click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Avonmouth

Avonmouth is a port and outer suburb of Bristol, England facing two rivers: the reinforced north bank of the final stage of the Avon which rises at sources in Wiltshire and Somerset. Strategically the area has been and remains an important part of the region's maritime economy for larger vessels for the unloading and exporting of heavier goods as well as in industry including warehousing, light industry, electrical power and sanitation; the area contains a junction of and is connected to the south by the M5 motorway and other roads, railway tracks and paths to the north, south-east and east. The council ward of Avonmouth and Lawrence Weston is as drawn a simplified name as it includes Shirehampton and the western end of Lawrence Weston. Avonmouth is rectangular, its length favouring the Severn shore and sits on the same bank as the city centre from which it lies west-north-west — at the mouth of the River Avon and on the eastern shore of the dredged, at this point saline Severn Estuary. Both rivers in shallow valleys by this stage have been defensively embanked to allow the construction of the large port Avonmouth Docks which occupies most of the western part.

The related Royal Portbury Dock is across the Avon. Avonmouth is home to chemical manufacturing plants, north of the Avonmouth Docks is the gas-fired Seabank Power Station, its light industrial and warehouse companies include Nisbets. Its long-established residential area in Avonmouth is between the industrialised zone and the M5 motorway, uniquely for Bristol west of the M5 motorway. Avonmouth Bridge of the M5 motorway forms the connection with Somerset with Easton-in-Gordano; the Wales-connecting M49 motorway runs between the M5 near Avonmouth and the M4 motorway at the Second Severn Crossing. The old Severn Bridge and the M48 motorway are linked to Avonmouth by the A403; the Welsh cities of Newport and Cardiff are both visible from Avonmouth's coastline. The Portway, part of the A4, connects Avonmouth with the centre of Bristol. Avonmouth is served by a hourly train service to central Bristol from Avonmouth railway station on the Severn Beach Line. A new deep-sea container terminal is planned for Avonmouth.

The mouth of the Avon was recorded as Afenemuþan in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle under the years 915 or 918 and 1052, but it is clear from the context that the name does not refer to a settlement. The area was part of the chapelry of Shirehampton, a detached part of the ancient parish of Westbury-on-Trym in Gloucestershire. Early 19th century maps show the area as farmland. At that time the deep water channel of the Avon ran through the present-day site of Avonmouth Docks and separated the mainland from a small island named Dumball Island. Bewys Cross, a stone monument dating from the 15th century, was located on the bank of the Severn close to the old mouth of the Avon; the first development at Avonmouth was a landing stage built in 1860 by Bristol Corporation at "Avon's Mouth". The first record of the modern name was in the title of the Port and Channel Docks Bill debated in Parliament in early 1863; when the Bristol Port Railway and Pier was built in 1865 the terminus station was named Avonmouth.

A hotel, the Avonmouth Hotel, was opened at the same time. A small new village was built to serve the new docks, which were opened in 1877. In 1877, the BPRP line was connected to the main railway network by the Clifton Extension Railway, a new railway station named Avonmouth Dock was opened by the docks; the new Avonmouth Dock and the original nucleus of the settlement were transferred from Gloucestershire to the City of Bristol in 1894, the rest of the expanding settlement became part of the City in 1904. In 1902 work began on the Royal Edward Dock, a major expansion of the docks, completed in 1908. Land required for the expansion necessitated the closure of the original station, from 1902 all trains terminated at Avonmouth Dock station. However, the Avonmouth Hotel adjacent to the original station remained open, it provided accommodation for many Europeans emigrating to the Americas via Avonmouth, during the First World War it housed the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps. It was demolished in 1926 when the Royal Edward Dock was expanded.

Between 1919 and 1926 the Portway was built, providing more direct road access to Avonmouth from Bristol. Shirehampton had become a separate parish in 1844, a Church of England chapel was established in the new settlement of Avonmouth late in the nineteenth century. Avonmouth became a separate parish in 1917. Avonmouth's first church, completed in 1934, was bombed in World War II by bombers of the Luftwaffe in one of latter of the six major raids which formed the Bristol Blitz, in 1941. In December 1971 the M5 motorway was opened to Avonmouth, extended south into Somerset when the Avonmouth Bridge was opened in May 1974; the 10-hectare Avonmouth Sewage Treatment Works is managed as a nature reserve by Wessex Water. The man-made lagoons and a pool provide a feeding and resting area for many birds including ducks such as pochard, tufted duck and shoveller; the rough grassland provides a refuge for voles, Northern crested newt and other small mammals, which are preyed upon by kestrels and barn owls.

Avonmouth is home to the largest single footprint warehouse in the United Kingdom, a 1,250,000 sq ft portal frame building operated by The Range as a distribution centre. The enormous building occupies 55 acres of land and is part of the Central Park project located close to the Severn estuary shoreline; the largest single footprint warehouse in the United Kingdom was a building operate

Boronia acanthoclada

Boronia acanthoclada is a plant in the citrus family, Rutaceae and is endemic to a small area in the south-west of Western Australia. It is a prickly shrub with small leaves and white, four-petalled flowers. Boronia acanthoclada is a shrub that grows to a height of about 0.3 m with spreading branches and spiny branchlets. Its leaves are narrow egg-shaped with the narrower end towards the base, 3–6 mm long and clustered on the older wood; the flowers are borne on the ends of short shoots on a pedicel 2 -- 3 mm long. The four sepals are narrow triangular, fleshy and about 2 mm long; the four petals are elliptic and about 4 mm long and the eight stamens are hairy. Flowering occurs in September. Boronia acanthoclada was first formally described in 1998 by Paul G. Wilson and the description was published in Nuytsia from a specimen collected in the Frank Hann National Park; the specific epithet is derived from latinized Greek, acantho- meaning'spiny' and cladus'a branch'. This boronia is only known from the type collection.

Boronia acanthoclada is classified as "Priority Two" by the Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife meaning that it is poorly known and from only one or a few locations

Order of the White Rose (1886–1915)

The Order of the White Rose was a Jacobite society founded in 1886 by Bertram Ashburnham as a successor to the Cycle Club. The Order attracted many writers and artists and began the Neo-Jacobite Revival that flourished in the 1890s; the Order closed during the First World War, but in 1926 the Royal Stuart Society was formed to carry on its ideal and mission. Jacobites support restoration of the House of Stuart to the thrones of England and Ireland. Following the defeat of the Jacobite rising of 1745, Jacobitism was rigorously suppressed, Jacobite sympathisers had to form secret clubs and societies to discus their ideas in private. One prominent example was the "Cycle of the White Rose" known as the Cycle Club, founded in 1710 by the Williams-Wynn family in North Wales; the Cycle Club continued to meet under the family's patronage until the 1860s. In 1886, Bertram Ashburnham circulated a leaflet seeking Jacobite sympathisers, amongst those who replied was Melville Henry Massue. Together they formed the Order of the White Rose, a Jacobite group, the spiritual successor to the Cycle Club.

The Order was started on June 10, 1866. The Order was influenced by the Oxford Movement of the 1830s and 1840s which promoted Anglo-Catholicism and held up Charles I as a martyr; the Order attracted Scottish Nationalists to its ranks. While these various interests gathered under the banner of restoring the House of Stuart, they had a common streak against the scientific and secular democratic norms of the time; some planned a military overthrow of the Hanoverian monarchy, with the aim of putting Princess Maria Theresa on the British throne. In 1889, the New Gallery in London put on a major exhibition of works related to the House of Stuart, organized by Henry Jenner. Ashburnham - the president of the gallery - persuaded Queen Victoria to lend a number of items to the exhibition, as did the wife of her son Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany and families with Jacobite sympathies and pasts from England and Scotland donated items; the exhibition was a significant popular success and revived public interest in the House of Stuart and Jacobitism specifically.

The Order of the White Rose was a romantic and sentimental organisation, focused on a nostalgic vision of a Jacobite past. It attracted artists and writers to its ranks, including Frederick Lee, Henry Jenner, James Abbott McNeill Whistler, Robert Edward Francillon, Charles Augustus Howell, Stuart Richard Erskine, Andrew Lang and Herbert Vivian; the order published its own paper The Royalist from 1890 to 1903. The popularity of the exhibition sparked a renewed interest in the political ideals of the Jacobite cause amongst monarchists and Anglo-Catholics. Following the exhibition, new Jacobite groups began to form. In 1890, Vivian and Erskine co-founded a weekly newspaper, The Whirlwind that espoused a Jacobite political view. Ashburnham was not a proponent of the political side of the movement, in 1891 The Order of the White Rose split, when Vivian and Melville Henry Massue formed the Legitimist Jacobite League of Great Britain and Ireland. Vivian and Massue were leading members of the neo-Jacobite revival, while Erskine soon focused his political endeavours on the related cause of Scottish Nationalism.

The League was a "publicist for Jacobitism on a scale unwitnessed since the Eighteenth Century". Several other Jacobite and Legitimist societies formed in the early 1890s, though serious in intent, they were greeted with amusement and disdain; the Order was the leading society for the historical side of Jacobitism. Art dealer Charles Augustus Howell and journalist Sebastian Evans were members of the Order, while poets W. B. Yeats and Andrew Lang were drawn to the cause. By 1910 it had inspired a branch in North America. In 1914, just after the start of the First World War, Prince Rupprecht – the legitimate king of England and Scotland according to the Jacobite Succession – appeared in German uniform in support of The Kaiser. Public sympathy turned against the Neo-Jacobites, many supporters left, the Order was closed

Lucy Morton

Lucy Morton known by her married name Lucy Heaton, was an English competition swimmer who represented Great Britain at the 1924 Summer Olympics and won a gold medal in the 200-metre breaststroke event. Morton was born in 1898 at New Tatton in Cheshire, her father Alfred was in domestic service as a groom; the family moved to Blackpool and by the age of 10 Morton had joined the local amateur swimming club. By 1920 Morton held the world record for the 200-yard breaststroke and in 1924 was chosen to be part of the British team at the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris. Morton won the women's 200-metre breaststroke race, became the first British woman to win an Olympic gold medal for swimming in an individual event. Morton retired from competitive swimming after the Olympics and married Harry Heaton in 1927, she continued supporting swimming events for the rest of her life serving as a competitors' steward when she was aged 72. She died in Blackpool in 1980, she was inducted posthumously into the International Swimming Hall of Fame as an "Honor Pioneer Swimmer" in 1988.

List of members of the International Swimming Hall of Fame List of Olympic medalists in swimming profile

Bet Shira Congregation

Bet Shira Congregation is a Conservative synagogue located at 7500 SW 120th Street in Miami, Florida. In February 1985, a nucleus of families left Congregation Beth David to form a new congregation, Bet Shira; the membership grew to 300 families in the weeks. The name "Bet Shira" was selected to reflect the dynamic character of the founders. In May 1988, the Letty Roth Synagogue Complex was dedicated as was the Arin Stacey Appplebaum Sanctuary. In January 1990, Mark Kula, a graduate of the Cantor Institute of the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York City, became Bet Shira's new cantor. In August 1992, Hurricane Andrew badly damaged the synagogue. In 2005, the synagogue was serving 500 families; that year, Sam Rosen of Bet Shira Congregation was chosen as co-winner of the Jewish community's Teacher of the Year, Excellence in Teaching Award by the Center for the Advancement of Jewish Education. In 2007, the synagogue acquired a Torah scroll that during World War II had been smuggled out of the Polish town of Tarnów, when it was invaded by Nazis and its Jewish population destroyed, protected by monks in a monastery near Kiev until the Soviet Union collapsed.

Bet Shira holds an annual "Mitzvah day" every year, where volunteers, members engage in activities such as: Beautification of community sites, planting trees at homes of the disabled and elderly as part of a "Treemendous Miami" project. The synagogue's Early Childhood Center was a site of "Project Kavod", a three-year pilot program in improving the culture of employment in early childhood, by the Coalition for the Advancement of Jewish Education, launched in 2004. For the holiday of Sukkot, Bet Shira erects what is believed to be the first and only drive-through Sukkah, a tent in the parking lot of the synagogue that it calls the "McBet Shira Sukkah", allowing the community to participate in the celebration of the holiday from the convenience of their cars. Members of the public can drive into the sukkah, lower their car window, say the blessings for the holiday, including shaking a lulav and an etrog, as volunteers hand them snacks at the end of their visit; the idea, put into effect first in 2009, is credited to Cantor Mark Kula, who noted that cars are "integral" to people's lifestyles.

He explained. He commented that "Perhaps realizing the fragility of the Sukkah will encourage us to drive more carefully.” David H. Auerbach was the founding rabbi of the synagogue, he is from Montreal and had served as rabbi of Ahavat Achim synagogue in Atlanta and senior rabbi of Beth David Congregation in Miami prior to the founding of Bet Shira. Since his retirement in 2005, he is the rabbi emeritus of the synagogue. In 2005, he was followed as rabbi by Micah Caplan, until 2010. In July 2010, Brian Schuldenfrei assumed the post of senior rabbi. Schuldenfrei had been associate rabbi at Sinai Temple in California. Mark Kula, brother of Rabbi Irwin Kula, assumed the post of cantor in 1987. Mark and his father Morton Kula are the only father and son that have been ordained as cantors by the Jewish Theological Seminary of America in New York. Prior to coming to Miami, Mark was the assistant cantor of New York’s Park Avenue Synagogue. In 2008, the synagogue appointed Renée Rittner as its education director.in 2019, Ben Herman was hired as Bet Shira’s rabbi.

The synagogue has an active religious school that serves students from pre-school through the Bar and Bat Mitzvah training. The congregation is a conservative synagogue and is affiliated with the United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism; as implied by its name, it is a custom of the synagogue to conduct services accompanied by musical instruments. In February 1988, an improperly drawn swastika and anti-Semitic slogans and "Jesus Lives. In response, a neighboring church put a Star of David on its lawn, its parish donated $1,000 towards repairing the windows. Miami Sunset High School students painted over the anti-Semitic slurs spray-painted by the vandals. Four teenagers, three of whom were football players at Miami Palmetto High School, were sentenced for having vandalized the synagogue to 200 hours of community service and ordered to pay the $14,800 in damages. Two years on five occasions in six weeks vandals shot at windows at the synagogue. Three teenagers, two of them students at Palmetto High School, were arrested for shooting out the windows.

Official synagogue site Facebook page

Matthew Elderfield

Matthew Elderfield was Deputy Governor and Head of Financial Regulation at the Central Bank of Ireland, a position sometimes referred to colloquial in Ireland as the Financial Regulator between January 2010 and October 2013. He is the former chief executive of the Bermuda Monetary Authority. Elderfield graduated from Cambridge University in 1988 with a master's degree in International relations, earned a bachelor's degree in foreign service, cum laude, from the School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University in 1987, he was at asked at a parliamentary committee "In regard to baseline qualifications, if your staff is regulating the financial sector, should it not be the case where they should have the bare minimum required in the market as well, a qualified financial adviser status, or they've gone through certain industry exams. It's important to have." But Mr Elderfield disagreed: "I don't agree with that. But I think I'm conflicted because I've never taken a professional exam in my life."

Elderfield was chief executive of the Bermuda Monetary Authority from July 2007. During his two years as head of the financial regulator in Bermuda, Elderfield introduced reforms to strengthen the island's reputation for international insurance and fund management, he strengthened regulation in Bermuda by increasing staff numbers, expanding the BMA's learning and development programme, introducing a scoring system for management. Prior to joining the BMA, Elderfield spent eight years at the UK Financial Services Authority as a head of a number of departments responsible for exchange and clearing-house supervision of secondary markets, listing policy and for banking supervision, he was the official responsible for supervising Northern Rock in the months before the collapsed bank applied for its first bailout. He represented the FSA on the Basel Accord Implementation Group and chaired the FSA panel responsible for economic capital model review. Before joining the FSA, Elderfield established the European operation of the International Swaps and Derivatives Association and held position at the London Investment Banking Association, the British Bankers Association and a Washington DC-based consultancy firm, the Institute for Strategy Development.

Elderfield earned an annual salary of €340,000 a year at the Central Bank of Ireland compared to a salary of $730,000 in Bermuda and was said to be at his desk from 7.30am to 7pm on weekdays while working a half-day on Sundays. Elderfield was appointed in October 2009 by the Governor of Patrick Honohan, he succeeded Patrick Neary, who retired early over the handling of the regulator's investigation into the €87 million in secret directors' loans at Anglo Irish Bank. Minister for Finance, Brian Lenihan welcomed his appointment, saying: "The appointment of Mr Elderfield given his extensive international regulatory experience, is a key step in the restructuring of financial services regulation in Ireland." He took up his position in January 2010. He has been tasked with the rebuilding of the financial regulators function and restoring its reputation, overseeing the recapitalisation of the banks, helping to wean them off the funding support of Government guarantees, match Ireland's regulatory changes with the raft of measures coming internationally, strike a measured balance in his approach to maintain a competitive position for the Irish financial services sector at a global level.

Mr Elderfield said he intended to pursue a policy of'assertive' regulation, backed up by the credible threat of enforcement. An Irish Times poll suggests that he is meeting success in restoring credibility to the Financial Regulators office with 68% responding positively. In April 2010 he said that there was "critical absence of intellectual firepower within his staff Following the transfer of loans to NAMA at the end of March 2010, the regulator's office announced under the Government's guarantee scheme must now meet a core equity ratio of 8 per cent by the end of 2010; this is to ensure. On 30 March 2010, following an application by the Financial Regulator's office, the High Court appointed joint provisional administrators to Quinn Insurance Limited, part of the Quinn Group of companies. According to the Irish Independent, eight subsidiaries of Quinn Insurance provided guarantees of €1.2bn to cover Quinn Group's debts, prompting the regulator to seek the appointment of provisional administrators in the High Court.

The Quinn Group took action to counter the moves by the Financial Regulator, mobilising its employees into street protests, financial discussions with its creditors, in an effort to seek a resolution to the uncertainty created by the appointment of provisional administrators to Quinn Insurance. On 15 April 2010, the Irish Times reported that Quinn Insurance decided not to fight the appointment of a permanent administrator; this was following a direct challenge by Elderfield to the groups owner, Irelands former richest man, Sean Quinn, to "Show me the money" that would have solved the financial difficulties. He is married, his interests are cycling, Leeds United and lives in Sandymount, Dublin. Central Bank Website Financial Regulator Website Irish property bubble Post-2008 Irish economic downturn