Foix is a commune, the former capital of the County of Foix. Today it is the Préfecture of the Ariège department in southwestern France in the Occitanie region, it is the second least populous administrative centre of a department in all of France, the least-populous being Privas. Foix lies south of Toulouse, close to the border with Andorra. At the 2009 census, the city had a population of 9,861 people, it is only the second city of the department after Pamiers, one of the two sub-prefectures. Foix is twinned with the English cathedral city of Ripon; the Romans built a fort on the rocky hill. The town of Foix owes its origin to an oratory founded by Charlemagne, which afterwards became the Abbey of Saint Volusianus in 849; the current area was preceded by the County of Foix. The founding, in 849, of the Abbey Saint-Volusien allowed the development of urban living in the tenth century to the twelfth century; the city reached its peak in the fourteenth century. The castle, whose foundations date back to the early tenth century, was a strong fortress that withstood the repeated attacks of Simon de Montfort IV between 1211 and 1217, during the Albigensian Crusade.
In 1272, when the Count of Foix refused to recognize the sovereignty of the king of France, Philip the Bold took the leadership of an expedition against the city, subsequently the count surrendered. In 1290, at a meeting of the Béarn region and the county of Foix, the city was abandoned by the Counts. Gaston Phoebus was the last to have lived in the castle, by the sixteenth century the castle had lost its military purpose; the castle was used as a prison until 1864. In 1536 began the first Reformation preaching in Foix, in 1579 the church of Montgauzy was destroyed; the same fate awaited the abbey and its church in 1581. The following year, Foix was retaken by Catholics, in 1589 the Count of Foix, Henry of Navarre, was crowned King of France and became Henry IV. Lucien Goron primary school Cadirac Primary School Cardie Primary School Courbet Primary School Bruilhols Primary School College Lakanal Gabriel Fauré General and Technological School Jean Durroux Vocational School Central University of the Ariège The coat of arms used by the commune has the blazon D'or à trois pals de gueules.
This is replicated on the flag, in the arms of the département. It originates from the arms of the Counts of Foix, and, as such, dates back into medieval times, it bears a resemblance to the coat of arms of Catalonia, of Aragon, both featuring in the coat of arms of Andorra. In 1955 the post office issued a postage stamp with a face value of 50 cents, consisting of the black, green and red representing the Arms of County of Foix, referenced as YT 1044, it is part of the eighth century series of Provincial Coat of Arms. In 1958, the post office issued a postage stamp with a face value of 15 f. consisting of Ultramarine, gray and green representing the Château de Foix, referenced YT 11759. Foix is twinned with the following places: Lleida since 1962 Andorra la Vella Ripon Louis de Bassompierre, abbot of Saint-Volusien Frédéric Soulié, dramatist and journalist. Charles de Freycinet and prime minister. Louis Pailhas, director of the National School of Civil Aviation from 1967 to 1982 Roger Bataille painter Christian d'Orgeix, surrealist painter Alexandre Rauzy, MP under the Third Republic, the Socialist Party activist and Democratic Socialist Party Eric Carrière, footballer Jean Clottes, world-renowned prehistorian George-Patrick Gleize, writer Marc Bonneval and translator Jean-Yves Ferri, author of comics Chloé Mortaud, Miss France Joseph Delteil, died in Foix Hosting History: • On historic Bastille Day, 14 July, the Town of Foix hosted the arrival of the 2017 TDF racing teams on Stage 13, St. Girons-Foix.
• Hosted arrival Stage 14 in Limoux-Foix. • It was the finishing town of Stage 11 in the 2008 Tour de Lannemezan-Foix. • For the 2007 Tour de France, Foix hosted the start of Stage Foix - Loudenvielle-Le Louron. The botanical garden, Les Épines de Lespinet, has a collection of cacti and succulents, as well as citrus trees, banana plants, Mediterranean vegetation; the granary, dating from 1870, is in the style of Victor Baltard. The castle stands to the west of the town; the majority of the present building dates from the twelfth century to the fourteenth century. In the North, the square tower, covered by a slated roof at the end of the nineteenth century, is the oldest because it dates the eleventh and twelfth centuries; the middle tower, built in the thirteenth century, was renovated in the fourteenth century. It has beautiful architectural features such as sculpted coats of arms keystones; the round tower on the other hand has Gothic architecture with large bays illuminating beautiful hexagonal vaulted halls.
In 1104, the regular canons of St. Augustine took possession of an abbey housing the relics of St. Volusien, it was that the construction of a large church with three naves, with a transept, was undertaken. In the fourteenth century, the Romanesque apse was replaced by a new polygonal chancel; the building was destroyed during the religious wars and the relics were burned. Reconstruction work was undertaken from 1609 and completed in 1670. Of the medieval church, there are the portal and the base of the walls of the nave re
The Ariège is a 164 km long river in southern France, right tributary of the Garonne. Its source is in the Pyrenees, it flows north through the following départements and towns: Ariège: Ax-les-Thermes, Les Cabannes, Tarascon-sur-Ariège, Foix, Pamiers, Saverdun. Haute-Garonne: Cintegabelle, Auterive, it flows into the Garonne in Portet-sur-Garonne, south of Toulouse. If the Latin origin of its name is to be trusted, the Ariège is supposed to carry gold nuggets. Http://www.geoportail.fr The Ariège at the Sandre database History and real-time water heights of Ariege river, Garonne river, other tributaries
Ariège is a department in Southwestern France, in the Occitanie region. It is named after the Ariège River and its capital is Foix. Ariège is known for its rural landscape, with a population of 153,067 as of 2016, its INSEE and postal code is 09, hence the department's informal name of le neuf. The inhabitants of the department are known as Ariègeoises; the department is part of the current region of Occitanie and is surrounded by the French departments of Haute-Garonne to the west and north, Aude to the east, Pyrénées-Orientales in the south-east, as well as Spain and Andorra in the south. Covering an area of 4,890 km2, the department is divided into three arrondissements: Foix and Saint-Girons, it is composed of 13 cantons, 21 intercommunalities, 331 communes. In 2009 the Regional Natural Park of the Ariège Pyrenees was created covering about 40% of the area of the department of Ariège. There are three main areas: The Ariège plainThe north of the department consists of plains and low valleys where agriculture is prevalent.
Part of Lauragais covers the northeast of the department. Two major rivers, the Ariège and the Lèze traverse the plain from south to north. A landscape of grain fields dominates the scene with growing of corn and sunflowers and with prairies; the Pyrenean foothillsThis area includes the Plantaurel mountains and the Pre-Pyrenean hills below 1000 m. Various geological structures are present in contrast: the Foix Valley with its granite mountain landscape and the Lavelanet region with marl and limestone. Ariège high countryThe geography is dominated by the Pyrenees mountains exceeding 1,000 m above sea level which form the border between France and Spain; the Pica d'Estats, the peak of Montcalm, Pic de Sotllo are the highest points of the department. These peaks are visible from Toulouse in the Haute Garonne; the landscape is dominated by forests with coniferous species coexist with hardwoods such as chestnut trees, Black Locust trees, ash trees, beech trees. There are hundreds of kilometres of well-marked paths which allow exploration of the magnificent Pyrenees mountains.
The high mountains are accessible via good roads, cable cars or by foot. There are a number of lodges providing high level mountain accommodation that are comfortable and with good meals. There are a number of fresh water lakes which provide a variety of activities including, swimming, canoeing and picnicking. There are several downhill ski resorts, the three largest being Ax-Bonascre, Les Monts D'Olmes and Guzet-Neige. There are many cross country ski-ing resorts, one of the best being at Plateau de Beille, near Les Cabannes. Ariège is one of the most unspoiled regions of France; the locals enjoy keeping traditions alive old farming techniques. As fewer insecticides, for example, have been used, the flora and fauna of the area continue to be rich in both diversity and numbers. Butterflies are common and birds are numerous. There are many unspoiled villages and hamlets tucked away in the valleys close to the department's border with Spain – Seix and Aulus-les-Bains are examples – together with picturesque mountain villages, most notably Aleu which comes alive in the holiday season.
Ariège stands on the eastern limit of oceanic dominance over rainfall, but other influences are felt: Mediterranean – visible in the vegetation of the foothills and of the valley of the Ariège river towards Tarascon, in the Sault country Continental – in the Pyrenean valleys, with many storms and big differences of temperature between day and nightThere is no great tendency to summer drought, as the flow of air from the north-west brings rain throughout the year. Rainfall is moderate on the foothills and in some sheltered valleys, measuring 700 to 1,000 mm per year, but increases in the higher valleys with levels between 1,000 mm and 1,800 mm; the slopes exposed to the north-west, such as Aulus and Orlu, are, as one would expect, the wettest, together with the frontal ridges that meet air flow from the southwest. Snow cover is common over lasting several months above 1,500 to 2,000 metres; some periglacial areas exist over 2,500 m but the only true glacier in Ariège is that of Mont Valier, near Castillon-en-Couserans.
Temperatures are mild in the foothills, most notably at the city of Foix the average is 5 °C in January and 19 °C in July. However, they decline with elevation, e.g. at l'Hospitalet-près-l'Andorre it is 0 °C in January and 14 °C in July. Ariège is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790 under the Act of 22 December 1789, it was created from the counties of Couserans. A request was made to the Council of State to rename the department Ariège-Pyrénées. According to the proponents of this project, the word "Pyrenees" would better position the department to promote itself throughout France; the demand was rejected. Foix is the administrative capital of the Ariège, it is an ancient medieval town with Chateau de Foix, perched on a hill overlooking it. The fortress has been attacked many times without being captured including an attempt by Simon de Montfort, it has been used as a prison, the names of English prisoners of war can still be seen on the cell walls.
Another famous castle in the Ariège is Montségur, located on a rocky outcrop at a height of 1200 metres. During the Albigensian Crusade and siege in 1244 the castle was destroyed, with more than
Nativity of Saint John the Baptist
The Nativity of John the Baptist is a Christian feast day celebrating the birth of John the Baptist, a prophet who foretold the coming of the Messiah in the person of Jesus, whom he baptised. Christians have long interpreted the life of John the Baptist as a preparation for the coming of Jesus Christ, the circumstances of his birth, as recorded in the New Testament, are miraculous. John's pivotal place in the gospel is seen in the emphasis Luke gives to the announcement of his birth and the event itself, both set in prominent parallel to the same occurrences in the life of Jesus; the sole biblical account of the birth of John the Baptist comes from the Gospel of Luke. John's parents, Zechariah or Zachary — a Jewish priest — and Elizabeth, were without children and both were beyond the age of child-bearing. During Zechariah's rotation to serve in the Temple in Jerusalem, he was chosen by lot to offer incense at the Golden Altar in the Holy Place; the Archangel Gabriel appeared to him and announced that he and his wife would give birth to a child, that they should name him John, a name, unfamiliar in Zechariah and Elizabeth's families.
Acts 4:6 refers to a "John" among the high priests who challenged the apostles' preaching after Pentecost, so the name was not unknown within the wider priestly family. However, because Zechariah did not believe the message of Gabriel, he was rendered speechless until the time of John's birth. At that time, his relatives wanted to name the child after his father, Zechariah wrote, "His name is John", whereupon he recovered his ability to speak. Following Zechariah's obedience to the command of God, he was given the gift of prophecy, foretold the future ministry of Jesus this prophecy forming the text of the Benedictus canticle. At the Annunciation, when the angel Gabriel appeared to the Virgin Mary to inform her that she would conceive of the Holy Ghost, he informed her that Elizabeth, her cousin, was six months pregnant. Mary journeyed to visit Elizabeth. Luke's Gospel recounts; the Nativity of John the Baptist on June 24 comes three months after the celebration on March 25 of the Annunciation, when the angel Gabriel told Mary that her cousin Elizabeth was in her sixth month of pregnancy, six months before the Christmas celebration of the birth of Jesus.
The purpose of these festivals is not to celebrate the exact dates of these events, but to commemorate them in an interlinking way. The Nativity of John the Baptist anticipates the feast of Christmas; the Nativity of John the Baptist is one of the oldest festivals of the Christian church, being listed by the Council of Agde in 506 as one of that region's principal festivals, where it was a day of rest and, like Christmas, was celebrated with three Masses: a vigil, at dawn, at midday. It is one of the patronal feasts of the Order of Malta. Ordinarily, the day of a saint's death is celebrated as his or her feast day, because it marks his or her dies natalis, or "birthday", into eternal life. To this rule there are two notable exceptions: the birthday of the Blessed Virgin Mary and that of John the Baptist. According to Catholic tradition and teaching, Mary was free from original sin from the first moment of her existence, while John was cleansed of original sin in the womb of his mother; the Nativity of John the Baptist, though not a widespread public holiday outside of Quebec and Puerto Rico, is a high-ranking liturgical feast, kept in the Roman Catholic and Lutheran Churches.
Since in the Roman Rite it is celebrated since 1970 as a Solemnity, in the 1962 form of that liturgical rite as a feast of the first class and in still earlier forms as a Double of the First Class with common Octave, it takes precedence over a Sunday on which it happens to fall. The Reformed and free churches give this celebration less prominence. Like the Birth of the Virgin, the subject is shown in art from Florence, whose patron saint John is, it was given a prosperous contemporary setting, only the presence of a halo or two distinguishes it on a desco da parto or birth tray from a secular depiction of a mother receiving visitors while lying-in. The scene in the fresco cycle of the life of John in the Tornabuoni Chapel in the church of Santa Maria Novella in Florence is the most famous, created by Domenico Ghirlandaio and his workshop between 1485 and 1490; the reformer Martin Luther wrote a hymn about baptism, "Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam", which became associated with the Baptist's day.
The feast was celebrated in Lutheran Leipzig, Johann Sebastian Bach composed three church cantatas for the occasion a chorale cantata on Luther's hymn: Ihr Menschen, rühmet Gottes Liebe, BWV 167, 24 June 1723 Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam, BWV 7, 24 June 1724 Freue dich, erlöste Schar, BWV 30, 24 June 1738 or a year In the Eastern Orthodox Church and other Eastern Christian Churches, St John the Baptist is called St John the Forerunner, a title used in the West. This title indicates that the purpose of his ministry was to prepare the way for the coming of Jesus Christ. In the Byzantine Rite, the Feast of his Nativity is celebrated on June 24, it is celebrated with an All-Night Vigil. It has an Afterfeast of one day; the feast always falls during the Apostles' Fast. In addition to the birth of John
Garanou is a commune in the Ariège department in southwestern France. Communes of the Ariège department INSEE
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
The Garonne is a river in southwest France and northern Spain, with a length of 602 kilometres. It flows into the Atlantic Ocean at Bordeaux; the name derives from Garumna, a Latinized version of the Aquitanian name meaning "stony river". The Garonne's headwaters are to be found in the Aran Valley in the Spanish Pyrenees, though three different locations have been proposed as the true source: the Uelh deth Garona at Plan de Beret, the Ratera-Saboredo cirque 42°36′26″N 0°57′56″E), or the slopes of Pic Aneto; the Uelh deth Garona at 1,862 metres above sea level has been traditionally considered as the source of the Garonne. From this point a brook runs for 2.5 kilometres until the bed of the main upper Garonne valley. The river runs for another 38 kilometres until the French border at Pont de Rei, 40.5 kilometres in total. The Ratera-Saboredo cirque is the head of the upper Garonne valley, its upper lake at 2,600 metres above sea level is the origin of the Ruda-Garona river, running for 16 kilometres until the confluence with the Beret-Garona brook, another 38 kilometres until the French border at Pont del Rei, 54 kilometres in total.
At the confluence, the Ruda-Garona carries 2.6 cubic metres per second of water. The Ratera-Saboredo cirque has been pointed by many researchers as the origin of the Garonne; the third thesis holds that the river rises on the slopes of Pic Aneto at 2,300 metres above sea level and flows by way of a sinkhole known as the Forau de Aigualluts through the limestone of the Tuca Blanca de Pomèro and a resurgence in the Val dera Artiga above the Aran Valley in the Spanish Pyrenees. This underground route was suggested by the geologist Ramond de Carbonnières in 1787, but there was no confirmation until 1931, when caver Norbert Casteret poured fluorescein dye into the flow and noted its emergence a few hours 4 kilometres away at Uelhs deth Joèu in the Artiga de Lin on the other side of the mountain. From Aigualluts to the confluence with the main river at the bed of the upper Garonne valley at 800 metres above sea level, the Joèu has run for 12.4 kilometres, carrying 2.16 cubic metres per second of water, while the main river is carrying 17.7 cubic metres per second.
Despite the lack of universal agreement upon definition for determining a stream's source, the United States Geological Survey, the National Geographic Society, the Smithsonian Institution agree that a stream's source should be considered as the most distant point in the drainage basin from which water runs. The Ratera-Saboredo cirque is the "most distant point in the drainage basin from which water runs", the source of the Garonne, according to the United States Geological Survey, the National Geographic Society, the Smithsonian Institution convention upon determining a stream's source; the Garonne follows the Aran Valley northwards into France, flowing via Toulouse and Agen towards Bordeaux, where it meets the Gironde estuary. The Gironde flows into the Atlantic Ocean. Along its course, the Garonne is joined by three other major rivers: the Ariège, the Tarn, the Lot. Just after Bordeaux, the Garonne meets the Dordogne at the Bec d'Ambès, forming the Gironde estuary, which after 100 kilometres empties into the Atlantic Ocean.
Other tributaries include the Gers. The Garonne is one of the few rivers in the world. Surfers and jet skiers could ride the tidal bore at least as far as the village of Cambes, 120 kilometres or 75 miles from the Atlantic, further upstream to Cadillac, although the tidal bore appears and disappears in response to changes in the channel bathymetry. In 2010 and 2012, some detailed field studies were conducted in the Garonne's Arcins channel between Arcins Island and the right bank close to Lastrene township. A striking feature of the field data sets was the large and rapid fluctuations in turbulent velocities and turbulent stresses during the tidal bore and flood flow; the European sea sturgeon known as the Atlantic sturgeon or common sturgeon, is now a Critically Endangered species status. This species of sturgeon that can reach a length of 6 m and weigh 400 kg and can reach an age of 100 year Previously found on most coasts of Europe, it has now become so rare that they ONLY breed in the Garonne river basin in France.
Conservation projects are under way to save this fish from extinction with species reintroduction from aquaculture with the first releases being made in 1995. Aran Valley: Vielha, Bossòst Haute-Garonne: Saint-Gaudens, Toulouse Tarn-et-Garonne: Castelsarrasin Lot-et-Garonne: Agen, Aiguillon Gironde: Langon, Bordeaux Following the flow of the river: The Garonne plays an important role in inland shipping; the river not only allows seagoing vessels to reach the port of Bordeaux but forms part of the Canal des Deux Mers, linking the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. From the ocean, ships pass through the Gironde estuary up to the mouth of the Garonne. Ships continue on the tidal river Garonne up to the Pont de Pierre in Bordeaux. Inland vessels continue upstream to Castets-en-Dor