1723 in Ireland
Events from the year 1723 in Ireland. March 12 – the title of Viscount Palmerston is created in the Peerage of Ireland for the politician Henry Temple. December 14 – Bernard O'Gara is selected to succeed Francis Burke as Roman Catholic Archbishop of Tuam; the first portion of Dr Steevens' Hospital is opened at Dublin. Avoca Handweavers, Ireland's oldest surviving business, is established in County Wicklow. Mervyn Archdall, antiquary Approximate date – William Greatrakes, lawyer February 11 – Captain Hildebrand Alington, 5th Baron Alington, last Baron Alington of the first creation June 2 – Esther Vanhomrigh, Jonathan Swift's "Vanessa" August – William Handcock, politician August/September – Francis Burke, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Tuam September 16 – Gustavus Hamilton, 1st Viscount Boyne and politician December 22 – Mary Joseph Butler, Benedictine abbess Henry Colley, politician Micheál Ó Mordha, Roman Catholic priest and educationalist
Elsa Schiaparelli was an Italian fashion designer. Along with Coco Chanel, her greatest rival, she is regarded as one of the most prominent figures in fashion between the two World Wars. Starting with knitwear, Schiaparelli's designs were influenced by Surrealists like her collaborators Salvador Dalí and Jean Cocteau, her clients included the heiress actress Mae West. Schiaparelli did not adapt to the changes in fashion following World War II and her couture house closed in 1954. Elsa Luisa Maria Schiaparelli was born at the Palazzo Rome, her mother, Maria-Luisa, was a Neapolitan aristocrat. Her father, Celestino Schiaparelli, was an accomplished scholar with multiple areas of interest, his studies focused on the Islamic world and the era of the Middle Ages and he was, in addition, an authority on Sanskrit and a curator of medieval manuscripts. He served as Dean of the University of Rome, where Schiaparelli would herself go on to study philosophy, his brother, astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli, had discovered the so-called canali, or Martian canals, the young Schiaparelli studied the heavens with her uncle.
A cousin of the brothers, Ernesto Schiaparelli, was a noted Egyptologist who discovered the tomb of Nefertari and was Director of the Museo Egizio in Turin. The cultural background and erudition of her family members served to ignite the imaginative faculties of Schiaparelli’s impressionable childhood years, she became enraptured with the lore of religious rites. These sources inspired her to pen a volume of poems titled Arethusa based on the ancient Greek myth of the hunt; the content of her writing so alarmed the conservative sensibilities of her parents they sought to tame her fantasy life by sending her to a convent boarding school in Switzerland. Once within the school’s confines, Schiaparelli rebelled against its strict authority by going on a hunger strike, leaving her parents to see no alternative but to bring her home again. Schiaparelli was dissatisfied by a lifestyle that whilst refined and comfortable, she considered cloistered and unfulfilling, her craving for adventure and exploration of the wider world led to her taking measures to remedy this, when a friend offered her a post caring for orphaned children in an English country house, she saw an opportunity to leave.
The placement however, proved uncongenial to Schiaparelli, who subsequently planned a return to the stop-over city of Paris rather than admit defeat by returning to Rome and her family. Schiaparelli fled to London to avoid the certainty of marriage to a persistent suitor, a wealthy Russian whom her parents favored and for whom she herself felt no attraction. In London, Schiaparelli who had held a fascination for psychic phenomena since childhood, attended a lecture on theosophy; the lecturer that night was Willem de Wendt, a man of various aliases, known as Willie Wendt and Wilhem de Kerlor. He was reported to have changed his name in England to Wilhelm Frederick Wendt de Kerlor, a combination of his father's last name and mother's maiden name. De Wendt's profession was one of a tireless, inventive self-promoter, in reality a con man who claimed to have psychic powers, numerous academic credentials, he alternatively and passed himself off as detective and criminal psychologist and lecturer. In a stint on the vaudeville stage de Kerlor billed himself as "The World Famous Dr. W. de Kerlor."
Schiaparelli was attracted to this charismatic charlatan and they became engaged on the next day of their first meeting. They married shortly thereafter in London on July 21, 1914, Schiaparelli was twenty-three, her new husband thirty. De Kerlor attempted to earn a living aggrandizing his reputation as a psychic practitioner as the couple subsisted on the wedding dowry and an allowance provided by Schiaparelli’s wealthy parents. Schiaparelli played the role of her husband's helpmate and helped facilitate the promotion of his fraudulent schemes. In 1915 the couple were forced to leave England after de Kerlor was deported following his conviction for practicing fortune-telling illegal, they subsequently lived a peripatetic existence in Paris, Cannes and Monte Carlo, before leaving for America in the spring of 1916. The de Kerlors disembarked in New York staying at the Brevoort, a prominent hotel in Greenwich Village relocated to an apartment above the Café des Artistes near Central Park West. De Kerlor rented offices to house his newly inaugurated "Bureau of Psychology" where he hoped to achieve fame and fortune through his paranormal and consulting work.
His wife acted as his assistant, providing clerical support for self-promotions crafted to provide the newspapers with sensational copy, win celebrity and garner acclaim. During this period de Kerlor came under the surveillance of the Federal government’s Bureau of Investigation, a precursor of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, not only for his dubious professional practices but on suspicion of harboring anti-British and pro-German allegiance during wartime. By 1917, de Kerlor’s acquaintance with journalists John Reed and Louise Bryant had positioned him on the government radar as a possible Bolshevik sympathizer and Communist revolutionary. Attempting to avoid this unremitting scrutiny, the de Kerlors decamped to Boston in 1918, where they continued their activities as they had done in New York. De Kerlor, an incurable publicity hound, made imprudent admissions to a BOI investigator in prideful support of the Russian Revolution and went so far as to admit to an association with a notorious anarchist, whilst his wife incriminated herself by revealing that she was tutoring Italians in Boston’s North End on the tenets
Belfast is a city in the United Kingdom, the capital city of Northern Ireland, standing on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast of Ireland. It is second-largest on the island of Ireland, it had a population of 333,871 as of 2015. By the early 19th century, Belfast became a major port, it played a key role in the Industrial Revolution, becoming the biggest linen-producer in the world, earning it the nickname "Linenopolis". By the time it was granted city status in 1888, it was a major centre of Irish linen production, tobacco-processing and rope-making. Shipbuilding was a key industry. Belfast as of 2019 has a major aerospace and missiles industry. Industrialisation and the inward migration it brought made Belfast Ireland's biggest city and it became the capital of Northern Ireland following the Partition of Ireland in 1922, its status as a global industrial centre ended in the decades after the Second World War of 1939–1945. Belfast suffered in the Troubles: in the 1970s and 1980s it was one of the world's most dangerous cities.
However, a survey conducted by a finance company and published in 2016 rated the city as one of the safest within the United Kingdom. Throughout the 21st century, the city has seen a sustained period of calm, free from the intense political violence of former years, has benefitted from substantial economic and commercial growth. Belfast remains a centre for industry, as well as for the arts, higher education and law, is the economic engine of Northern Ireland. Belfast is still a major port, with commercial and industrial docks, including the Harland and Wolff shipyard, dominating the Belfast Lough shoreline, it is served by two airports: George Best Belfast City Airport and Belfast International Airport 15 miles west of the city. The Globalization and World Cities Research Network listed Belfast as a Gamma global city in 2018; the name Belfast is derived from the Irish Béal Feirsde, spelt Béal Feirste. The word béal means "mouth" or "rivermouth" while feirsde/feirste is the genitive singular of fearsaid and refers to a sandbar or tidal ford across a river's mouth.
The name would thus translate as " mouth of the sandbar" or " mouth of the ford". This sandbar was formed at the confluence of two rivers at what is now Donegall Quay: the Lagan, which flows into Belfast Lough, its tributary the Farset; this area was the hub. The Irish name Béal Feirste is shared by a townland in County Mayo, whose name has been anglicised as Belfarsad. An alternative interpretation of the name is "mouth of of the sandbar", an allusion to the River Farset, which flows into the Lagan where the sandbar was located; this interpretation was favoured by John O'Donovan. It seems clear, that the river itself was named after the tidal crossing. In Ulster-Scots, the name of the city has been variously translated as Bilfawst, Bilfaust or Baelfawst, although "Belfast" is used. Although the county borough of Belfast was created when it was granted city status by Queen Victoria in 1888, the city continues to be viewed as straddling County Antrim and County Down; the site of Belfast has been occupied since the Bronze Age.
The Giant's Ring, a 5,000-year-old henge, is located near the city, the remains of Iron Age hill forts can still be seen in the surrounding hills. Belfast remained a small settlement of little importance during the Middle Ages. John de Courcy built a castle on what is now Castle Street in the city centre in the 12th century, but this was on a lesser scale and not as strategically important as Carrickfergus Castle to the north, built by de Courcy in 1177; the O'Neill clan had a presence in the area. In the 14th century, Cloinne Aodha Buidhe, descendants of Aodh Buidhe O'Neill, built Grey Castle at Castlereagh, now in the east of the city. Conn O'Neill of the Clannaboy O'Neills owned vast lands in the area and was the last inhabitant of Grey Castle, one remaining link being the Conn's Water river flowing through east Belfast. Belfast became a substantial settlement in the 17th century after being established as a town by Sir Arthur Chichester, it was settled by Protestant English and Scottish migrants at the time of the Plantation of Ulster.
In 1791, the Society of United Irishmen was founded in Belfast, after Henry Joy McCracken and other prominent Presbyterians from the city invited Theobald Wolfe Tone and Thomas Russell to a meeting, after having read Tone's "Argument on Behalf of the Catholics of Ireland". Evidence of this period of Belfast's growth can still be seen in the oldest areas of the city, known as the Entries. Belfast blossomed as a commercial and industrial centre in the 18th and 19th centuries and became Ireland's pre-eminent industrial city. Industries thrived, including linen, rope-making, heavy engineering and shipbuilding, at the end of the 19th century, Belfast overtook Dublin as the largest city in Ireland; the Harland and Wolff shipyards became one of the largest shipbuilders in the world, employing up to 35,000 workers. In 1886 the city suffered intense riots over the issue of home rule. In 1920–22, Belfast became the capital of the new entity of Northern Ireland as the island of Ireland was partitioned.
The accompanying conflict cost up to 500 lives in Belfast, the bloodiest sectarian strife in the city until the Troubles of the late 1960s onwards. Belfas
Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, she was educated at home, her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; when her father died in February 1952, she became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Ceylon. She has reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, the decolonisation of Africa. Between 1956 and 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence and realms, including South Africa and Ceylon, became republics.
Her many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012 respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee, she is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch as well as the world's longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state, the oldest and longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state. Elizabeth has faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992 and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales. However, support for the monarchy has been and remains high, as does her personal popularity. Elizabeth was born at 02:40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V.
Her father, the Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, the Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May, named Elizabeth after her mother, Alexandra after George V's mother, who had died six months earlier, Mary after her paternal grandmother. Called "Lilibet" by her close family, based on what she called herself at first, she was cherished by her grandfather George V, during his serious illness in 1929 her regular visits were credited in the popular press and by biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery. Elizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930; the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford.
Lessons concentrated on history, language and music. Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family; the book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, her attitude of responsibility. Others echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character, she has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant." Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved". During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, as Edward was still young. Many people believed he would have children of his own; when her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, after her father.
That year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Elizabeth's father became king, she became heir presumptive. If her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession. Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College, learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses. A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed so she could socialise with girls her own age, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger. In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured the United States; as in 1927, when her parents had toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought her too young to undertake public tours. Elizabeth "looked tearful", they corresponded and she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call on 18 May.
In September 1939, Britain entered the Second World War. Lord Hailsham suggested that the two princesses should be evacuated to Canada to avoid the frequent aerial bombing; this was rejected by Elizabeth's mother. I won't leave wit
Kilmacanogue is a small village in north County Wicklow, Ireland. The village lies on the junction of the R755 to Roundwood and the N11, 5 km south of Bray town centre, it lies between the Little Sugar Loaf to the east and the Big Sugar Loaf to the west in the northeastern foothills of the Wicklow Mountains, near the Glen of the Downs. Avoca Handweavers have one of their earliest outlets at the northern end of the village; this outlet is situated on the exact location of Glencormac House, completed in 1860 by the Jameson Whiskey family, who were from Scotland. The house became a hotel in the 1950s but was razed to the ground in a fire that occurred in 1967. No lives were lost in the fire. There are two small streams which join in Kilmacanogue, behind the old Post Office, flow into the River Dargle near the old "Silver Bridge" at Kilbride two miles downstream, they once held a good population of trout but increasing urbanisation led to a deterioration in water quality. Kilmacanogue is served by the half-hourly 45A/B to Dun Laoghaire and Bray bus route operated by Go-Ahead Ireland.
Until 2014 it was served by high-frequency Dublin Bus route 145 to Heuston Station. Only a handful of 145 journeys still continue to Kilmacanogue, it is served by Bus Eireann route 133. The village is named after Saint Mocheanog, a companion of Saint Patrick, according to Irish legend, baptised the children of Lir just before their death. On the morning of 1 January 1942 the Luftwaffe dropped two magnetic mines near Kilmacanogue but they did not explode; the village has two petrol stations, a primary school, a restaurant, a small shop, a post office, a church and a pub. The "Pub", variously called "Connolly's", "Sweeney's", The Glencormac Inn and most "Plucks" is a old coaching house dating back to the 19th century, it was a place where teams of horses were changed and stabled on the old road to Wicklow and further south. Charles Stewart Parnell was a frequent passenger on his way down to his family house in Avondale – hence his moniker "The Blackbird of Avondale" – a ballad sung in his memory.
It was not until 1861 that the railway was opened as far as Rathdrum hence the need to travel by coach up to that time. Kilmacanogue is home to the Kilmacanogue GAA Club, a branch of the Cubs and the Scouts, Kilmac Drama, Kilmacanogue History Society and Glencormac United. List of towns and villages in Ireland
Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water by baking. Throughout recorded history it has been a prominent food in large parts of the world and is one of the oldest man-made foods, having been of significant importance since the dawn of agriculture. Bread may be leavened by processes such as reliance on occurring sourdough microbes, industrially produced yeast, or high-pressure aeration. Commercial bread contains additives to improve flavor, color, shelf life and ease of manufacturing. Bread plays essential roles in secular culture; the Old English word for bread was hlaf. Old High German hleib and modern German Laib derive from this Proto-Germanic word, borrowed into Slavic and Finnic languages as well; the Middle and Modern English word bread appears in Germanic languages, such as West Frisian brea, Dutch brood, German Brot, Swedish bröd, Norwegian and Danish brød. Bread is one of the oldest prepared foods. Evidence from 30,000 years ago in Europe revealed starch residue on rocks used for pounding plants.
It is possible that during this time, starch extract from the roots of plants, such as cattails and ferns, was spread on a flat rock, placed over a fire and cooked into a primitive form of flatbread. The world's oldest evidence of bread-making has been found in a 14,500 year old Natufian site in Jordan's northeastern desert. Around 10,000 BC, with the dawn of the Neolithic age and the spread of agriculture, grains became the mainstay of making bread. Yeast spores are ubiquitous, including on the surface of cereal grains, so any dough left to rest leavens naturally. There were multiple sources of leavening available for early bread. Airborne yeasts could be harnessed by leaving uncooked dough exposed to air for some time before cooking. Pliny the Elder reported that the Gauls and Iberians used the foam skimmed from beer called barm to produce "a lighter kind of bread than other peoples" such as barm cake. Parts of the ancient world that drank wine instead of beer used a paste composed of grape juice and flour, allowed to begin fermenting, or wheat bran steeped in wine, as a source for yeast.
The most common source of leavening was to retain a piece of dough from the previous day to use as a form of sourdough starter, as Pliny reported. The Chorleywood bread process was developed in 1961; the process, whose high-energy mixing allows for the use of lower protein grain, is now used around the world in large factories. As a result, bread can be produced quickly and at low costs to the manufacturer and the consumer. However, there has been some criticism of the effect on nutritional value. Bread is the staple food of the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, in European-derived cultures such as those in the Americas and Southern Africa, in contrast to parts of South and East Asia where rice or noodle is the staple. Bread is made from a wheat-flour dough, cultured with yeast, allowed to rise, baked in an oven; the addition of yeast to the bread explains the air pockets found in bread. Owing to its high levels of gluten, common or bread wheat is the most common grain used for the preparation of bread, which makes the largest single contribution to the world's food supply of any food.
Bread is made from the flour of other wheat species. Non-wheat cereals including rye, maize, sorghum and rice have been used to make bread, with the exception of rye in combination with wheat flour as they have less gluten. Gluten-free breads have been created for people affected by gluten-related disorders such as coeliac disease and non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, who may benefit from a gluten-free diet. Gluten-free bread is made with ground flours from a variety of materials such as almonds, sorghum, corn, or legumes such as beans, tubers such as cassava, but since these flours lack gluten they may not hold their shape as they rise and their crumb may be dense with little aeration. Additives such as xanthan gum, guar gum, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, corn starch, or eggs are used to compensate for the lack of gluten. In wheat, phenolic compounds are found in hulls in the form of insoluble bound ferulic acid, where it is relevant to wheat resistance to fungal diseases. Rye bread contains ferulic acid dehydrodimers.
Three natural phenolic glucosides, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, p-coumaric acid glucoside and ferulic acid glucoside, can be found in commercial breads containing flaxseed. Glutenin and gliadin are functional proteins found in wheat bread that contribute to the structure of bread. Glutenin forms interconnected gluten networks within bread through interchain disulfide bonds. Gliadin binds weakly to the gluten network established by glutenin via intrachain disulfide bonds. Structurally, bread can be defined as an elastic-plastic foam; the glutenin protein contributes to its elastic nature, as it is able to regain its initial shape after deformation. The gliadin protein contributes to its plastic nature, because it demonstrates non-reversible structural change after a certain amount of applied force; because air pockets within this gluten network result from carbon dioxide production during leavening, bread can be defined as a foam, or a