The Avro Lancaster is a British Second World War heavy bomber. It was designed and manufactured by Avro as a contemporary of the Handley Page Halifax, both bombers having been developed to the same specification, as well as the Short Stirling, all three aircraft being four-engined heavy bombers adopted by the Royal Air Force during the same wartime era; the Lancaster has its origins in the twin-engine Avro Manchester, developed during the late 1930s in response to the Air Ministry Specification P.13/36 for a capable medium bomber for "world-wide use". Developed as an evolution of the Manchester, the Lancaster was designed by Roy Chadwick and powered by four Rolls-Royce Merlins and in one version, Bristol Hercules engines, it first saw service with RAF Bomber Command in 1942 and as the strategic bombing offensive over Europe gathered momentum, it was the main aircraft for the night-time bombing campaigns that followed. As increasing numbers of the type were produced, it became the principal heavy bomber used by the RAF, the RCAF and squadrons from other Commonwealth and European countries serving within the RAF, overshadowing the Halifax and Stirling.
A long, unobstructed bomb bay meant that the Lancaster could take the largest bombs used by the RAF, including the 4,000 lb, 8,000 lb and 12,000 lb blockbusters, loads supplemented with smaller bombs or incendiaries. The "Lanc", as it was known colloquially, became one of the most used of the Second World War night bombers, "delivering 608,612 long tons of bombs in 156,000 sorties"; the versatility of the Lancaster was such that it was chosen to equip 617 Squadron and was modified to carry the Upkeep "Bouncing bomb" designed by Barnes Wallis for Operation Chastise, the attack on German Ruhr valley dams. Although the Lancaster was a night bomber, it excelled in many other roles, including daylight precision bombing, for which some Lancasters were adapted to carry the 12,000 lb Tallboy and the 22,000 lb Grand Slam earthquake bombs; this was the largest payload of any bomber in the war. In 1943, a Lancaster was converted to become an engine test bed for the Metropolitan-Vickers F.2 turbojet. Lancasters were used to test other engines, including the Armstrong Siddeley Mamba and Rolls-Royce Dart turboprops and the Avro Canada Orenda and STAL Dovern turbojets.
Postwar, the Lancaster was supplanted as the main strategic bomber of the RAF by the Avro Lincoln, a larger version of the Lancaster. The Lancaster took on the role of long range anti-submarine patrol air-sea rescue, it was used for photo-reconnaissance and aerial mapping, as a flying tanker for aerial refuelling and as the Avro Lancastrian, a long-range, high-speed, transatlantic passenger and postal delivery airliner. In March 1946, a Lancastrian of BSAA flew the first scheduled flight from the new London Heathrow Airport. In the 1930s, the Royal Air Force was interested in twin-engine bombers; these designs put limited demands on engine production and maintenance, both of which were stretched with the introduction of so many new types into service. Power limitations were so serious that the British invested in the development of huge engines in the 2,000 horsepower class in order to improve performance. During the late 1930s, none of these was ready for production. Both the United States and the Soviet Union were pursuing the development of bombers powered by arrangements of four smaller engines.
Accordingly, in 1936, the RAF decided to investigate the feasibility of the four-engined bomber. The origins of the Lancaster stem from a twin-engined bomber design, submitted in response to Specification P.13/36, formulated and released by the British Air Ministry during the mid 1930s. This specification had sought a new generation of twin-engined medium bombers suitable for "worldwide use". Further requirements of the specification included the use of a mid-mounted cantilever monoplane wing, all-metal construction. Various candidates were submitted for the specification by such manufacturers as Fairey, Boulton Paul, Handley Page and Shorts; the majority of these engines were under development at this point. In response, British aviation company Avro decided to submit their own design, designated the Avro 679, to meet Specification P.13/36. In February 1937, following consideration of the designs by the Air Ministry, Avro's design submission was selected along with Handley Page's bid being chosen as "second string".
Accordingly, during April 1937, a pair of prototypes of both designs were ordered. The resulting aircraft, named the Manchester, entered RAF service in November 1940. Although considered to be a capable aircraft in most areas, the Manchester proved to be underpowered and troubled by the unreliability of the Vulture engine; as a result, only 200 Manchesters were constructed and the type was withdrawn from ser
Opera Canada is a quarterly music magazine published by Opera Canada Publications. It is the oldest continuously published arts magazine in Canada, it is an independent magazine separate from the Canadian Opera Association. Along with Opera and Opera News, in the 1990s, the magazine was considered to be one of the three major opera publications in the English-speaking world. In 1960, Opera in Canada was established in Toronto by Ruby Mercer, it was started as a publication for the 300 members of the Canadian Opera Guild. The publication was meant to be a link between its readers. Mercer served as editor and publisher until 1990. In 1963, the publication's name was changed to Opera Canada; the magazine was quarterly from 1960 to 1974. In 1975, six issues were planned. Quarterly publication resumed and continued between 1976 and 2004. Five issues of the magazine were published annually 2004-????. The magazine has once again reverted to a quarterly publication. Over its lifetime, the magazine has had three publishers as follows: Canadian Opera Guild Canadian Opera Association Opera Canada Publications In February 1976 Opera Canada became an independent magazine.
The Canadian Opera Association was the former legal name of the Canadian Opera Company used between 1960–1977. With the third publisher change, the magazine became a non-profit organization in Canada. Individual donors and corporations are entitled to an official receipt per Revenue Canada issued by Opera Canada; the website and the printed magazine is available to paid subscribers. The magazine's other revenue streams are grants and newsstand sales; each year the publication receives funding from the Canada Council for the Arts, the Ontario Arts Council, the Canadian Periodical Fund. Printing and targeted advertising within the magazine is delivered by Dovetail Communications Inc; the editorial succession at Opera Canada was as follows: Ruby Mercer: February 1960–1990. Harvey Chusid: 1990–1992. Cynthia Dann Beardsley: 1992–1993. Wayne Gooding: 1993–present. With an endowment from the estate of Ruby Mercer, the Opera Canada Awards were established in 2000; the Rubies honour outstanding individual achievements on stage and behind the scenes.
The first recipients included Maureen Forrester, Stuart Hamilton, John Cook. List of music magazines Opera Canada official website Browse Opera Canada 1996–present Opera.ca The voice of Opera in Canada
Political psychology is an interdisciplinary academic field dedicated to understanding politics and political behavior from a psychological perspective. The relationship between politics and psychology is considered bi-directional, with psychology being used as a lens for understanding politics and politics being used as a lens for understanding psychology; as an interdisciplinary field, political psychology borrows from a wide range of other disciplines, including: anthropology, international relations, philosophy, media and history. Political psychology aims to understand interdependent relationships between individuals and contexts that are influenced by beliefs, perception, information processing, learning strategies and attitude formation. Political psychological theory and approaches have been applied in many contexts such as: leadership role. In essence political psychologists study the foundations and outcomes of political behavior using cognitive and social explanations. Political psychology originated from Western Europe, where it was tied to the emergence of new disciplines and paradigms as well as to the precise social and political context in various countries.
The discipline political psychology was formally introduced during the Franco-Prussian war and the socialist revolution, stirred by the rise of the Paris Commune. The term "political psychology" was first introduced by the ethnologist Adolph Bastian in his book Man in History; the philosopher Hippolyte Taine, a founder of the Ecole Libre de Sciences Politiques, applied Bastian's theories in his works The Origins of Contemporary France, to ideas on the founding and development of the Third Republic. The head of Ecole Libre de Sciences Politiques, Emile Boutmy, was a famous explorer of social and geographical concepts of national interactions, he contributed various works on political psychology such as English People. The contributor of crowd theory Gustave Le Bon suggested that crowd activity subdued will and polluted rational thought which resulted in uncontrollable impulses and emotions, he suggested in his works Psychology of Socialism and Political Psychology and Social Defense that in the uncontrollable state of a crowd people were more vulnerable to submission and leadership, suggested that embracing nationalism would remedy this.
Meanwhile, in Italy, the Risorgimento instigated voting rights. The large division in social class during this period led lawyer Gaetano Mosca to publish his work, The Ruling Class: Elements of Political Science, which theorized the presence of the ruling and the ruled classes of all societies. Vilfredo Pareto, inspired by Mosca's concepts, contributed The Rise and Fall of the Elites and The Socialist System to the discipline of political psychology, theorizing on the role of class and social systems, his work The Society offers a sociology treatise. Mosca and Pareto's texts on the Italian elite contributed to the theories of Robert Michels. Michels was a German socialist fascinated by the distinction between the lower class run parliament in Germany and upper class run parliament in Italy, he wrote Political Parties: A Sociological Study of the Oligarchic Tendencies of Modern Democracy. A large psychoanalytical influence was contributed to the discipline of political psychology by Sigmund Freud.
His texts Totem and Taboo and Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego linked psychoanalysis with politics. Freud and Bullitt developed the first psychobiographical explanation to how the personality characteristics of U. S. President Woodrow Wilson affected his decision making during World War I. Wilhelm Reich, inspired by the effects of World War II, was interested in whether personality types varied according to epoch and class, he described the bidirectional effect of group and the environment with personality. He combined Marxist theories in his book The Mass Psychology of Fascism, he edited The Journal for Political Psychology and Sexual Economy, the first journal to present political psychology in the principal of western language. In Germany, novice political alterations and fascist control during World War II spurred research into authoritarianism from Frankfurt school. Philosopher Herbert Marcuse opened up issues concerning freedom and authority in his book and Revolution: Hegel and the Rise of Social Theory, where he suggested groups compromise on individual rights.
Theodor Adorno investigated authoritarian individuals and anti-Semitism. His report The Authoritarian Personality attempts to determine the personality type susceptible to following fascism and anti-democratic propaganda. Nazi movements during World War II spurred controversial psychologists such as Walther Poppelreuter to lecture and write about political psychology that identified with Hitler; the psychologist Eric Jaensch contributed the racist book The Anti-type. At the turn of the century, Oxford University and Cambridge University introduced disciplinary political psychology courses such as "The Sciences of the Man", along with the foundation of the Psycho