Awadh, known in British historical texts as Avadh or Oudh, is a region in the modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, before independence known as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. Awadh is bounded by the Ganges Doab to the southwest, Rohilkhand to the northwest, Nepal to the north, Purvanchal to the east, its inhabitants are referred to as Awadhis. It was established as one of the twelve original subahs under 16th-century Mughal emperor Akbar and became a hereditary tributary polity around 1722, with Faizabad as its initial capital and Saadat Ali Khan as its first Subadar Nawab and progenitor of a dynasty of Nawabs of Awadh; the traditional capital of Awadh was Faizabad, but the capital was moved to Lucknow the station of the British Resident, which now is the capital of Uttar Pradesh. Presently, Awadh geographically includes the districts of Ambedkar Nagar, Balrampur, Basti, Sant Kabir Nagar, Ayodhya, Hardoi, Lakhimpur Kheri, Pratapgarh, Amethi, Siddharth Nagar, Sultanpur, Unnao, Kaushambi and Kanpur from Lower Doab.
The region is home to a distinct dialect, spoken by Awadhis. Awadh, known as the granary of India, was important strategically for the control of the Doab, a fertile plain between the Ganges and the Yamuna rivers, it was a wealthy kingdom, able to maintain its independence against threats from the Marathas, the British and the Afghans. Awadh's political unity can be traced back to the ancient Hindu kingdom of Kosala, with Ayodhya as its capital. Modern Awadh finds historical mention only in the late 16th century. In prehistoric times, reputedly the kingdom of Bikukshi, contained five main divisions: Uttara Kosala or the trans-Ghaghra districts, now known as Bahraich, Gonda and Gorakhpur. Silliana, consisting of lower range of hills to the north of Uttara Kosala, now belonging to Nepal, with the Tarai at its base. Pachhimrath, which may be described as the country between Ghaghra and Gomti west to the line from Ayodhya to Sultanpur; this division included about third of present district of Faizabad, a small portion of the north of Sultanpur, greater part of Barabanki, sections of the Lucknow and Sitapur districts.
Purabrath, which may be described as the country between Ghaghra and Gomti east to the line from Ayodhya to Sultanpur. This division included about two-thirds of present district of Faizabad, the north-eastern corner of Sultanpur, parts of Mirzapur district, Pratapgarh District and Jaunpur. Arbar, extended southwards from Gomti to the Sai river. Since AD 1350 different parts of the Awadh region were ruled by the Delhi Sultanate, Sharqi Sultanate, Mughal Empire, Nawabs of Awadh, East India Company and the British Raj. Kanpur was one of the major centres of Indian rebellion of 1857, participated in India's Independence movement, emerged as an important city of North India. For about eighty-four years, Awadh was part of the Sharqi Sultanate of Jaunpur. Emperor Jehangir granted an estate in Awadh to a nobleman, Sheik Abdul Rahim, who had won his favour. Sheik Abdul Rahim built Machchi Bhawan in this estate; until 1719, the Subah of Awadh was a province of the Mughal Empire, administered by a Nazim or Subah Nawab appointed by the Emperor.
Nawab –the plural of the Arabic word'Naib', meaning'assistant'– was the term given to subahdars appointed by the Mughal emperor all over India to assist him in managing the empire. In the absence of expeditious transport and communication facilities, they were independent rulers of their territory and wielded the power of life and death over their subjects. Persian adventurer Saadat Khan called Burhan-ul-Mulk, was appointed the Nazim of Awadh in 1722 and he established his court in Faizabad near Lucknow; the Nawabs of Lucknow were in fact the Nawabs of Awadh, but were so referred to because after the reign of the third Nawab, Lucknow became the capital of their realm, where the British station Residents from 1773. The city was North India's cultural capital. Under them music and dance flourished, many monuments were erected. Of the monuments standing today, the Bara Imambara, the Chhota Imambara and the Rumi Darwaza are notable examples. One of the more lasting contributions by the Nawabs is the syncretic composite culture that has come to be known as the Ganga-Jamuni Tehzeeb.
From the pre-historic period to the time of Akbar, the limits of the subah and its internal divisions seem to have been changing, the name of Oudh, or Awadh, seems to have been applicable to only one of the ancient divisions or Sarkars, nearly corresponding to old Pachhimrath. The title of Subehdar of Awadh is mentioned as early as 1280 AD, but it can only have denoted the governor of the tract of the country above defined; the Awadh of Mughal Badshah Akbar was one of the twelve subahs into which he divided the Mughal Empire as it stood in 1590. As constituted at the end of the sixteenth century, the Subah contained five sarkars, viz. Awadh, Bahraich and Gorakhpur, which in turn were divided in numerous mahals and dasturs. Khan Zaman Khan Ali Asghar son of
The Zamorin of Calicut was the hereditary monarch of the kingdom of Kozhikode on the Malabar Coast of India. Kozhikode was one of the important trading ports on the south-western coast of India. At the peak of their reign, the Samoothiri's ruled over a region from Kollam to Panthalayini Kollam, it was after the dissolution of the kingdom of Cheras of Cranganore in the early 12th century, the Samoothiris – autonomous chiefs of Eranadu – demonstrated their political independence. The Samoothiris maintained elaborate trade relations with the Muslim Middle-Eastern sailors in the Indian Ocean, the primary spice traders on the Malabar Coast in the Middle Ages. Kozhikode was an important entrepôt in south-western India where Chinese and West Asian trade met; the Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama visited the Kozhikode in 1498, opening the sailing route directly from Europe to Asia. The Portuguese efforts to lay the foundations to Estado da Índia, to take complete control over the commerce was hampered by the forces of Samoothiri of Kozhikode.
The Kunjali Marakkars, the famous Muslim warriors, were the naval chiefs of Kozhikode. By the end of the 16th century the Portuguese – now commanding the spice traffic on the Malabar Coast – had succeeded in replacing the Muslim merchants in the Arabian Sea; the Dutch supplanted the Portuguese in the 17th century. In 1766 Haider Ali of Mysore defeated the Samoothiri of Kozhikode – an English East India Company dependant at the time – and absorbed Kozhikode to his state. After the Third Mysore War, Malabar was placed under the control of the Company; the status of the Samoothiri as independent rulers was changed to that of pensioners of the Company. The title zamorin first appears in the writings of Ibn Battuta in 1342. In the Portuguese Book of Duarte Barbosa, the title of the ruler of Calicut is given as çamidre or zomodri, derived from the local Malayalam samoothiri or sāmūtiri; this was once thought to be derived from Sanskrit samudra and have the meaning "lord of the sea". In fact, the term derives from Sanskrit svami and sri, which Krishna Iyer glosses as "emperor".
He gives the complete title as Svami Tiri Tirumulapad. The Samoothiris used the title Punturakkon or Punthurakon in inscriptions from c. 1100, in palace records known as the Granthavaris, in official treaties with the English and the Dutch. No records indicate the actual personal name of the ruler. Punthura may be a port of great fame; the title "Kunnalakkon" and its Sanskrit form "Shailabdhishvara" are found in literary works. Thrikkavil Kovilakam in Ponnani served as a second home for the Samoothiris of Kozhikode. Other secondary seats of the Samoothiri of Kozhikode, all established at much time, were Trichur and Cranganore; the chief Kerala ports under control of the Samoothiris in the late 15th century were Panthalayini Kollam, Kozhikode. The Samoothiri of Kozhikode derived greater part of his revenues by taxing the spice trade through his ports. Smaller ports in the kingdom were Puthuppattanam, Tanur, Ponnani and Kodungallur; the port of Beypore served as a ship building center. The port at Kozhikode held the superior economic and political position in Kerala, while Kollam and Kannur were commercially confined to secondary roles.
Travellers have called the city by different names – variations of the Malayalam name. The travellers from Middle-East called it "Kalikooth", Tamils called the city "Kallikkottai", for the Chinese it was "Kalifo" or "Quli". In the Middle Ages, Kozhikode was dubbed the "City of Spices" for its role as the major trading point of Asian spices; the Chinese and Middle-Eastern interests in Malabar, the political ambition of the newly emergent rulers, i.e. the Samoothiris, the decline of port Kodungallur, etc. boosted the prosperity of the port. The rise of the Kozhikode, both the port and the state, seems to have taken place only after the 13th century AD. Kozhikode, despite being located at a geographically inconvenient spot, owed much of its prosperity to the economic policies of the Samoothiris of Kozhikode. Trade at port Kozhikode was managed by the Muslim port commissioner known as the Shah Bandar Koya; the port commissioner supervised the customs on the behalf of the king, fixed the prices of the commodities and collected the share to the Kozhikode treasury.
The name of the famous fine variety of cotton cloth called calico is thought to have derived from Kozhikode. Known as "Fandarina", "Shaojunan". Located north of Kozhikode, close to a bay; the geographical location is ideal for the wintering of ships during the annual monsoon rains. Presence of Chetti and Jewish merchants among others. According to K. V. Krishna Iyer, the court historian in Kozhikode, the members of the royal house of Samoothiri belonged the Eradi sub caste of Nair aristocracy; the Samantas claimed a status higher than the rest of the Nairs. The Hindu theological formula that the rulers must be of Kshatriya varna may have been a complication for the Samantas of the Kodungallur Chera monarch. So the Samantas – crystallized as a distinctive social group, something of a "sub-caste" – began to style themselves as "Samanta Ksatriyas"; the Samantas have birth and death customs identical to other Nair community. In the royal fami
Drake Berehowsky is a Canadian former professional ice hockey defenceman. He is best known for his time in the National Hockey League, where he played for the Toronto Maple Leafs, Pittsburgh Penguins, Edmonton Oilers, Nashville Predators, Vancouver Canucks and Phoenix Coyotes, he is the head coach of the Orlando Solar Bears of the ECHL. This is his second stint as the team's head coach, first coaching the Solar Bears during the 2012–13 season; as a youth, Berehowsky played in the 1985 Quebec International Pee-Wee Hockey Tournament with the Toronto Marlboros minor ice hockey team. Berehowsky began his junior hockey career with the Kingston Raiders of the Ontario Hockey League in 1988 and had a strong rookie season, earning 46 points in 63 games; the Raiders were renamed to the Kingston Frontenacs in 1989–90. Berehowsky would only appear in nine games, he earned 14 points in those nine games and the Toronto Maple Leafs would draft Berehowsky with their first round draft pick in the 1990 NHL Entry Draft.
Berehowsky split the 1990–91 season between the Frontenacs and the North Bay Centennials before earning a late season call-up to the Leafs. He returned to North Bay for the 1991–92 season, recording 82 points in 62 games, helping the Centennials to the OHL finals, tallying 31 points in 21 post-season games. Berehowsky would earn another late season call-up to Toronto, appearing in a single game, before being sent to the St. John's Maple Leafs for the 1992 American Hockey League playoffs, where he recorded five assists in six games. Berehowsky split the 1992–93 and 1993–94 seasons between St. John's and Toronto before earning a full-time roster spot in Toronto in the 1994–95 season. Berehowsky appeared in 25 games with the Maple Leafs in 1994–95. On April 7, 1995, the team traded him to the Pittsburgh Penguins for Grant Jennings. Berehowsky would finish the season as the odd man out on the Penguins defense, as he appeared in only four regular season games and one playoff game with the team. In 1995–96, Pittsburgh sent Berehowsky to the Cleveland Lumberjacks, their AHL affiliate, for most of the season and he would only appear in one game with the Penguins.
After the season, Berehowsky became a free agent. He split the 1996–97 season between the Carolina Monarchs of the AHL and the San Antonio Dragons of the International Hockey League until signing an NHL contract with the Edmonton Oilers on September 30, 1997. Berehowsky spent most of the season with the Oilers, appearing in 67 regular season and 12 post-season games with the club. However, he did playing in eight games. On October 1, 1998, the Oilers traded Berehowsky, Éric Fichaud and Greg de Vries to the Nashville Predators for Mikhail Shtalenkov and Jim Dowd. Berehowsky played with the Predators until 2001, having a career season in 1999–2000 when he scored 12 goals and 32 points, leading the Nashville defense in goals. On March 9, 2001, the Predators dealt Berehowsky to the Vancouver Canucks. Berehowsky's time with the Canucks was short, as he would once again be traded on December 28, 2001, with Denis Pederson to the Phoenix Coyotes for Todd Warriner, Trevor Letowski and Tyler Bouck. Berehowsky saw regular time on the Coyotes blueline.
An injury suffered in training camp sidelined Berehowsky for most of the 2002–03 season, as he only appeared in seven games with Phoenix, two with the Springfield Falcons of the AHL before becoming a free agent at the end of the season. On August 29, 2003, he signed with the Pittsburgh Penguins, where he had played from 1994 to 1996. Berehowsky played in 47 more games with the Penguins. On February 11, 2004, the Penguins traded Berehowsky to his original NHL team, the Toronto Maple Leafs for Ric Jackman, where he finished out the season. With the NHL in a lockout for the 2004–05 season, Berehowsky signed with Skellefteå AIK in Sweden for the season, before signing a contract with Eisbären Berlin in Germany for the 2005–06 season. After the season with Berlin, Berehowsky returned to North America, where he signed with the San Antonio Rampage of the AHL, before retiring from hockey in the summer of 2006. After his NHL career, Berehowsky served as an assistant coach with the Peoria Rivermen of the AHL for three seasons.
On June 19, 2012, Berehowsky was named head coach of the Orlando Solar Bears for their inaugural season in the ECHL. In the 2012–13 season, Berehowsky lead the expansion team to a record of 28 wins, 37 losses, 3 overtime losses, 4 shootout losses totaling 63 points. Global Lethbridge's Paul Kingsmith announced June 4, 2013, Berehowsky was to be the next head coach for the Lethbridge Hurricanes of the Western Hockey League. During his first season with the club, the Berehowsky-led Hurricanes finished with 16 fewer wins and 37 fewer points than the previous season; the team missed the playoffs for the fifth consecutive season and set the franchise record for fewest wins and fewest points in the 26 season Lethbridge Hurricanes' history as well as the 47 year franchise history. On December 9, 2014, Berehowsky was fired from his coaching duties with the struggling Hurricanes, he joined the Sudbury Wolves of the Ontario Hockey League as an associate coach in 2015. On November 14, 2016, Berehowsky left the Wolves to return to Orlando for a second stint as head coach of the Solar Bears.
Biographical information and career statistics from Eliteprospects.com, or Eurohockey.com, or Hockey-Reference.com, or Legends of Hockey, or The Internet Hockey Database
Hitzacker is a town in the Lüchow-Dannenberg district of Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated on approx. 8 km north of Dannenberg, 45 km east of Lüneburg. The 2007 population of Hitzacker was 4,982, its postal code is 29456; the mayor is Karl Guhl. The town is part of the Samtgemeinde of Elbtalaue; the famous library now in Wolfenbüttel was founded here by Augustus the Younger, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and was moved to its present location in 1643. Hitzacker is situated at the confluence of the River Jeetzel with the Elbe. Whilst the so-called Elbe Heights, at the southeastern foot of which Hitzacker lies, belong to the natural region of the Lüneburg Heath, the lowland areas of the old town belong to the Elbe valley water meadows, its height varies from 11 m above NN at the Jeetzel confluence to 83 m above NN on the hill of Weinberg in the Klötzie. Further down the Elbe, the hill of Kniepenberg near Drethem attains 86 m above NN and offers a panoramic view over the Elbe valley depression. Since the municipal reform of 1972, the borough of Hitzacker has consisted of the town itself and the 11 villages listed below.
Other settlements in the borough are: Before 1972, Pussade and Posade Forsthaus belonged to the municipality of Harlingen, Dötzingen Manor, Hagen Manor, Meudelfitz Manor and Sarchem to the town of Hitzacker and Leitstade to Wietzetze. The manors of Dötzingen and Marwedel are located today within the town of Hitzacker. Man had settled by around 3000 B. C. at the lake of Hitzackersee and the region has been continuously settled for over three thousand years. On the Weinberg next to the present old town Slavs built a castle in the eighth century; as a result, Hitzacker became an important trading centre before its receiving town rights. Its actual foundation as a town took place in 1258, whereupon the castle lost its significance and was allowed to fall into ruins. A manuscript referring to Hitzacker dating to 20 January 1376 states the following: "The dukes and Albert of Saxony and Lüneburg and Duke Bernard of Brunswick of Lüneburg allow the council of the town of Lüneburg to add the 30 marks of the lot which Lord Ludolf von Tzellenstede undertook to pay on the town's behalf on 13 April next, the 150 marks of the lot which he agreed to pay on the following 25 December, as well as the 100 marks of the lot the council paid on behalf of Lords Ordenberg and Siegfried Bock, i.e. 280 marks of the lot and the interest due to be added to the pledge for the castles of Bleckede and Hitzacker and the taxes from Lüneburg and Hitzacker, in the event that the lords do not repay the council on the said days, vow not to relieve the council from the pledges before they have repaid the sum pledged and the above money."In 1548, on the Friday after Jubilate Sunday, a conflagration reduced the village of Hitzacker to ashes apart from the church and one house.
In 1610 a number of people in Hitzacker and the surrounding area were accused of witchcraft and sorcery. On the third day of Christmas in 1668 the church and eight houses burned down. In the Polabian language of the region that died out in the 18th century Hitzacker was called Ljauci; the borough of Hitzacker was created as part of the municipal reform in 1972 from ten hitherto independent parishes. The town of Hitzacker belongs to state constituency No. 48 – Elbe and federal constituency No. 38 – Lüchow-Dannenberg – Lüneburg. The town council of Hitzacker has 17 councillors. as at: local elections of 10 September 2006 The Mayor of Hitzacker is Dr. Karl-Heinz Jastram; the town used to be partnered with the municipality of Wisch in the Netherlands. Town roundabout with timber-framed houses and the 1589 customs house Hitzacker Archaeological Centre The Old Customs House Museum Hunting Lodge and Forest Museum in Göhrde Katemin Mill Excavations at the Hitzacker See Sacrifice stone near Pudripp Wildlife enclosure in Hitzacker Prince's Graves, Marwedel Megalithic tombs and tumuli near Pussade The Wirtschaftliche Forschungsgesellschaft or Wifo: former Nazi underground fuel depot in the Dötzingen Forest outside Hitzacker Hitzacker's shooting guild, the'Schützengilde von 1395 zu Hitzacker, is one of the oldest in Europe.
Hitzacker has a long tradition as a tourist destination. For instance, the Local History Working Group of Lüchow-Dannenberg held a conference in 1983 with the title "100 Years of Tourism in Hitzacker – 50 Year Old Local History and Museum Society“. Around the turn of the century, holidaymakers from the Hamburg and Hanover regions came to the spa hotel on the Weinberg hill; the hotel had its own spring used for bathing by those taking the Kur. Day excursions on the river, along the Elbe, took place, it had its own shipping line: Hamburg-Lauenburg-Dömitz. Today tourism has experienced a change; the health business has been replaced by beauty facilities. Hitzacker has since become a recognised climatic spa. Many of its hotels offer so-called wellness treatments and there is a spa area with a Kneipp basin and barefoot path. Hitzacker is the venue for musical events like the Hitzacker Summer Music Days under the artistic direction of Dr. Markus Fein, Hitzacker Music Week under the direction of Ludwig Güttler.
There are three museums, including the Archaeological Centre with a Bronze Age open-air museum. On the Weinberg, vines have been cultivated for several centuries, once a year t
No Code of Conduct is a 1998 action crime thriller film directed by Bret Michaels. The film stars Charlie Sheen, Martin Sheen as father-and-son vice unit detectives, along with Mark Dacascos who portrays Charlie Sheen's partner; the film was released as a direct-to-video feature in some countries, including: Australia, Japan, the Czech Republic, Brazil, Azerbaijan and Turkey. Bret Michaels is credited as Director, Composer and Executive Producer. Charlie Sheen's credits in this release include Actor and Executive Producer. Jake Peterson is a dedicated vice unit detective, whose strong-will and dedication to duty begins to take a toll on his marriage to wife Rebecca. Jake's father, Bill Peterson is a veteran detective in the same unit as Jake; as well as the strain of a troubled marriage, Jake is under pressure to live up to his father's reputation. After the death of a fellow detective, both Jake and his father make it their personal mission to bring the killer or killers to justice. In doing so, they uncover a drug ring smuggling drugs from Mexico into Phoenix and discover just how vast and dangerous the smuggling operation is.
Charlie Sheen as Jake Peterson Martin Sheen as Bill Peterson Mark Dacascos as Paul DeLucca Joe Estevez as Pappy Bret Michaels as Frank "Shane" Fields Tina Nguyen as Shi Paul Gleason as John Bagwell Ron Masak as Julian Disanto Joe Lando as Willdog Courtney Gains as Cameron Meredith Salenger as Rebecca Peterson as Steve No Code of Conduct on IMDb No Code of Conduct at Rotten Tomatoes
The Labyrintovye Islands is a group of flat islands in the Pyasino Gulf of the Kara Sea. They are located at the mouth of the Pyasina River, their latitude is 73° 50' N and its longitude 86° 45' E. These islands form a compact group, formed by river sediments. Rogozyna is the largest and southernmost island and it is 15 km in length. Other important islands are Bolshoy Labyrintovy. All these islands are marshy and covered with tundra lakes; the sea surrounding the Labyrintovye Islands is covered with pack ice with some polynias in the winter and there are many ice floes in the summer. The climate in the area is Arctic, with long bitter winters and a short warmer period which allows the ice to melt; these islands belong to the Krasnoyarsk Krai administrative division of the Russian Federation. The Labyrintovye group is part of the Great Arctic State Nature Reserve of Russia and there is much aquatic life in the marshes birds. Location: Dibner VD, Zakharov V. V. Острова Карского моря. Kara Sea Islands.
// Острова Советской Арктики. / / Soviet Arctic Islands. Геология СССР, т. XXVI. Geology of the USSR, so XXVI. М. Недра, 1970, с. M. Nedra, 1970, pp. 196–207. Great Arctic Reserve: Radio contacts: Kara Sea