Away colours are a choice of coloured clothing used in team sports. They are required to be worn by one team during a game between teams that would otherwise wear the same colours as each other, or similar colours; this change prevents confusion for officials and spectators. In most sports, it is the visiting or road team that must change – second-choice kits are known as away kits or change kits in British English, road uniforms in American English; some sports leagues mandate that away teams must always wear an alternative kit, while others state that the two teams' colours should not match. In some sports, conventionally the home team has changed its kit. In most cases, a team wears its away kit only when its primary kit would clash with the colours of the home team. However, sometimes teams wear away colours by choice even in a home game. At some clubs, the away kit has become more popular than the home version. Replica home and away kits are available for fans to buy; some teams have produced third-choice kits, or old-fashioned throwback uniforms.
In North American sports, road teams wear a change uniform regardless of a potential colour clash. "Color vs. color" games are a rarity, having been discouraged in the era of black-and-white television. All road uniforms are white in gridiron football and the National Hockey League, while in baseball, visitors wear grey. In the National Basketball Association and NCAA basketball, home uniforms are white or yellow, visiting teams wear the darker colour. Most teams choose to wear their colour jerseys at home, with the road team changing to white in most cases. White road uniforms gained prominence with the rise of television in the 1950s. A "white vs. color" game was easier to follow in black-and-white. According to Phil Hecken, "until the mid 1950s, not only was color versus color common in the NFL, it was the norm." Long after the advent of colour television, the use of white jerseys has remained in every game. The NFL's current rules require that a team's home jerseys must be "either white or official team color" throughout the season, "and visiting clubs must wear the opposite".
If a team insists on wearing its home uniforms on the road, the NFL Commissioner must judge on whether their uniforms are "of sufficient contrast" with those of their opponents. The road team might instead wear a third jersey, such as the Seattle Seahawks' "Wolf Grey" alternate. According to the Gridiron Uniform Database, the Cleveland Browns wore white for every home game of the 1955 season; the only times they wore brown was for games at Philadelphia and the New York Giants, when the Eagles and Giants chose to wear white. In 1964 the Baltimore Colts, Cleveland Browns, Minnesota Vikings and Los Angeles Rams wore white for their home games according to Tim Brulia's research; the St. Louis Cardinals wore white for several of their home games, as well as the Dallas Cowboys; until 1964 Dallas had worn blue at home, but it was not an official rule that teams should wear their coloured jerseys at home. The use of white jerseys was introduced by general manager Tex Schramm, who wanted fans to see a variety of opponents' jersey colours at home games.
The Cowboys still wear white at home today. White has been worn at home by the Miami Dolphins, Washington Redskins, Philadelphia Eagles, several other NFL teams. Teams in cities with hot climates choose white jerseys at home during the first half of the season, because light colours absorb and retain less heat in sunlight – as such, the Dolphins, who stay white year-round, will use their coloured jerseys for home night games; every current NFL team except the Seattle Seahawks has worn white at home at some time in its history. During the successful Joe Gibbs era, the Washington Redskins chose to wear white at home in the 1980s and 1990s, including the 1982 NFC Championship Game against Dallas. Since 2001 the Redskins have chosen to wear white jerseys and burgundy jerseys equally in their home games, but they still wear white against the Cowboys; when Gibbs returned from 2004 to 2007, they wore white at home exclusively. In 2007, they wore a white throwback jersey; the Dallas Cowboys' blue jersey has been popularly viewed to be "jinxed" because of defeats at Super Bowl V in 1971, in the 1968 divisional playoffs at Cleveland, Don Meredith's final game as a Cowboys player.
Dallas's only victory in a conference championship or Super Bowl wearing the blue jerseys was in the 1978 NFC Championship game at the Los Angeles Rams. Super Bowl rules changed to allow the designated home team to pick their choice of jersey. White was chosen by the Cowboys, the Redskins, the Pittsburgh Steelers, the Denver Broncos, the New England Patriots; the latter three teams wear colours at home, but Pittsburgh had worn white in three road playoff wins, while Denver cited its previous Super Bowl success in white jerseys, while being 0–4 when wearing orange in Super Bowls. Teams playing against Dallas at home wear their white jerseys to try to invoke the "curse", as when the Philadelphia Eagles hosted the Cowboys in the 1980 NFC Championship Game. Teams including the St. Louis Cardinals and New York Giants followed suit in the 1980s, the Carolina Panthers did so from 1995 until 2006, including two playoff ga
Da'Ron Brown is an American football wide receiver, a free agent. He played college football at Northern Illinois, he was drafted by the Kansas City Chiefs in the seventh round of the 2015 NFL Draft. He spent the entire 2015 season on the practice squad and was signed to a reserve/futures contract at the end of the season. On September 3, 2016, he was released by the Chiefs. On September 27, 2016, Brown was signed to the Patriots' practice squad, he was released by the Patriots on October 1, 2016. On November 9, 2016, Brown was signed to the Giants practice squad, he was released by the Giants on November 17, 2016. On December 1, 2016, Brown was signed to the Dolphins practice squad. On January 19, 2017, Brown signed a futures contract with the Los Angeles Chargers, he was waived on September 2, 2017. Northern Illinois Huskies bio
The earliest Bible translations into the Polish language date to the 13th century. The first full ones were completed in the 16th; the history of Polish-language translation of books of the Bible begins with the Psalter. The earliest recorded translations date to the 13th century, around 1280; the oldest surviving Polish translation of the Bible is the St. Florian's Psalter, assumed to be a copy of that translation, itself a manuscript of the second half of the 14th century, in the abbey of Saint Florian, near Linz, in Latin and German. A critical edition of the Polish part of the St. Florian's Psalter was published by Wladysław Nehring with a instructive introduction. More recent than the St. Florian's Psalter is the Puławy Psalter dating from the end of the 15th century. There were a 16th-century translation of the New Testament, more fragmentary translations, none of which have been preserved in their full form to the present. In the mid-15th century, an incomplete Bible, the "Queen Sophia's Bible", contains Genesis, Ruth, Chronicles, Nehemiah, II Esdras and Judith.
With the Reformation, translation activity increased as the different confessions endeavored to supply their adherents with texts of the Bible. An effort to secure a Polish-language Bible for Lutherans was made by Duke Albert of Prussia in a letter directed in his name to Melanchthon; the Brest Bible, the first complete Bible in Polish, was commissioned by Mikołaj "the Black" Radziwiłł and printed in 1563 in Brest-Litovsk. Jan Seklucjan, preacher at Königsberg, was commissioned to prepare a translation, he published the New Testament at Königsberg in 1551 and 1552; the Polish Reformed received the Bible through Prince Nicholas Radziwill. A company of Polish and foreign theologians and scholars undertook the task, after six years' labor at the "Sarmatian Athens" at Pińczów, not far from Kraków, finished the translation of the Bible, published at the expense of Radziwill in Brest-Litovsk, 1563; the translators state that for the Old Testament they consulted besides the Hebrew text the ancient versions and different modern Latin ones.
Two years after the Brest Bible was completed the Calvinist and Radical wings of the Reformed church split in 1565, the Bible was suspect to both groups: The Calvinist Ecclesia Major suspected it of Arian interpretations. Symon Budny, a Belarusian of the Judaizing wing of the Ecclesia Minor charged against the Brest Bible that it was not prepared according to the original texts, but after the Vulgate and other modern versions, that the translators cared more for elegant Polish than for a faithful rendering, he undertook a new rendering, his translation was printed in 1572 at Nesvizh. As changes were introduced in the printing which were not approved by Budny, he disclaimed the New Testament and published another edition Zasłaŭje, finally a third edition where he withdrew some of his Judaizing and Talmudic readings; the charges which he made against the Brest Bible were made against his own, Budny's former colleague Marcin Czechowic of Lublin -, concerned with Budny's preference for Hebrew over Greek sources - published the Polish Brethren's own edition of the New Testament.
The interesting preface states that Czechowic endeavored to make an accurate translation, but did not suppress his Socinian ideas. A further Socinian Racovian New Testament was published by Valentinus Smalcius, a pupil of Fausto Sozzini; the Brest Bible was superseded by the so-called Gdańsk Bible, which became the Bible of all Evangelical Poles. At the synod in Ożarowice, 1600, a new edition of the Bible was proposed and the work was given to the Reformed minister Martin Janicki, who had translated the Bible from the original texts. In 1603 the printing of this translation was decided upon, after the work had been revised; the work of revision was entrusted to men of the Reformed and Lutheran confessions and members of the Moravian Church to Daniel Mikołajewski, superintendent of the Reformed churches in Great Poland, Jan Turnowski, senior of the Moravian Church in Great Poland. After it had been compared with the Janicki translation, the Brest, the Bohemian, Pagnini's Latin, the Vulgate, the new rendering was ordered printed.
The Janicki translation as such has not been printed, it is difficult to state how much of it is contained in the new Bible. The New Testament was first published at Gdańsk, 1606, often during the 16th and 17th centuries; the complete Bible was issued in 1632, since. The Gdańsk Bible differs so much from that of Brest, it is erroneously called the Bible of Pavel Paliurus. For the Roman Catholics the Bible was translated from the Vulgate by Jan Nicz of Lwów Kraków, 1561, 1574, 1577; this Bible was superseded by the new translation of the Jesuit Jakub Wujek that became known as the Jakub Wujek Bible. Wujek criticized the Leopolita and non-Catholic Bible versions and s