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Avogadro constant

The Avogadro constant, sometimes denoted N or N0, is the number of constituent particles that are contained in one mole, the international unit of amount of substance: by definition 6.02214076×1023, it is dimensionless. It is named after the italian scientist Amedeo Avogadro; the Avogadro constant denoted by NA or L is the factor that, multiplied by the amount of substance in a sample, measured in moles, gives the number of constituent particles in that sample. Its numerical value is defined as being the Avogadro number, its unit is the reciprocal of mole; the value of the Avogadro constant was chosen so that the mass of one mole of a chemical compound, in grams, is numerically equal to the average mass of one molecule of the compound, in daltons. For example, the average mass of one molecule of water is about 18.0153 daltons, one mole of water is about 18.0153 grams. Thus, the Avogadro constant NA is the proportionality factor that relates the molar mass of a substance to the average mass of one molecule.

The Avogadro constant relates the molar volume of a substance to the average volume nominally occupied by one of its particle, when both are expressed in the same units of volume. For example, since the molar volume of water in ordinary conditions is about 18 mL/mol, the volume occupied by one molecule of water is about 18/6.021×10−23 mL, or about 30 Å3. For a crystaline substance, it relates its molar volume, the volume of the repeating unit cell of the crystals, the number of molecules in that cell; the Avogadro number has been defined in many different ways through its long history. Its approximate value was first determined, indirectly, by Josef Loschmidt in 1865, it was defined by Jean Perrin as the number of atoms in 16 grams of oxygen. It was redefined in the 14th conference of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures as the number of atoms in 12 grams of the isotope carbon-12. In each case, the mole was defined as the quantity of a substance that contained the same number of atoms as those reference samples.

In particular, when carbon-12 was the reference, one mole of carbon-12 was 12 grams of the element. These definitions meant that the value of the Avogadro number depended on the experimentally determined value of the mass of one atom of those elements, therefore it was known only to a limited number of decimal digits. However, in its 26th Conference, the BIPM adopted a different approach: effective 20 May 2019, it defined the Avogadro number as the exact integer N = 6.02214076×1023, redefined the mole as N constituent particles of the substance in consideration. Under the new definition, the mass of one mole of any substance is N times the average mass of one of its constituent particles—a physical quantity whose precise value has to be determined experimentally for each substance; the Avogadro constant is named after the Italian scientist Amedeo Avogadro, who, in 1811, first proposed that the volume of a gas is proportional to the number of atoms or molecules regardless of the nature of the gas.

The name Avogadro's number was coined in 1909 by the physicist Jean Perrin, who defined it as the number of molecules in 32 grams of oxygen. The goal of this definition was to make the mass of a mole of a substance, in grams, be numerically equal to the mass of one molecule relative to the mass of the hydrogen atom; the value of Avogadro's number was first obtained indirectly by Josef Loschmidt in 1865, by estimating the number of particles in a given volume of gas. This value, the number density n0 of particles in an ideal gas, is now called the Loschmidt constant in his honor, is related to the Avogadro constant, NA, by n 0 = p 0 N A R T 0, where p0 is the pressure, R is the gas constant, T0 is the absolute temperature; because of this work, the symbol L is sometimes used for the Avogadro constant, and, in German literature, that name may be used for both constants, distinguished only by the units of measurement. Perrin himself determined Avogadro's number by several different experimental methods.

He was awarded the 1926 Nobel Prize in Physics for this work. The electric charge per mole of electrons is a constant called the Faraday constant and had been known since 1834 when Michael Faraday published his works on electrolysis. In 1910, Robert Millikan obtained the first measurement of the charge on an electron. Dividing the charge on a mole of electrons by the charge on a single electron provided a more accurate estimate of the Avogadro number. In 1971 the International Bureau of Weights and Measures decided to regard the amount of substance as an independent dimension of measurement, with the m

Virginia State Route 201

State Route 201 is a primary state highway in the U. S. state of Virginia. The state highway runs 16.17 miles from SR 354 near Mollusk north to U. S. Route 360 in Heathsville. SR 201 connects western Lancaster County and, the county seat of Lancaster with the Northumberland County seat of Heathsville. SR 201 begins at an intersection with SR 354 near the hamlet of Mollusk; the state highway heads northeast as White Chapel Road and crosses Little Branch, a tributary of the Western Branch of the Corrotoman River. SR 201 intersects SR 3 in the hamlet of Lively and crosses the Belwood Swamp on its way to McNeals Corner. There, the state highway turns north onto Court House Road. Courthouse Road heads south as SR 600 toward the Lancaster County seat of Lancaster. SR 201 has a right-angle turn south of Miskimon; the county line is the height of land between the Corrotoman River drainage, which empties into the Rappahannock River, the watershed of the Great Wicomico River, which flows directly into the Chesapeake Bay.

SR 201 enters Northumberland County at Miskimon and has another sharp turn at Howland. The state highway crosses the two streams that form the Great Wicomico River—Bush Mill Stream and Crabbs Mill Stream—before reaching its northern terminus at US 360 in Heathsville. Virginia Highways Project: VA 201

Pe coastă

"Pe Coastă" is a single by Romanian hip hop group B. U. G. Mafia, featuring vocals by Sergiu Ferat; the song is produced by group founder Tataee, mixed by longtime collaborator Cristi Dobrică, was released as a digital single on YouTube on May 16, 2016. The group announced the single's upcoming release on May 16, 2016, during Mihai Morar's morning radio show on Radio Zu, where B. U. G. Mafia had been invited to perform live; the group's previous single, Să Cânte Trompetele, a collaboration with Vocea României contestant Feli Donose, had been successful, generating a lot of interest from fans and critics alike regarding their following release. The following day, Morar premiered the song on his radio show by playing back to back for 20 uninterrupted minutes, it was written by group members Tataee and Uzzi and it features vocals from Sergiu Ferat, a Romanian jazz vocalist a contestant on Vocea României in its fifth season. The song interpolates'Un 2 şi Trei de 0', the lead single from the group's sixth studio album, Întotdeauna pentru totdeauna.

"Pe Coastă" was composed and produced by group member Tataee, his 26th release with the group, following a two-year break after their previous single, with musician Valentin Câmpeanu providing additional keyboards. Romanian sound engineer Cristi Dobrică mixed and mastered the song for its commercial release, while members Uzzi and Caddillac wrote their verses, respectively. Lyrically, the song is a summer-themed anthem celebrating life in the moment while mentioning the group's successful 23-year history and its relationship with their fans; the group announced their decision to create a music video for the single on May 4, 2016. In a Facebook video post, Tataee asked the fans to send footage from the group's concerts in Costinești as well as videos of themselves on the beach and driving to the seaside, so that it could be included in the music video. Just before the single's release, on May 16, the group posted a video reviewing the first batch of footage received from the fans, announced that the music video will premier sometime in the near future.

One of the singled out videos captured one of their concerts in Costinești which carried long enough into the late night that they witnessed the sun rise while still on stage performing. The moment is mentioned by Tataee in the third verse of the song; the video was released on July 6, 2016. While the YouTube feedback for the music video and song have been overwhelmingly positive, other reviews have been more dismissive. In a review for Vice News, writer Ionuț Axinescu gave the song a negative review, criticizing its radio-friendly production and self-indulgent songwriting, while at the same time praising group member Uzzi's delivery. Besides, there's another issue here: the song isn't targeting the group's usual fan base, but rather for the new generation of emigrants who are coming back to Romania driving expensive cars and spend their hard-earned money in Mamaia while they remember the difficult road they had to walk to get there". In another 2016 piece for Vice News, Mădălin Istrate interviewed a number of Pantelimon residents who universally panned the song for its pop-oriented sound and music video.

Digital single B. U. G Mafia official webpage. Official Facebook Page. Pe Coastă at Discogs

Samurai Jack: The Amulet of Time

Samurai Jack: The Amulet of Time is an action video game developed by British studio Virtucraft and published by BAM! Entertainment for the Game Boy Advance. Based on the animated series Samurai Jack, the game came about after a licensing agreement deal was reached between Cartoon Network and BAM! Entertainment in January 2002, it was released worldwide on March 25, 2003. The game follows Jack's quest through seven areas to obtain the elemental gem pieces of an amulet that can send him back to his own time; as more gemstones are collected, the player unlocks more of Jack's weapons and abilities, such as a super jump and a battle hammer. The game received "mixed" reviews according to the review aggregation website Metacritic. IGN's Craig Harris cited the game's similarities to Metroid and recent Castlevania games as good design, but said the game lacked originality. Samurai Jack: The Amulet of Time at MobyGames

Trish Karter

Trish Karter is an American entrepreneur and the founder of the Dancing Deer Baking Co.. Karter is a graduate of Lyme-Old Lyme High School, Wheaton College, the Yale School of Management, she is the daughter of a pioneer of the modern materials recycling industry. Karter lives in Milton, Massachusetts and is the mother of two children and Eleanna Antoniou. Karter was the founder and CEO of the Dancing Deer Baking Company, a Boston-based producer of high-end, natural baked goods for nationwide distribution; the company is known for its commitment to employing and providing opportunity to individuals from deprived backgrounds. The company is noted for producing preservative-free products. Karter is an artist.

Aleyda Ortiz

Aleyda Enid Ortiz Rodríguez is a Puerto Rican model, TV host and beauty pageant titleholder who finished as 1st Runner-Up at Miss Universe Puerto Rico 2014 and Miss Intercontinental 2013. She was crowned Nuestra Belleza Latina 2014. Aleyda represented Bayamón at Miss Universe Puerto Rico 2014 on October 3, 2013 where she finished as 1st Runner-Up to Gabriela Berrios of Toa Baja. Being the 1st Runner-Up she was awarded the opportunity to represent Puerto Rico at Miss Intercontinental 2013. Aleyda represented Puerto Rico at Miss Intercontinental 2013; this was Puerto Rico's second consecutive placement as 1st Runner-Up as Ortiz' predecessor Génesis Dávila placed 1st Runner-Up the previous year. Ortiz auditioned for Univision's reality show and beauty pageant Nuestra Belleza Latina 2014 in Miami and advanced to Round 2 where she was selected to be part of the 12 finalists who enter the mansion of Nuestra Belleza Latina. On May 18, 2014 Aleyda was declared the winner, becoming the third Puerto Rican to do so after Melissa Marty in 2008 and Vanessa De Roide in 2012.

She was awarded $200,000 in prizes, a Kia Soul, a contract with Univision Network and appeared on the cover of Cosmopolitan en Español magazine. With her win Puerto Rico has the most Nuestra Belleza Latina wins. From 2014 to 2015 Ortiz was in a relationship with Gabriel Valenzuela. Since 2016, she has been in a relationship with financial adviser Ricardo Casanova; the couple became engaged in late 2018 and wed on March 22, 2019. Aleyda Ortiz on IMDb Aleyda Ortiz on Twitter