of keeping birds in captivity using controlled conditions within the confines of an aviary, for hobby, business and conservation purposes; some reasons for aviculture are: breeding birds to preserve the species because many avian species are at risk due to habitat destruction and natural disaster. Aviculture encourages conservation, provides education about avian species, provides companion birds for the public, includes research on avian behavior. Publications on aviculture include books on species which include pets, books on breeding and introductory books for parrots and softbills. There are periodicals, both generalized and specific to types of birds, with articles on breeding, companionship, choosing a bird, health effects.

Supply companies publish catalogs of products for bird keepers. There are avicultural societies throughout the world, but in Europe and the United States, where people tend to be more prosperous, having more leisure time to invest. In the UK, the Avicultural Society was formed in 1894 and the Foreign Bird League in 1932; the oldest avicultural society in the United States is the Avicultural Society of America, founded in 1927. The ASA produces ASA Avicultural Bulletin; the ASA is a 501 non-profit organization that focuses on breeding, conservation and education. The first avicultural society in Australia was The Avicultural Society of South Australia, founded in 1928, it is now promoted with the name Bird Keeping in Australia. The two major national avicultural societies in the United States are the American Federation of Aviculture and the Avicultural Society of America, founded in 1927; the Budgerigar Society was formed in 1925. The Avicultural Society of South Australia produces a monthly full-colour magazine, Bird Keeping in Australia.

From the common name canary, a song bird is native to the Canary Islands and the Azores. This bird has been kept as a cagebird in Europe from the 1470s to the present, now enjoying an international following; the terms canariculture and canaricultura have been used in French, Portuguese and Italian to describe the keeping and breeding of canaries for some time. English speaking canary breeders are beginning to use the term more commonly; the word comes from the psittacinae. Psittaculture is a word, used in the aviculture community since the early 1970s, to denote people who specialize in keeping and conserving psittacines species on preserving psittacines habitat and public awareness campaigns to save wild parrots, it is one branch of the science of aviculture. A "psittaculturist" is a person who specializes in keeping and conserving psittacines species on preserving psittacines habitat and public awareness campaigns of the threats to the ongoing existence of parrots worldwide; as with aviculture in the sub-branch of psittaculture, there are four levels of psittaculture: The specialist pet owner whom keep only parrots as pets, will have dozens of pet parrots.

The specialist backyard hobbyist who keeps a modest collection of only parrots, breeds them on a small scale. The specialist hobby farm breeder whose collection has grown so large, needs to shift out to rural farms; the farm breeder is still considered a hobbyist. The specialist professional parrot farmer derives his/her main income from the breeding, by selling only parrots. American Federation of Aviculture Companion parrot American Federation of AvicultureAviculture Association of India

Senecio eboracensis

Senecio eboracensis, the York groundsel or York radiate groundsel, is a flowering plant in the daisy family Asteraceae. It is a self-pollinating hybrid species of ragwort and one of only six new plant species to be discovered in either the United Kingdom or North America in the last 100 years, it was discovered in 1979 in York, England growing next to a parking lot and formally described in 2003. Like many of the Senecio genus it can be found growing in urban habitats, such as disturbed earth and pavement cracks and this particular species only in York and between a railway and a parking lot. York radiate groundsel is a deciduous annual plant that sets its seed within the 3 months that it takes this plant to mature from germination to the upwards of 16 inches high adult plant. With pretty yellow daisy-like flowers from its Sicilian parent but with the less-promiscuous habits of its native parent. Leaves and stemsS. Eboracensis have large many lobed leaves divided into slender segments, the clefts not reaching the midrib.

The stems are erect to ascending with an occasional horizontal base section up to 2 inches with'adventitious roots' at base. The upper and lower leaves petiolate and lobes appearing at quarter whole leaf lengths along the midrib; the upper leaves are more lobed and in lobed pairs. Leaves on plants grown in fertile soils or in greenhouses can be much more luxurious and more dissected up to 7 inches x 3.5 inches with lobes appearing at fifth whole leaf lengths along the midrib. The plants tip is acute with a small tooth. Leaf edges throughout are sometimes divided into lobes. FlowersYork groundsel has flower-heads; the flower-head, found at the tips of the plants appearing in clusters consists of three to seven florets in a grouped corymb. The flower-head is broadly cylindrical 10×4 millimeters, becoming bell shaped) when the bright yellow ray florets open. Involucral bracts sparse, elongated without black tips; the floret ligules are narrow and long 5 to 7 millimeters long and 1.5 millimeters wide) becoming revolute.

Like other Senecios, the 10-30 papilla occur stigmatically into pericarp. SeedsThe achenes are straight and shallowly grooved; the silky white, umbrella-like pappus detaches from the fruit when ripe. The word Eboracum, the classical name of York, was chosen in the year 2000 to describe this tetraploid hybrid derivative informally named'York radiate groundsel' at the time a formal description was made. York groundsel occurs on disturbed ground, car park perimeters, pavement cracks and other urban/industrial sites. One of the parents Senecio vulgaris is a native to the area while the other parent Senecio squalidus was introduced from Mount Etna in Sicily in 1690 to the Oxford Botanic Garden in Oxford and was soon spreading along the railways and throughout the country. Senecio eboracensis is a hybrid species whose parents are the self-incompatible and promiscuous Sicilian Senecio squalidus and the self-compatible and tenacious Senecio vulgaris. Like S. vulgaris, S. eboracensis is self-compatible but shows little or no natural crossing with its parent species and is therefore reproductively isolated, indicating that strong breeding barriers exist between this new hybrid and its parents.

It is thought to have resulted from backcrossing of the F1 hybrid of its parents to S. vulgaris. S. vulgaris is native to Britain, while S. squalidus was introduced from Sicily in the early 18th century. Other hybrids descended from the same two parents are known; some are infertile, such as S. X baxteri. Other fertile hybrids are known, including S. vulgaris var. hibernicus, now common in Britain, the allohexaploid S. cambrensis, which according to molecular evidence originated independently at least three times in different locations. Morphological and genetic evidence support the status of S. eboracensis as separate from other known hybrids. Common Cordgrass Welsh groundsel Tragopogon miscellus Tragopogon mirus Raphanus sativus x Brassica rapa Data related to Senecio eboracensis at Wikispecies Media related to Senecio eboracensis at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Tyria jacobaeae at Wikimedia Commons Arnold, Michael L.. Evolution Through Genetic Exchange. Oxford University Press. P. 47. ISBN 978-0-19-857006-6.

Retrieved 2008-02-14. "Taxa covered by the Threatened Plants Database". Botanical Studies of the British Isles. 2006-03-20. Archived from the original on April 4, 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-14. Adrian C Brennan, Stephen A Harris, Simon J Hiscock, Department of Plant Sciences. "The population genetics of sporophytic self-incompatibility in Senecio squalidus L.: avoidance of mating constraints imposed by low S-allele number". Philosophical Transa

South Park (season 2)

The second season of South Park, an American animated television series created by Trey Parker and Matt Stone, began airing on April 1, 1998. The second season concluded after 18 episodes on January 20, 1999. While most of the episodes were directed by series creator Trey Parker, Season 2 includes two episodes directed by Eric Stough. Trey Parker as Stan Marsh, Eric Cartman, Randy Marsh, Mr. Garrison, Clyde Donovan, Mr. Hankey, Mr. Mackey, Stephen Stotch, Jimmy Valmer, Timmy Burch and Phillip. Matt Stone as Kyle Broflovski, Kenny McCormick, Butters Stotch, Gerald Broflovski, Stuart McCormick, Craig Tucker, Jimbo Kern, Tweek Tweak and Jesus. Mary Kay Bergman as Liane Cartman, Sheila Broflovski, Shelly Marsh, Sharon Marsh, Mrs. McCormick and Wendy Testaburger. Isaac Hayes as Chef Henry Winkler as the Kid-Eating Monster. Jay Leno as Himself. Brent Musburger as Scuzzlebutt's leg. Jonathan Katz as Dr. Katz Dian Bachar as the Cow Days' announcer Multiple musicians and bands made guest appearances in the episode "Chef Aid".

These include: Joe Strummer Rancid Ozzy Osbourne Ween Primus Elton John Meat Loaf Rick James DMX Devo Special FeaturesIntroductions by Trey Parker and Matt Stone in 12 episodes. Documentary: "Goin' Down to South Park" "Chocolate Salty Balls" music video Region 1 – June 3, 2003 Region 2 – October 22, 2007 Region 4 – October 4, 2007 South Park Studios – official website with streaming video of full episodes; the Comedy Network – full episodes for Canada